AP Psychology ChAPter 5

95 Questions  I  By Thancock01 on January 10, 2013

  
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1.  The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
2.  A postconventional level of morality is most likely to be found in cultures that value
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
3.  Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
4.  The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
5.  Those who criticize theories of age-linked adult developmental stages are most likely to emphasize the importance of ________ on adult development.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
6.  The best evidence that 4-month-old infants possess visual memory capabilities comes from research on
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
7.  Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
8.  Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
9.  When golden hamsters were repeatedly threatened and attacked while young, they suffered long-term changes in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
10.  Stage theories of adult development are most likely to be criticized for exaggerating the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
11.  Dr. Ensing studies the reactions of very young children who are briefly separated from their mothers while in an unfamiliar setting. It is most likely that Dr. Ensing is conducting research on
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
12.  Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
13.  The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
14.  The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
15.  When 1-year-old Andrea tries to talk, her mother talks back; when she smiles, her mother smiles in return. These maternal reactions are most relevant to Andrea's development of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
16.  According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
17.  Killing one person in order to save five by throwing a switch that diverts a runaway trolley is judged as more morally acceptable than killing one person in order to save five by pushing a stranger directly into the path of the oncoming trolley. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
18.  An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
19.  Although Mr. Tong was obviously busy reading an absorbing novel, his 5-year-old daughter kept interrupting him with comments and questions about the TV cartoons she was watching. Before Mr. Tong becomes irritated with his daughter for being inconsiderate, he should be alerted to Piaget's concept of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
20.  As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
21.  Carol is distressed because post-childbirth complications prevented her from being in close physical contact with her child during its first few hours of life. Carol should be told that
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
22.  Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
23.  According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a(n) ________ morality.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
24.  Foster care that moves a young child through a series of foster families is most likely to result in the disruption of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
25.  One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of
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B.
C.
D.
E.
26.  According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.
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B.
C.
D.
E.
27.  According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to
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B.
C.
D.
E.
28.  Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
29.  A child's realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates that the child is not completely
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
30.  For Regis to think it's wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
31.  Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
32.  Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her babysitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held. Alicia most clearly showed signs of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
33.  Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
34.  Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a “nurse” illustrates the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
35.  Mr. Johnson spends time each day caressing and rocking his infant daughter. This time together should serve most directly to promote
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
36.  Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
37.  Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive development?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
38.  Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
39.  Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more characteristic of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
40.  The acquisition of a sense of object permanence is most closely associated with the development of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
41.  At 16 months of age, Edmund is uncertain whether his busy parents will take time to feed him when he is hungry. This is most indicative of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.  Marriage bonds are especially likely to endure when members of a couple
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
43.  Puberty is most closely related to the onset of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
44.  A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information is called a(n)
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B.
C.
D.
E.
45.  Habituation refers to the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
46.  At 12 months of age Jeremy shows no more desire to be held by his own parents than by complete strangers. His behavior best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
47.  Henry disapproves of stealing jelly beans from his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank him if he does. Henry best represents a(n) ________ morality.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.  When pregnant rats drink alcohol, their young offspring later display a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
49.  According to Piaget, schemas are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
50.  For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex-wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
51.  Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
52.  From ages 3 to 6, the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
53.  Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
54.  One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
55.  According to Erikson, isolation is to intimacy as role confusion is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
56.  In formulating his theory of psychosocial development, Erikson would have suggested that authoritarian parents are likely to inhibit young children's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57.  Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day. This best illustrates the importance of _______ to motor skills.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
58.  The relative lack of neural interconnections in the association areas at the time of birth is most likely to contribute to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
59.  The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
60.  According to Erikson, trust is to ________ as identity is to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
61.  A mother who consistently responds supportively to her infant's cries for care and protection is most likely to encourage
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
62.  Vincent's ability to reason hypothetically in his geometry class indicates that he is in the ________ stage of development.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
63.  Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
64.  Maturation refers to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
65.  Children's sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
66.  Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
67.  Two-year-old Anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. This is most indicative of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
68.  The paternal deprivation experienced by many young children with divorced or unmarried parents is likely to put them at increased risk for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
69.  A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood years would be most relevant to the issue of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
70.  A teratogen is a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
71.  Questions about the extent to which secure attachments are influenced by infant temperament or by responsive parenting are most directly relevant to the issue of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
72.  The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
73.  Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) ________ psychologist.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
74.  The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75.  Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
76.  . Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
77.  Babies who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
78.  The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
79.  In an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children's
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
80.  Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ________ development.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
81.  Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
82.  When infants between 6 and 16 months of age were removed from their foster mothers and placed in stable adoptive homes, they typically showed
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
83.  Which of the following factors is most important for the development of positive emotional bonds between human infants and their mothers?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
84.  The rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
85.  Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
86.  Menopause is associated with a reduction in
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
87.  According to Piaget's theory, during the concrete operational stage, a child is still unlikely to demonstrate
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
88.  Sierra, a 28-year-old heroin addict, is pregnant. Her baby will be born
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
89.  In order to test whether newborns can visually discriminate between various shapes and colors, psychologists have made use of the process of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
90.  During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
91.  Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice because
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.