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For a manual metal arc welding project, when ‘hydrogen control’ is specified the electrode would normally be:

Answer: Basic
When "hydrogen control" is specified in a manual metal arc welding project, the electrode would normally be basic. Basic electrodes have a coating that contains materials such as calcium carbonate or calcium fluoride, which helps to reduce the amount of hydrogen in the weld. Hydrogen can cause issues such as cracking in the welded joint, so using a basic electrode helps to minimize this risk and ensure a stronger and more reliable weld.

What is the reason for a centerline crack in a submerged arc weld bead?

Answer: Weld bead is deep and narrow
A centerline crack in a submerged arc weld bead can occur when the weld bead is deep and narrow. This is because the deep and narrow shape of the weld bead creates a high stress concentration in the centerline, making it more susceptible to cracking. The stress concentration is caused by the uneven distribution of heat and the rapid cooling of the weld bead. This type of crack is common in submerged arc welding and can be prevented by adjusting the welding parameters to create a wider and shallower weld bead.

You would object when you see manual metal arc electrodes, stripped of flux, being used as filler wire for TIG welding because:

Answer: The metal composition may be wrong
When manual metal arc electrodes are used as filler wire for TIG welding, the metal composition may be wrong. Manual metal arc electrodes are designed specifically for shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and have a different composition compared to filler wire used in TIG welding. The composition of the filler wire is crucial in achieving the desired weld properties and strength. Therefore, using manual metal arc electrodes as filler wire in TIG welding can result in weld defects and compromised weld quality.

Severe porosity in metal arc welds is brought to your attention when open site working, what would you investigate?

Answer: Electrode storage
When severe porosity is observed in metal arc welds during open site working, investigating electrode storage would be necessary. Porosity in welds can be caused by various factors, such as moisture or contaminants present on the electrode. Improper storage of electrodes, such as exposure to moisture or high humidity, can lead to porosity issues. Therefore, examining the conditions in which the electrodes are stored would help identify if improper storage is the cause of the porosity problem.

Argon gas backing is called for when TIG welding austenitic stainless steel pipe. This is to:

Answer: Prevent oxidation
Argon gas backing is called for when TIG welding austenitic stainless steel pipe to prevent oxidation. When welding stainless steel, the presence of oxygen can lead to the formation of oxides on the weld surface, which can weaken the weld and reduce its corrosion resistance. By using argon gas as a backing, it displaces the oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere, creating an inert environment that prevents oxidation and ensures a stronger and more durable weld.

To minimize what risk is carbon steel manual metal arc welding pre-heated?

Answer: Parent metal cracking
Pre-heating carbon steel during manual metal arc welding helps to minimize the risk of parent metal cracking. This is because pre-heating raises the temperature of the base metal, reducing the thermal gradient between the weld and the surrounding metal. This reduces the risk of cracking, as the lower temperature difference minimizes the stress and strain on the parent metal during the welding process.

What does BS499 specify regarding the drawing dimension quoted for a fillet weld according to UK practice?

Answer: Leg length
BS499 specifies the leg length for a fillet weld according to UK practice. The leg length refers to the distance from the root of the fillet weld to the toe of the fillet weld. This dimension is important as it determines the size and strength of the weld. By specifying the leg length, BS499 ensures that fillet welds in UK practice meet the required standards for quality and safety.

What would you be most critical of if submerged arc welding is used to make butt welds?

Answer: The root gap tolerance
When submerged arc welding is used to make butt welds, the most critical factor to consider would be the root gap tolerance. The root gap tolerance refers to the distance between the edges of the two pieces being welded. It is important to maintain the correct root gap tolerance to ensure proper penetration and fusion of the weld. If the root gap is too small or too large, it can result in inadequate weld penetration or excessive heat input, leading to weld defects and reduced weld quality. Therefore, monitoring and controlling the root gap tolerance is crucial in submerged arc welding for achieving strong and reliable butt welds.

What does preheating for arc welding apply to?

Answer: Assembly and tack welding
Preheating for arc welding applies to assembly and tack welding. Preheating is the process of heating the base metal before welding to minimize the risk of cracking and improve the weld quality. It is particularly important for thicker materials and when welding dissimilar metals. Preheating helps to reduce thermal stress and ensures proper fusion between the base metal and the filler material. Therefore, it is necessary for both assembly welding, where multiple components are joined together, and tack welding, which is a temporary welding used to hold the parts in place before the final welding.

What would be the effect of using an oxy-acetylene flame with a long feathered inner cone on carbon steel?

Answer: The weld would be hard and brittle
Using an oxy-acetylene flame with a long feathered inner cone on carbon steel would result in a hard and brittle weld. This is because the long feathered inner cone produces a high heat input, causing rapid cooling of the weld pool. Rapid cooling leads to the formation of brittle microstructures in the weld, resulting in a hard and brittle weld.

Fillet welds need to be 'blended in' by grinding according to a fabricating procedure. This influences:

Answer: Fatigue life
Grinding fillet welds helps to blend them in, which has a positive influence on the fatigue life of the weld. By grinding the weld, any potential stress concentrations or defects in the weld are reduced, which improves the overall strength and durability of the weld. This ensures that the weld is less likely to fail under repeated loading or cyclic stresses, thus enhancing its fatigue life.

The arc length is most likely to be affected by what during CO2 welding?

Answer: The current return connections
The current return connections in CO2 welding play a crucial role in determining the arc length. The current return connections provide a path for the electrical current to flow back to the power source. If the connections are not properly made or if there is a high resistance in the connections, it can lead to a fluctuating arc length. A poor connection can result in an unstable arc, which can affect the quality and consistency of the weld. Therefore, the current return connections have a significant impact on the arc length during CO2 welding.

Which bend test specimens that have been taken from a 25 mm thick carbon steel butt weld would be prone to show lack of inter-run fusion?

Answer: Side bend
The side bend test specimens that have been taken from a 25 mm thick carbon steel butt weld would be prone to show lack of inter-run fusion. This is because the side bend test is specifically designed to evaluate the quality of the weld in terms of fusion and penetration between the weld layers. Lack of inter-run fusion refers to a condition where there is inadequate bonding between the different layers of the weld, which can result in weak and defective welds. Therefore, the side bend test specimens would be more likely to reveal any lack of inter-run fusion in the carbon steel butt weld.

When lamellar tearing has occurred in steel fabrication, how could it have been found BEFORE welding?

Answer: Ultrasonic examination
Lamellar tearing occurs beneath the surface of welded steel components and is associated with the presence of non-metallic inclusions and the steel's susceptibility to strain in the through-thickness direction. Ultrasonic examination is a non-destructive testing method capable of detecting flaws inside a material, such as lamellar tearing, by using high-frequency sound waves. It's effective for identifying subsurface discontinuities that might not be visible through other inspection methods like X-ray examination or dye penetrant testing, which are more surface-oriented.

You are the overseer of the arc welding of some machine fittings and you find that they are cadmium plated. You would:

Answer: Stop the operation at once
The correct answer is to stop the operation at once. Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that can be released as fumes during welding. Inhaling cadmium fumes can lead to serious health issues, including lung and kidney damage. Therefore, it is crucial to halt the operation immediately to prevent any potential harm to the welder and others in the vicinity.

Hydrogen is excluded from the weld metal in order to prevent the weld from:

Answer: Cracking
Hydrogen is excluded from the weld metal in order to prevent the weld from cracking. The presence of hydrogen in the weld metal can lead to the formation of hydrogen-induced cracking, also known as cold cracking. This type of cracking occurs when the hydrogen atoms become trapped in the weld metal and cause internal stress, leading to the formation of cracks. By excluding hydrogen from the weld metal, the risk of cracking is reduced, ensuring a strong and reliable weld.

A metal is said to have ______________ when it regains its original shape when stress acting upon it is removed.

Answer: Elasticity
Elasticity refers to the property of a metal to regain its original shape when the stress acting upon it is removed. This means that when a metal is deformed under stress, it can return to its original shape once the stress is released. This property is important in various applications where materials need to withstand and recover from deformation, such as in springs or rubber bands.

A suitable mechanical test for a component for vibrational loading would be:

Answer: Fatigue
Fatigue testing is a suitable mechanical test for a component under vibrational loading because it simulates the repetitive stress and strain cycles that the component would experience during actual operation. This test helps determine the component's ability to withstand long-term vibrational loading without failure or damage. Impact, tensile, and compressive tests are not specifically designed to evaluate the component's performance under vibrational loading conditions.

When hyper-eutectoid steel is quenched at above its upper critical, the predominant structure will be:

Answer: Martensite
When hyper-eutectoid steel is quenched at above its upper critical temperature, the predominant structure that forms is martensite. Quenching involves rapidly cooling the steel, which prevents the formation of other structures such as pearlite or bainite. Martensite is a hard and brittle structure that forms when the steel is cooled quickly enough to trap carbon atoms in a distorted lattice. This structure gives the steel its high strength and hardness, making it suitable for applications that require these properties.

What is weld metal refinement called when it takes place in a multi-run deposit?

Answer: Weld refining
Weld refining is the correct term for the process of weld metal refinement when it occurs in a multi-run deposit. This process involves improving the quality and properties of the weld metal by removing impurities and refining the microstructure. It helps in enhancing the strength, toughness, and overall performance of the weld joint.
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