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| By Ecrobeck
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 40,292
Questions: 10 | Viewed: 39,730


The most basic distinction between types of data is that some data are quantitative while other data are qualitative. Quantitative data generally consists of:

Answer: Numbers
Quantitative data refers to information that can be measured or expressed numerically. It includes numbers, such as measurements, counts, or ratings. In this case, the answer "Numbers" correctly identifies quantitative data as one of the types of data. Quantitative data can be analyzed using mathematical and statistical methods to draw conclusions and make predictions. It is different from qualitative data, which is descriptive and non-numerical in nature.

Qualitative data generally can include:

Answer: Text, pictures, videos, sound recordings.
Qualitative data refers to non-numerical data that is collected through observations, interviews, or open-ended questions. It focuses on capturing the richness and depth of information rather than quantifying it. The answer "Text, pictures, videos, sound recordings" aligns with this definition as these forms of data capture subjective experiences, opinions, and behaviors. They provide descriptive and contextual information that cannot be easily summarized with numbers.

The most fundamental difference between qualitative data and quantitative data is that:

Answer: The type of judgment that is used to make meaning of the data, and how the data are manipulated.
Qualitative data and quantitative data differ in terms of the type of judgment used to interpret the data and how the data are manipulated. Qualitative data involves subjective judgment and interpretation, focusing on understanding the underlying meanings, themes, and perspectives. On the other hand, quantitative data involves objective judgment and statistical analysis, focusing on numerical measurements and patterns. The way these two types of data are analyzed and manipulated also differs, with qualitative data often using methods like coding and thematic analysis, while quantitative data involves statistical tests and calculations.

Considering the way researchers handle data, it is helpful to remember that:

Answer: Although some data are collected quantitatively, there are many qualitative judgments that go into how those responses are collected.
The answer is explaining that even though some data are collected quantitatively, there are still qualitative judgments involved in how those responses are collected. This means that even when researchers use quantitative data, there are subjective decisions and qualitative aspects involved in the process. Therefore, the statement is highlighting the fact that qualitative judgments are present in the collection of quantitative data.

The "Levels of Measurement" are typically placed in a sequence in which higher levels contain the attributes of the lower levels but add some attributes. At the lowest level, it is not even meaningful to average the numbers, while at the highest level, it is possible to use inferential statistics. The sequence of "levels of measurement" from lowest to highest is:

Answer: (lowest) nominal-->ordinal-->interval-->ratio (highest)
The correct answer is the first option, "nominal-->ordinal-->interval-->ratio." This sequence represents the correct order of levels of measurement from lowest to highest. Nominal level measurement involves categorizing data into distinct groups or categories. Ordinal level measurement involves arranging data into a specific order or ranking. Interval level measurement involves measuring data on a scale with equal intervals between values. Ratio level measurement is the highest level and includes all the attributes of the previous levels, but also has a true zero point and allows for the use of mathematical operations like multiplication and division.

In research, data are generally being collected that are meant to describe, measure, or otherwise characterize a construct. A construct is most correctly described as:

Answer: The theoretical idea or concept that is being described or analyzed in the process of research.
A construct refers to the theoretical idea or concept that is being described or analyzed in the process of research. It represents an abstract concept that researchers aim to measure or understand through data collection and analysis. Constructs can be things like intelligence, motivation, or personality traits, and they are often defined and operationalized in research studies to guide the data collection process. By focusing on constructs, researchers can gain insights into the underlying theories or concepts they are investigating and draw meaningful conclusions from the data they collect.

In research, the term validity refers to:

Answer: The accuracy of the measures used.
In research, validity refers to how well a test or tool measures what it is supposed to measure. It indicates the accuracy and appropriateness of the methods and techniques used to capture data. If a study's findings accurately reflect the real-world scenarios they aim to represent, the study is considered to have high validity. Validity is crucial for ensuring that conclusions drawn from the research are trustworthy and based on sound evidence. This is distinct from reliability, which refers to the consistency of the measure across different occasions or samples.

What is the primary advantage of using mixed-methods research?

Answer: It combines the depth of qualitative research with the breadth of quantitative research.
Mixed-methods research combines qualitative and quantitative research approaches to take advantage of both. This method provides the depth and detail of qualitative data while also offering the generalizability and statistical power of quantitative data. By integrating both approaches, researchers can explore complex phenomena more effectively than using either method alone, leading to more comprehensive insights and robust conclusions.

What does triangulation in the context of research methods refer to?

Answer: Employing multiple methods or data sources to cross-check and validate findings.
Triangulation in research refers to the technique of using multiple data sources, methodologies, or theories to cross-verify the data and findings. This approach enhances the credibility and validity of the research outcomes by confirming that the results are consistent across different methods or perspectives. Triangulation helps identify any biases or discrepancies and provides a more detailed and balanced view of the researched topic.

In qualitative research, what role does member checking play?

Answer: It serves as a method for researchers to ensure the accuracy of their findings by involving participants in the review process.
Member checking is a valuable technique in qualitative research where researchers return the findings or results to the participants to verify the accuracy and resonance of the reported results with their experiences. This process ensures that the interpretations and conclusions drawn by the researcher truly reflect the participants' perspectives and experiences, thereby enhancing the credibility and validity of the data. It helps in making the research more participative and grounded in actual participant responses.
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