African Americans moving from the South in search of factory jobs.
Young women from rural areas seeking new economic and social opportunities.
New immigrants, especially from southern and eastern Europe.
High birth rates among urban families.
Farmers moving in response to declining agricultural opportunities.
They often provided constituents with needed jobs and resources.
They were the target of many middle-class reformers.
They gained widespread support from both immigrants and native-born Americans.
They often served as money-making vehicles for political bosses and their associates.
They helped to modernize city infrastructures and increase the role of city government.
A growing schism between the more cosmopolitan urban population and the more traditional rural population.
A tendency among scientists and intellectuals to look for absolute truths.
The development of more rigid, formalized educational practices.
The decline of organized Protestant fundamentalism.
Greater scientific emphasis on abstract, as opposed to practical, ideas.
The ability of a small elite to amass vast fortunes.
The growth and increasing prosperity of the middle class.
The emergence of a permanent working class.
The gradual loss of income among farmers.
The federal government's progressive income tax policies.
An effort by reformers to address the role of one's
A tendency to avoid making moral judgments in seeking to help those in need.
An effort to involve the federal government in eradicating poverty.
A tendency to differentiate between the "deserving" and "undeserving" poor.
A willingness to provide direct financial aid to the poor.
Coeducational institutions where they fought for quality with their male counterparts
Foreign institutions that had longer traditions of allowing women access to colleges and universities
Institutions that sought to prepare women for a marriage and motherhood.
Single-sex colleges that encouraged the development of a distinctive women's community.
Institutions that emphasized the development of practical skills for the workplace and encouraged women to adopt traditionally male values.