There is no difference.
The AF model is an “iterative” approach.
The DOD model does not include a control plan.
Each process is designed to yield different results.
Does not establish controls for exposures.
The AIHA model strives for continuous improvement.
The AIHA model is very different from the AF model.
The AIHA model is best used as an initial assessment.
Documentation is not necessary.
A minimum of three samples is recommended.
Samples should be taken on three different days.
Samples should be random, collected over time, and from different workers.
Obtain data for documentation.
Produce results via a “shoot from the hip” method.
Produce a cyclical process for prioritizing controls needed.
Achieve equal probability of selecting an exposure period in the similar exposure group (SEG) during the assessment.
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL).
Short-term Exposure Limit (STEL).
Ensure the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) is enforced.
Determine which Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) exposure level has been reached
Ensure the worker can escape from a contaminated environment without irreversible health effects.
Ensure the worker is properly trained to understand and avoid Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ASTDR) occupational risk levels for inhalation.
Provide accurate documentation for reporting in DOEHRS
Comprehensively complete a Conceptual Site Model (CSM).
Increase confidence in characterizing and controlling potential threats.
Provide information to fill the “gaps” inherent in HRA data gathering.
Determine workforce size.
Determine if they are effective.
Determine the maximum risk employee(s).
Acquire funding for additional Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Step 1- State the problem.
Step 2- Identify the decision.
Step 3- Identify the information inputs.
Step 5- Develop the analytical approach.
The broad plan for maintaining quality in all aspects of sample collection.
The steps to be taken to determine validity of sampling and analytical procedures.
The specific procedures recommended by the USAFSAM Laboratory Sampling Guide.
A checklist of pitfalls to avoid when developing, implementing and completing a sampling strategy.
Samples must be verified prior to analysis.
Samples must be traceable from collection through analysis.
Samples should be redundantly labeled according to 49 CFR Part 172.
Samples should be sent by standard United States Postal Service (USPS) mailing procedures.
The criteria provided to you by civil engineering.
The requirements provided by your MAJCOM BE.
The historical performance of your drinking water system.
The regulatory requirements for your drinking water system.
When you need to confirm indirect reading instrument sampling results.
When an immediate answer is necessary or time is a constraint.
When you don’t have access to indirect reading instruments.
When you are in a potentially explosive atmosphere.
Litmus test paper.
Colilert color comparator.
Heterotrophic plate count.
M272 water testing kit.
Bacteriological water test kit.
Plastic polypropylene line glass jar attached to a rope.
40 ml glass vial.
Whirl-Pak sample bag.
Collect as many samples as possible for each water source.
Know how the water sampling equipment should be operated.
Ensure accurate results from drinking water sampling.
Determine ranges for water contaminants.
Chemicals, microbiological, metals.
Microbiological, metals, chemicals.
Metals, chemicals, microbiological.
Chemicals, metals, microbiological.
1 percent chlorine solution; 0.5 minutes.
1 percent chlorine solution; 2 minutes.
1 percent chlorine solution; 1 minute.
1 percent chlorine solution; 3 minutes.
Never hold the bottle by the neck.
Always used good personal hygiene.
Never lay the bottle down on the ground.
Always flush out the bottle before taking the sample.
Repeat the sampling.
Record the residual as the higher of the two standards.
Record the residual as the lower of the two standards.
Record the residual as the reading between the two standards.
Is a health risk.
Can cause aesthetic problems.
Calibration fluid that comes with the pH pen.
Before anyone enters the pool.
During minimum load conditions.
During the busiest time of the day.
When requested by the swimming pool facility manager.
Weekly during times of high usage.
When readings indicate there is no chlorine in the water.
If an illness occurs as a result of someone using the hot tub/
Immediately after the hot tub/spa has been drained and cleaned.
Immediately recommend the pool be superchlorinated.
Collect repeat samples from different sections of the pool.
Recommend to the medical group commander the pool be closed.
Collect repeat samples from the sections where you originally took samples.
Measure the exact number of live heterotrophic organism in the water.
Determine the quality of the water following superchlorination.
Measure changes in the swimming pool treatment process.
Determine the number of fecal coliforms in the water.
These ensure water data is accurate and useful.
These eliminate the need for field quality control samples.
These affect the reporting procedures required.
These eliminate the need for equipment calibration.
Samples are handled differently.
Samples are taken at the same location.
Samples are taken using different collection methods.
Samples are intended to compare laboratory differences.
Equipment blanks contain preservatives.
Trip blanks are provided by the laboratory.
Trip blanks only measure the temperature of the blank.
Equipment blanks are analyzed differently than other samples.
Collection to analysis.
Analysis to data reporting.
Collection to data reporting.
Sampling shipment to analysis.
Ensures your samples will not leak during transport.
Helps detect unauthorized tampering of your samples.
Prevents unwanted contaminates from getting into the container.
Prevents your sample containers from being damaged during shipment.
Invalid sampling results.
Skin contact hazard to the user.
Damage to the sampling equipment.
No problem as long as the contamination was minimal.
Reagents can damage the soil if not collected after use.
Reagents can leave residue on the sampling equipment.
Reagents must be stored separate from any non-compatible materials.
Reagents can cause inhalation hazards if not used in a well-ventilated area.
Use the most current Environmental Restoration Program (EPA) standard.
Use the most current Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) standard.
Use the most current standard listed in the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Booklet.
Use the most current and stringent occupational and environmental exposure limit (OEEL).
The applicable Air Force Office of Safety and Health (AFOSH) Standard.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) criteria.
The latest data management system.
Flight’s locally developed criteria.
Conducting a thorough QA/QC process.
Comparing results to a selected standard.
Comparing current results to previous survey(
Using your chain of command for their decision.
Sample collected over a period of time.
Instantaneous sample to provide quick estimate.
Samples taken must be analyzed by a certified laboratory.
Samples taken to demonstrate compliance with health standards.
Direct reading or screening compliance.
Indirect reading or continuous monitoring.
Indirect reading instrument.
Flame ionization detectors (FID).
Hazardous Air Pollutants on Site (HAPSITE).
Contaminants, saturation, and air flow.
. Flammability, volume, and conductivity.
Compound(s), density, and metallic oxide.
Temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide.
Tube is correctly placed.
Flexibility in your sampling strategy.
The sample is collected without damaging the media.
Contaminant will be in contact with collection media log enough to be captured.
Media collection efficiency is low.
Media collection efficiency is high.
Concentrations are expected to be low.
Concentrations are expected to be high.
Toxic gas monitors.
Personal sampling pumps.
Hand-held sampling pump.
Combustible gas monitors.
Before and after use.
The HAPSITE contains internal gas standards.
The survey method completes calibration.
Additional peaks and a high background is indicated.
Standby mode sufficiently calibrates the instrument.
It is the most conservative.
It exploits the device’s capabilities.
This accounts for atmospheric changes
It makes DOEHRS data entry the most efficient.
The quickest air sample possible.
An air sample from the supervisor.
An air sample for the entire shift.
The most representative air sample possible.
Measure the effects of temperature and pressure changes during shipping.
Measure the effects of temperature and pressure changes during the sampling process.
Determine if any contamination occurred after calibrating the sampling pumps and before sampling began.
Determine if any contamination occurred from the time the media was opened until the time it reached the laboratory.
Keep an unopened tube with the samples.
Sample another worker away from the process.
Open and immediately seal the media in the work area.
Leave an opened tube in an area throughout sampling.
No conversion required.
Coefficient of variation.
Upper confidence limit (UCL).
Lower confidence limit (LCL).
Resample and recalculate TWA.
Compute the compliance factor.
Calculate the lower confidence limit (LCL).
Re-calculate the upper confidence limit (UCL).
React to each other.
Attack the same organ in the same way.
Produce irritation at high concentrations.
Cause the same illness in different organs.
Less than one.
Greater than one.
Less than or equal to one.
Greater than or equal to one.
The extent of contamination before any cleanup is conducted.
If any contamination exists after a cleanup process.
The need for personnel protective equipment.
If there are any hazards to personnel.
Bucket and screw.
Trowel and shovel.
Split spoons and push tube.
Veihmeyer tube and trier sampler.
Separate the area to be sampled into grids.
Clear the sampling area of any debris.
Have your sample containers ready.
Clean your sampling device.
Lets you know how much of the sample to collect.
Can help you determine the extent of contamination in and around the area.
Lets you know how deep and how far out from the contamination area to sample.
Can help you determine the type of direct reading instrument to use to collect samples.
Ensuring the sample is analyzed within 24 hours of collection.
Properly preserving the sample at the collection site.
Minimizing air contact with the soil sample.
Collecting the correct amount of soil.
Completes chain of infection.
Indicates what equipment should be used.
Indicates where possible contamination exists.
Provides pictorial view of sampling area.
They are documented in Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System (DOEHRS) and sent to MAJCOM.
They are compared to the selected Occupational and Environmental Exposure Limit (OEEL).
They are compared against previous results.
They are interpreted by laboratory.
Ensure the correct laboratory analysis method was conducted.
Ensure the results are compared to the correct type of standard.
Ensure all individuals potentially affected are listed in supportive documentation.
Ensure the correct units of measurement for sample and standard are being used.
Estimate the expected death rate for a given disease.
Evaluate the effectiveness of controls for an agent.
Understand whether exposures increased the risk of a disease.
Define the physiological mechanisms between the agent and the body.
Identify inaccurate conclusions.
Increase the standard deviation.
Assure accurate, comparative results.
Identify the Occupational and Environmental Exposure Limit (OEEL).
Sample location, sample device, worker’s name, analytical result, and SEG.
Sample location, sample date/time, constituent, analytical result, and selected OEEL.
Sample method, sample date/time, constituent, calibration information, and worker’s name.
Sampling device, analytical result, selected Occupational and Environmental Exposure Limit (OEEL), weather conditions, and similar exposure group (SEG).
A value above which about 5 percent of exposures occur.
A range of values that 2.5 percent of exposures are below and 2.5 percent of exposures are above.
The central tendency of a distribution.
An exposure value that should not be exceeded.
Plot corresponding data values on a map to identify any obvious trends.
Plot each data value as a function of time to identify changes or trends over time.
Plot each data value as a function of time to identify the underlying distribution of data.
Plot one variable versus another variable from a simple sampling plot to analyze their relationships.
Provides data values as a function of time to identify changes or trends over time
Provides data values on a map to identify obvious trends.
Develop a time series plot.
Develop a scatter plot.
Collect multiple samples at a single location over time.
Collect multiple samples over an area.
Develop a time series plot.
Develop a scatter plot.