Earth And Life Sciences Trivia

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GNHS2016sirjsm
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 13,286
Questions: 20 | Viewed: 13,080

1.

This theory on the origin of the universe states that ​13.8 billion years ago, the universe expanded from a tiny, dense and hot mass to its present size and much cooler state.

Answer: Big Bang Theory
Explanation:
The theory on the origin of the universe that states that 13.8 billion years ago, the universe expanded from a tiny, dense and hot mass to its present size and much cooler state is known as the Big Bang Theory. This theory is supported by various pieces of evidence, such as the observation of cosmic microwave background radiation and the redshift of distant galaxies. It is widely accepted by the scientific community as the most plausible explanation for the origin of the universe.
2.

What subsystem of the earth includes the rocks of the crust and mantle, the metallic liquid outer core, and the solid metallic inner core?

Answer: Lithosphere
Explanation:
The correct answer is Lithosphere. The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth that includes the rocks of the crust and uppermost part of the mantle. It is composed of both solid and semi-solid materials. The metallic liquid outer core and the solid metallic inner core are not part of the lithosphere, but rather part of the Earth's core. The atmosphere refers to the layer of gases surrounding the Earth, the hydrosphere refers to all the water on Earth's surface, and the biosphere refers to all living organisms on Earth.
3.

A mineral with a hardness of 7 is rubbed against a piece of Apatite.  What will the result be?

Answer: The mineral will scratch the Apatite
Explanation:
The mineral with a hardness of 7 will scratch the Apatite because Apatite has a lower hardness than 7. Hardness is a measure of a mineral's resistance to scratching, and the mineral with a higher hardness will be able to scratch a mineral with a lower hardness.
4.

This mineral can be scratched with your fingernail.  What is it?

Answer: Gypsum
Explanation:
Gypsum is the correct answer because it is a relatively soft mineral that can be easily scratched with a fingernail. This characteristic is due to its low hardness on the Mohs scale, which measures the scratch resistance of minerals. Quartz, Potassium Feldspar, and Graphite are all harder minerals that cannot be scratched with a fingernail, making Gypsum the only suitable option.
5.

What is luster?

Answer: Reflectiveness of a mineral
Explanation:
Luster refers to the way light interacts with the surface of a mineral. It describes the appearance of the mineral's surface in terms of its reflectivity and shine. Different minerals can have different types of luster, such as metallic, vitreous, pearly, or dull. The correct answer, "reflectiveness of a mineral," accurately describes the concept of luster and how it relates to the appearance of minerals.
6.

Which layer can be worn down by erosion and weathering (weathering is when weather like rain and wind blow against rocks and break them up)?

Answer: Crust
Explanation:
The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth's surface and is composed of solid rock. It is the layer that is directly exposed to the elements and can be affected by erosion and weathering. Erosion refers to the process of wearing away the Earth's surface through the action of wind, water, or ice, while weathering is the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces by natural forces like rain and wind. Therefore, the crust is the layer that can be worn down by erosion and weathering.
7.

What theory on the origin of the solar system that independently thought of a rotating gaseous cloud that cools and contracts in the middle to form the sun and the rest into a disc that becomes the planets?

Answer: Nebular Hypothesis
Explanation:
The correct answer is Nebular Hypothesis. This theory proposes that the solar system formed from a rotating gaseous cloud called a nebula. As the nebula cooled and contracted in the middle, it formed the sun, while the remaining material formed a disc that eventually condensed into planets. This hypothesis was independently proposed by several scientists, including Immanuel Kant and Pierre-Simon Laplace, in the 18th century. It is widely accepted as the most plausible explanation for the origin of our solar system.
8.

Which condition affects the formation of sedimentary rocks?

Answer: Weathering
Explanation:
Weathering is the correct answer because it is the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces or dissolved through exposure to elements such as water, wind, and temperature changes. These smaller pieces or sediments are then transported and eventually deposited, leading to the formation of sedimentary rocks. Weathering plays a crucial role in the initial stages of sedimentary rock formation.
9.

Non- clastic rocks are...

Answer: The evaporation and precipitation from solution or lithification of organic matter
Explanation:
Non-clastic rocks are classified according to the evaporation and precipitation from solution or lithification of organic matter. This means that these rocks are formed through the process of minerals being dissolved in water and then precipitating out of the solution, or through the compaction and hardening of organic materials over time. This classification is based on the specific processes that lead to the formation of these rocks, rather than their particle size or composition of silica and other elements.
10.

A rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface is called an

Answer: Intrusive igneous rock
Explanation:
An intrusive igneous rock forms beneath Earth's surface as magma cools and solidifies. The slower cooling process allows for larger crystal formation, resulting in rocks like granite. This contrasts with extrusive rocks formed from lava cooling rapidly on the surface, producing finer-grained textures like basalt.
11.

A student obtains a cup of quartz sand from a beach.  A saltwater solution is poured into the sand and allowed to evaporate.  The mineral residue from the saltwater solution cements the sand grains together, forming a material that is most similar to:

Answer: A sedimentary rock
Explanation:
When the saltwater solution is poured into the sand and allowed to evaporate, the mineral residue from the solution acts as a cementing agent, binding the sand grains together. This process is similar to the formation of sedimentary rocks, where sediments are compacted and cemented together over time. Sedimentary rocks are formed through the accumulation and lithification of sediments, and in this case, the cementing of sand grains by the mineral residue from the saltwater solution mimics the process of sedimentary rock formation. Therefore, the material formed in this scenario is most similar to a sedimentary rock.
12.

Edwin Hubble discovered that distant objects in space are

Answer: Moving farther away from each other
Explanation:
Edwin Hubble's discovery of distant objects in space moving farther away from each other is based on the observation of redshift in their light spectra. This phenomenon, known as the redshift of light, indicates that these objects are moving away from us. The greater the redshift, the faster the object is moving away. This discovery led to the formulation of the Big Bang theory, suggesting that the universe is expanding. Therefore, the correct answer is that distant objects in space are moving farther away from each other.
13.

The study of the origin, structure, and future of the universe is called

Answer: Cosmology
Explanation:
Cosmology is the study of the origin, structure, and future of the universe. It explores the fundamental questions about the universe, such as its origins, evolution, and ultimate fate. Cosmologists use various scientific methods, including observations, mathematical models, and theoretical physics, to understand the nature of the universe on a large scale. Cosmology is a multidisciplinary field that combines elements of physics, astronomy, and philosophy to gain insights into the fundamental nature of the universe.
14.

The modern theory of the origin of the solar system is known as,

Answer: Solar nebula theory
Explanation:
The modern theory of the origin of the solar system is known as the Solar Nebula Theory. This theory proposes that the solar system formed from a rotating disk of gas and dust, called the solar nebula. As the nebula contracted under its own gravity, it began to spin faster and flatten into a disk shape. The center of the disk eventually became the Sun, while the material in the disk coalesced to form the planets, moons, and other objects in the solar system. This theory is widely accepted among scientists and is supported by various observations and evidence.
15.

All living organisms of Earth, including those on the land and in the water and air, are considered part of which subsystem?

Answer: Biosphere
Explanation:
The biosphere refers to the zone of the Earth where life exists. It includes all living organisms on land, in water, and in the air. Therefore, all living organisms of Earth, regardless of their habitat, are considered part of the biosphere. The hydrosphere refers to all the water on Earth, the geosphere refers to the solid Earth, and the atmosphere refers to the layer of gases surrounding the planet.
16.

The lithosphere is made up of?

Answer: The crust and upper mantle
Explanation:
The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, consisting of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. This layer is divided into tectonic plates that float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere below. The crust is the outermost layer, and the upper mantle lies just beneath it. Together, they make up the lithosphere, which plays a crucial role in plate tectonics and the Earth's geological processes.
17.

At a divergent plate boundary...

Answer: The plates move apart
Explanation:
At a divergent plate boundary, the plates move apart. This is because the underlying mantle material is rising and creating new crust, which pushes the plates away from each other. As the plates move apart, magma from the mantle rises to fill the gap, creating new oceanic crust. This process is known as seafloor spreading and is responsible for the formation of mid-ocean ridges.
18.

Alfred Wegener named the one large continent 

Answer: Pangaea
Explanation:
Alfred Wegener named the one large continent Pangaea. Pangaea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, approximately 335-175 million years ago. It was made up of all the major landmasses on Earth, including what is now known as Africa, South America, North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift, which suggested that the continents were once joined together in Pangaea and gradually drifted apart over time. This theory revolutionized our understanding of Earth's geological history. Eurasia and Laurasia are not correct answers as they refer to different landmasses in different time periods.
19.

The zone where one plate slides under another is called the

Answer: Subduction zone
Explanation:
A subduction zone is the correct answer because it refers to the area where one tectonic plate is forced underneath another plate. This process occurs when two plates collide, and the denser plate sinks into the mantle. Subduction zones are characterized by intense geological activity, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and the formation of mountain ranges. This term accurately describes the specific type of plate boundary where one plate is being subducted beneath another, making it the appropriate choice for the given question.
20.

The plate boundary where plates slide past each other is called 

Answer: Transform boundary
Explanation:
A transform boundary is the correct answer because it refers to a plate boundary where two plates slide past each other horizontally. This type of boundary is characterized by intense tectonic activity, such as earthquakes and the formation of faults. Unlike convergent boundaries where plates collide, divergent boundaries where plates separate, or colliding boundaries where plates merge, a transform boundary does not involve any significant vertical movement or collision between plates.
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