Convenient, faster set-up.
You or staff could get stuck.
Higher current density than other types of electrodes.
Require a conduction medium such as 10-20 paste.
Quicker electrode application.
Reduce the amount of conduction medium required for sufficient contact.
Remove dead skin cells, oil, hair styling product residue.
Allow for greater patient comfort during electrode application.
Minimize movement of the electrode.
Low current density.
Decreased incidence of infection.
Can be used as a recording electrode only.
Placed intraoperatively when surgeon creates a laminotomy.
Generally has 3 contacts allowing for recording directly from the spinal cord.
Used to record neurogenic motor evoked potentials.
Suggests less than optimal impedance on the cortical grid.
Identifies close proximity of the pre-central gyrus.
Suggests that the recording contacts are not over the centraol sulcus or obstructed from a large tumor.
Suggests that the contralateral median stimulus intensity is insufficient.
Introduces the possibility of microcurrent leading to interference.
Creates possibility of unnecessary challenges during critical point of the case (ex. clipping an aneurysm)
Introduction of artifact.
Creates a lower averaged current density.