AP Psychology ChAPter 9 Quiz

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  • 1. 
    Which term refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?
    • A. 

      Schema

    • B. 

      Heuristic

    • C. 

      Cognition

    • D. 

      Syntax

    • E. 

      Language


  • 2. 
    Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
    • A. 

      Developmental psychology

    • B. 

      Biological psychology

    • C. 

      Clinical psychology

    • D. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • E. 

      Personality psychology


  • 3. 
    Cognitive psychologists are most directly concerned with the study of
    • A. 

      Emotion.

    • B. 

      Genetics.

    • C. 

      The unconscious.

    • D. 

      Brain chemistry.

    • E. 

      Thinking.


  • 4. 
    Professor Thompson's research focuses on the impact of prototypes on the speed of object recognition and identification. Which specialty area does this research best represent?
    • A. 

      Personality psychology

    • B. 

      Cognitive psychology

    • C. 

      Biological psychology

    • D. 

      Clinical psychology

    • E. 

      Developmental psychology


  • 5. 
    By dividing broad concepts into increasingly smaller and detailed subgroupings, we create
    • A. 

      Algorithms.

    • B. 

      Category hierarchies.

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • D. 

      Overconfidence.

    • E. 

      Prototypes.


  • 6. 
    In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of
    • A. 

      Algorithms.

    • B. 

      Phonemes.

    • C. 

      Prototypes.

    • D. 

      Heuristics.

    • E. 

      Mental sets.


  • 7. 
    When we use the term Hispanic to refer to a category of people, we are using this word as a(n)
    • A. 

      Concept.

    • B. 

      Heuristic.

    • C. 

      Algorithm.

    • D. 

      Prototype.

    • E. 

      Mental set.


  • 8. 
    Prototypes are especially important in the process of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      Trial and error.

    • C. 

      Constructing algorithms.

    • D. 

      Choosing heuristics.

    • E. 

      Classifying objects.


  • 9. 
    When someone mentions Ivy League colleges, Trisha immediately thinks of Harvard University. In this instance, Harvard University is a
    • A. 

      Fixation.

    • B. 

      Belief bias.

    • C. 

      Heuristic.

    • D. 

      Prototype.

    • E. 

      Mental set.


  • 10. 
    People more easily detect male prejudice against women than female prejudice against men because the former more closely resembles their prejudice
    • A. 

      Premise.

    • B. 

      Heuristic.

    • C. 

      algorithm.

    • D. 

      Prototype.

    • E. 

      Fixation.


  • 11. 
    Eva had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her fish
    • A. 

      Hierarchy.

    • B. 

      Heuristic.

    • C. 

      Algorithm.

    • D. 

      Prototype.

    • E. 

      Fixation.


  • 12. 
    When we use the word automobile to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n)
    • A. 

      Mental set.

    • B. 

      Heuristic.

    • C. 

      Concept.

    • D. 

      Algorithm.

    • E. 

      Syntax.


  • 13. 
    A prototype is a
    • A. 

      Mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.

    • B. 

      Step-by-step procedure for solving problems.

    • C. 

      Best example of a particular category.

    • D. 

      Simple thinking strategy for solving problems efficiently.

    • E. 

      New, novel item fitting an existing mental category.


  • 14. 
    In testing thousands of different materials for use as lightbulb filaments, Thomas Edison best illustrated a problem-solving approach known as
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      Trial and error.

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • D. 

      The confirmation bias.

    • E. 

      Belief perseverance.


  • 15. 
    Logical, methodical step-by-step procedures for solving problems are called
    • A. 

      Heuristics.

    • B. 

      Semantics.

    • C. 

      Prototypes.

    • D. 

      Algorithms.

    • E. 

      Fixations.


  • 16. 
    Jamilla systematically tried each successive key on her dad's key ring until she found the one that unlocked his office door. This best illustrates problem solving by means of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      An algorithm.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness.


  • 17. 
    In trying to solve a potentially complicated problem quickly, we are most likely to rely on
    • A. 

      Prototypes.

    • B. 

      Heuristics.

    • C. 

      Phonemes.

    • D. 

      Algorithms.

    • E. 

      Fixations.


  • 18. 
    Anika resisted changing her answer to a test question after reminding herself that “it's always best to stick with your first answer.” Anika's decision best illustrates the use of
    • A. 

      Insight.

    • B. 

      An algorithm.

    • C. 

      Trial and error.

    • D. 

      A heuristic.

    • E. 

      A prototype.


  • 19. 
    A sudden realization of the solution to a problem is called
    • A. 

      Framing.

    • B. 

      Insight.

    • C. 

      A heuristic.

    • D. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • E. 

      An algorithm.


  • 20. 
    The sudden comprehension of the double meaning of a humorous pun best illustrates
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • D. 

      The framing effect.

    • E. 

      Insight.


  • 21. 
    A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of
    • A. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • C. 

      An algorithm.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness.


  • 22. 
    Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called
    • A. 

      Semantics.

    • B. 

      Heuristics.

    • C. 

      Prototypes.

    • D. 

      Algorithms.

    • E. 

      Fixations.


  • 23. 
    As he attempted to spell the word “receive,” Tim reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of
    • A. 

      Trial and error.

    • B. 

      Insight.

    • C. 

      An algorithm.

    • D. 

      A heuristic.

    • E. 

      Prototypes.


  • 24. 
    After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates
    • A. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • B. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      Insight.

    • D. 

      A mental set.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.


  • 25. 
    An algorithm is a
    • A. 

      Simple thinking strategy for making decisions quickly and efficiently.

    • B. 

      Method of hypothesis testing involving trial and error.

    • C. 

      Best example of a particular category.

    • D. 

      Methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.

    • E. 

      Specific kind of prototype.


  • 26. 
    The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to
    • A. 

      Save time in arriving at solutions to problems.

    • B. 

      Yield more accurate solutions to problems.

    • C. 

      Minimize the overconfidence phenomenon.

    • D. 

      Involve greater reliance on language skills.

    • E. 

      Avoid the issue of functional fixedness.


  • 27. 
    University students were asked to figure out the rule used to devise the three-number sequence 2-4-6. After generating sets of three numbers to learn whether their sets met the rule, they typically convinced themselves of the wrong rule. Their errors best illustrated the impact of
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      The framing effect.

    • D. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic.


  • 28. 
    The tendency to search for information consistent with our preconceptions is called
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      Overconfidence.


  • 29. 
    Jahmal cites his cousin Luana's many car accidents as evidence that women are worse drivers than men. He overlooks the fact that his wife and three daughters have had far fewer car accidents than he and his two sons. Jahmal's prejudicial conclusion about women's driving skills best illustrates the effects of
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      Algorithms.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      The framing effect.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic.


  • 30. 
    Myra has such low self-esteem that she typically expects critical comments about her appearance and behavior. Myra's behavior best illustrates the dangers of
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      The framing effect.

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • D. 

      Algorithms.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic.


  • 31. 
    The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to
    • A. 

      Search for information that supports our preconceptions.

    • B. 

      Judge the likelihood of events on the basis of how easily we can remember examples of them.

    • C. 

      Overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

    • D. 

      Overestimate the degree to which other people share our beliefs.

    • E. 

      Use heuristics instead of algorithms to solve problems.


  • 32. 
    Scientists are trained to carefully observe and record any research outcomes that are inconsistent with their hypotheses. This practice most directly serves to reduce
    • A. 

      The framing effect.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      Algorithms.

    • E. 

      Heuristics.


  • 33. 
    Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the effects of ________ on problem solving.
    • A. 

      Fixations

    • B. 

      Heuristics

    • C. 

      Algorithms

    • D. 

      Framing

    • E. 

      Overconfidence


  • 34. 
    The inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      Fixation.

    • C. 

      Heuristic.

    • D. 

      Framing effect.

    • E. 

      Prototype.


  • 35. 
    The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic.


  • 36. 
    Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      Overconfidence.


  • 37. 
    The inability to see a problem from a new perspective is called
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      Fixation.

    • C. 

      A heuristic.

    • D. 

      The framing effect.

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic.


  • 38. 
    The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to
    • A. 

      Judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.

    • B. 

      Judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered.

    • C. 

      Search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions.

    • D. 

      Cling to our initial conceptions, even though they have been discredited.

    • E. 

      Underestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.


  • 39. 
    Mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an elderly person must be indicative of Alzheimer's disease best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • C. 

      Intuition.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      Framing.


  • 40. 
    Jacquelyn suffered symptoms so similar to those associated with pregnancy-induced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded that she was pregnant. Jacquelyn's conclusion best illustrates the influence of
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.


  • 41. 
    Judging the likelihood that things fall into a certain category on the basis of how well they seem to match a particular prototype refers to the use of the
    • A. 

      Framing effect.

    • B. 

      Availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      Belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • E. 

      Representativeness heuristic.


  • 42. 
    The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver illustrates the use of
    • A. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • C. 

      The framing effect.

    • D. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic.


  • 43. 
    Dean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Overconfidence.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic.


  • 44. 
    By encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by a fire, insurance salespeople are especially successful at selling large homeowners' policies. They are most clearly exploiting the influence of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      Overconfidence.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness.


  • 45. 
    A single, memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      Representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      Belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • D. 

      Framing effect.

    • E. 

      Availability heuristic.


  • 46. 
    Many people overestimate how long they actually remain awake during restless nights because their moments of wakefulness are easier to recall than their moments of sleep. This best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • D. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • E. 

      Overconfidence.


  • 47. 
    The tendency to estimate that the letter “k” appears more often as the first letter of words than as the third letter best illustrates our use of
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • C. 

      Prototypes.

    • D. 

      Algorithms.

    • E. 

      Semantics.


  • 48. 
    State lottery officials send residents a facsimile of a contest-winning check for over $5 million so as to encourage them to imagine themselves as possible winners. The lottery promoters are most clearly exploiting the influence of
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • C. 

      Mental set.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic.


  • 49. 
    Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      The framing effect.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      Overconfidence.

    • E. 

      Belief perseverance.


  • 50. 
    When Larina started college, she was certain that she would never smoke marijuana. By the end of her freshman year, however, Larina had used this drug on three different occasions. Larina's experience best illustrates
    • A. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • C. 

      Overconfidence.

    • D. 

      The framing effect.

    • E. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.


  • 51. 
    Although Steve was certain that he answered between 70 and 80 items correctly on his biology test, he actually was right on only 55 items. Steve's misjudgment of his test performance illustrates
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • C. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • D. 

      The framing effect.

    • E. 

      Overconfidence.


  • 52. 
    After taking two years of college economics courses, Lionel thinks he knows enough about business to become a millionaire. Lionel should become more aware of
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • D. 

      Overconfidence.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.


  • 53. 
    College students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Framing.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      Overconfidence.


  • 54. 
    Stockbrokers who market their services with confidence that they can outperform the market average in picking stocks are especially likely to
    • A. 

      Appear credible to their customers.

    • B. 

      Find it difficult to decide which stocks to purchase.

    • C. 

      Avoid the dangers of belief perseverance.

    • D. 

      Use algorithms to generate stock choices.

    • E. 

      Employ workers who use heuristics.


  • 55. 
    Despite overwhelming and highly publicized evidence that Senator McEwan was guilty of serious political corruption and misconduct, many who had supported her in past elections remained convinced of her political integrity. Their reaction best illustrates
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.


  • 56. 
    It is very difficult to get someone to change his or her unrealistically negative self-image. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • C. 

      The framing effect.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      Overconfidence.


  • 57. 
    Research findings suggest that the best advice to give people who want to avoid belief perseverance is
    • A. 

      “Try to justify your positions.”

    • B. 

      “Consider the opposite.”

    • C. 

      “Don't draw hasty conclusions.”

    • D. 

      “Be as objective as possible.”

    • E. 

      “Never show your emotions.”


  • 58. 
    The value of generating positive first impressions in your initial interactions with a new employer is best underscored by the research on
    • A. 

      Overconfidence.

    • B. 

      The framing effect.

    • C. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • D. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic.


  • 59. 
    The indelible memories of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy unduly inflated many people's estimates of the risks associated with air travel. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • D. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • E. 

      Framing.


  • 60. 
    Which of the following best accounts for people's greater fear of commercial air flights than of driving an automobile?
    • A. 

      Perceived control

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness

    • C. 

      The framing effect

    • D. 

      Category hierarchies

    • E. 

      Representativeness heuristic


  • 61. 
    Many people perceive carjackings as more serious threats to their lives than failing to use seatbelts because carjackings are so much more memorable. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness.


  • 62. 
    Although intuition can at times hinder rationality, it is often valuable because it facilitates
    • A. 

      Framing.

    • B. 

      Quick decisions.

    • C. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • D. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • E. 

      Confirmation bias.


  • 63. 
    Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as “75 percent lean” than to ground beef described as “25 percent fat.” This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic.

    • E. 

      Framing.


  • 64. 
    People told that a chemical in the air is projected to kill 10 out of every 10,000 people feel more frightened than if told the fatality risk is one-tenth of 1 percent. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • D. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • E. 

      Framing.


  • 65. 
    Ojinska sold many more raffle tickets when she told potential buyers they had a 10 percent chance of winning a prize than when she told them they had a 90 percent chance of not winning. This best illustrates
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • C. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • D. 

      The framing effect.

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic.


  • 66. 
    On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates the impact of
    • A. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • B. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.

    • C. 

      Overconfidence.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      The framing effect.


  • 67. 
    The risks of smoking are more alarming when presented in terms of the number of smokers with lung cancer than the percentage of smokers with lung cancer. This illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • B. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • C. 

      Overconfidence.

    • D. 

      Framing.

    • E. 

      Prototypes.


  • 68. 
    People are less upset than when they miss getting an early payment discount than when they are asked to bear a late payment surcharge. This best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Belief perseverance.

    • B. 

      Confirmation bias.

    • C. 

      Framing.

    • D. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • E. 

      The representativeness heuristic


  • 69. 
    People are very likely to decide to be organ donors when the default option on their renewable drivers' license forms is yes but they can choose to drop out. They are much less likely to decide to be organ donors if the default option on their license forms is no but they can choose to opt in. This best illustrates the effects of
    • A. 

      Framing.

    • B. 

      Overconfidence.

    • C. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      Algorithms.


  • 70. 
    The smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a
    • A. 

      Prototype.

    • B. 

      Phenotype.

    • C. 

      Morpheme.

    • D. 

      Phoneme.

    • E. 

      Babble.


  • 71. 
    When Fred pronounced the words “this” and “that,” he noticed that they share a common
    • A. 

      Prototype.

    • B. 

      Phenotype.

    • C. 

      Morpheme.

    • D. 

      Algorithm.

    • E. 

      Phoneme.


  • 72. 
    English words are constructed from about ________ different phonemes.
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      6

    • C. 

      26

    • D. 

      40

    • E. 

      200


  • 73. 
    The smallest speech units that carry meaning are called
    • A. 

      Phonemes.

    • B. 

      Morphemes.

    • C. 

      Prototypes.

    • D. 

      Concepts.

    • E. 

      Phenotypes.


  • 74. 
    In the words “lightly,” “neatly,” and “shortly,” the “ly” ending is a(n)
    • A. 

      Algorithm.

    • B. 

      Phenotype.

    • C. 

      Phoneme.

    • D. 

      Morpheme.

    • E. 

      Prototype.


  • 75. 
    When her teacher mentioned the arms race, Krista understood that the word “arms” referred to weapons and not to body parts. Krista's correct interpretation best illustrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Semantics.

    • B. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • C. 

      Syntax.

    • D. 

      Morphemes.

    • E. 

      Prototypes.


  • 76. 
    A European visitor to the United States asked a taxi driver, “Can you please a ride to the airport me give?” This visitor has apparently not yet mastered the ________ of the English language.
    • A. 

      Phonemes

    • B. 

      Syntax

    • C. 

      Semantics

    • D. 

      Phenotypes

    • E. 

      Nomenclature


  • 77. 
    The various vowel sounds that can be placed between a “t” and an “n” produce words such as tan, ten, tin, and ton. These various vowel sounds represent different
    • A. 

      Morphemes.

    • B. 

      Prototypes.

    • C. 

      Phonemes.

    • D. 

      Semantics.

    • E. 

      Algorithms.


  • 78. 
    Morphemes are
    • A. 

      The smallest speech units that carry meaning.

    • B. 

      The best examples of particular categories of objects.

    • C. 

      The smallest distinctive sound units of a language.

    • D. 

      Rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences.

    • E. 

      Genetic roadmaps that lead to insight.


  • 79. 
    The rock musician was hit with a rotten egg while performing his latest hit song. The fact that you can recognize two different meanings for the word “hit” in the preceding sentence demonstrates the importance of
    • A. 

      Syntax.

    • B. 

      Semantics.

    • C. 

      Morphemes.

    • D. 

      Prototypes.

    • E. 

      Linguistic determinism.


  • 80. 
    Lavonne was careful to avoid the use of dangling participles and run-on sentences in her essay because she did not want to lose points for faulty
    • A. 

      Semantics.

    • B. 

      Phonemes.

    • C. 

      Algorithms.

    • D. 

      Morphemes.

    • E. 

      Syntax.


  • 81. 
    The system of rules in a language that enables us to understand and communicate with others is called
    • A. 

      An algorithm.

    • B. 

      Telegraphic speech.

    • C. 

      Grammar.

    • D. 

      A heuristic.

    • E. 

      Morphemes.


  • 82. 
    Semantics refers to the
    • A. 

      Logical and methodical procedures for solving problems.

    • B. 

      Orderly arrangement of words into grammatically correct sentences.

    • C. 

      Simple thinking strategies that facilitate quick decision making.

    • D. 

      Rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.

    • E. 

      Typical schemes we use to form concepts.


  • 83. 
    To combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, we need to apply proper rules of
    • A. 

      Semantics.

    • B. 

      Syntax.

    • C. 

      Nomenclature.

    • D. 

      Phonics.

    • E. 

      Phonemes.


  • 84. 
    During the earliest stage of speech development, infants
    • A. 

      Speak in single words that may be barely recognizable.

    • B. 

      Begin to imitate adult syntax.

    • C. 

      Make speech sounds only if their hearing is unimpaired.

    • D. 

      Make some speech sounds that do not occur in their parents' native language.

    • E. 

      Use words that reflect the surface structure of their parents' native language.


  • 85. 
    The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.
    • A. 

      Babbling

    • B. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • C. 

      One-word

    • D. 

      Grammatical

    • E. 

      Semantic


  • 86. 
    Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the ________ stage.
    • A. 

      One-word

    • B. 

      Telegraphic

    • C. 

      Babbling

    • D. 

      Syntactic

    • E. 

      Grammar


  • 87. 
    At 17 months of age, Julie says “wada” whenever she wants a drink of water. Julie is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
    • A. 

      Semantic

    • B. 

      Babbling

    • C. 

      One-word

    • D. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • E. 

      Phonetic


  • 88. 
    Children begin to demonstrate that they know how to put words in a sensible order during the ________ stage.
    • A. 

      Babbling

    • B. 

      Syntactic

    • C. 

      Two-word

    • D. 

      Three-word

    • E. 

      Phonetic


  • 89. 
    At the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cries “hoy” when she wants her mother to hold her. Anita is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
    • A. 

      Syntactic

    • B. 

      Babbling

    • C. 

      Telegraphic speech

    • D. 

      Semantic

    • E. 

      One-word


  • 90. 
    At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to
    • A. 

      Imitate adult grammar.

    • B. 

      Make speech sounds only if their hearing is unimpaired.

    • C. 

      Speak in simple words that may be barely recognizable.

    • D. 

      Lose their ability to discriminate sounds they never hear.

    • E. 

      Use phonemes.


  • 91. 
    English-speaking children learn to put the object of a sentence last, whereas Japanese-speaking children put the object before the verb. Chomsky suggests that this illustrates a difference in the two languages'
    • A. 

      Process simulation.

    • B. 

      Language acquisition device.

    • C. 

      Universal grammar.

    • D. 

      Surface structure.

    • E. 

      Deep structure.


  • 92. 
    B. F. Skinner emphasized the importance of ________ in language acquisition.
    • A. 

      Heuristics

    • B. 

      Algorithms

    • C. 

      Reinforcement

    • D. 

      Universal grammar

    • E. 

      Cognition


  • 93. 
    When 3-year-old Rosalie complained, “Boris hitted me with a ball,” she was illustrating the tendency of young children to
    • A. 

      Use telegraphic speech patterns.

    • B. 

      Imitate the incorrect speech patterns of others.

    • C. 

      Receive inadequate reinforcement for correct language usage.

    • D. 

      Overgeneralize certain grammatical rules in sentence construction.

    • E. 

      Use incorrect phonemes in combination with correct morphemes.


  • 94. 
    Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by
    • A. 

      An inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules.

    • B. 

      Their ability to imitate the words and grammar modeled by parents.

    • C. 

      The learned association of word sounds with various objects, events, actions, and qualities.

    • D. 

      The positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly.

    • E. 

      Operant and classical conditioning techniques.


  • 95. 
    Compared with deaf children exposed to sign language from birth, those who first learn sign language as teens are less likely to
    • A. 

      Correctly imitate the signs they are shown.

    • B. 

      Use signs to indicate concrete objects.

    • C. 

      Mentally associate signs with written words.

    • D. 

      Comprehend grammatical subtleties of sign language.

    • E. 

      Make simple grammatical mistakes in sign language.


  • 96. 
    If our capacity to form concepts depends on our verbal memory, this would best illustrate
    • A. 

      The framing effect.

    • B. 

      Universal grammar.

    • C. 

      Telegraphic speech.

    • D. 

      Linguistic determinism.

    • E. 

      Functional fixedness.


  • 97. 
    Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that
    • A. 

      Infancy is a critical period for language development.

    • B. 

      All languages share a similar grammar.

    • C. 

      Our linguistic proficiencies influence our social status.

    • D. 

      Words shape the way people think.

    • E. 

      Morphemes and phonemes build grammar and language.


  • 98. 
    Contemporary psychologists are most likely to criticize Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis for
    • A. 

      Overestimating the impact of thinking on language.

    • B. 

      Overestimating the extent to which thinking occurs without language.

    • C. 

      Underestimating the impact of language on thinking.

    • D. 

      Underestimating the extent to which thinking occurs without language.

    • E. 

      Underestimating how much language use changes over our lifetime.


  • 99. 
    Our capacity for thinking without language is best illustrated by
    • A. 

      The framing effect.

    • B. 

      Functional fixedness.

    • C. 

      Unconscious information processing.

    • D. 

      The representativeness heuristic.

    • E. 

      The belief perseverance phenomenon.


  • 100. 
    In Wolfgang Köhler's experiment, the chimpanzee Sultan retrieved a long stick with a short stick to retrieve a piece of fruit. Sultan was able to reach the fruit as a result of
    • A. 

      Insight.

    • B. 

      A fixation.

    • C. 

      Artificial intelligence.

    • D. 

      Trial and error.

    • E. 

      The availability heuristic.


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