It followed an extended quiet period in the war following the invasion of Poland
It involved German attacks on France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, and the Netherlands
France surrendered to Germany in just over two months
Germany carefully avoided attacks on neutral nations and only targeted professed enemies
Withdrawing U.S. Marines from Nicaragua and Haiti
Participation in Pan-American conferences
Accepting the Clark Memorandum
Insisting that the Monroe Doctrine provided a valid justification for intervention
Promoted free trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
Promised aggressive military actions against any “bad neighbors” in the Western Hemisphere
Supported the idea of nonintervention in Latin America
Eliminated all military and other examples of a U.S. official presence in Latin America
The treaty rendered battleships and aircraft carriers irrelevant to modern naval warfare.
The treaty created a thriving black market for battleships and aircraft carriers.
The treaty prompted signatory nations to recategorize battleships and aircraft carriers as “elevated submarines” and “buoyant airports” to evade the restrictions.
The treaty sparked a naval arms race in cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and other smaller craft that had not been restricted.
Gave up its recently acquired territory in New Zealand
Signed an agreement not to attack Russia
Withdrew completely from China
Paid Britain and Holland for the oil and other resources it had taken from their colonies
Congress declared war on Germany
The U.S. Navy was engaging the Germany Navy in the Atlantic
Roosevelt ordered ships to avoid combat zones
Roosevelt broke diplomatic relations with Germany
Ceased to expand in the face of resistance from American isolationism
Remained inconsequential to the overall well-being of the United States
Expanded and prevented the United States from entirely withdrawing from the world, despite strong isolationist sentiment
Demonstrated that isolationism was irrelevant to U.S. politics
Franklin Roosevelt advocated U.S. official support of the loyalist faction
The United States, Britain, Germany, and Italy all supported the government
Hitler and Mussolini helped the armed uprising led by Francisco Franco
The European democracies helped the armed uprising, whereas Germany and Italy refused to intervene
Restricting oil exports to Japan and freezing Japanese assets in the United States
Ordering the strategic bombing of Japanese military sites
Sending 200,000 troops to China and stationing a large naval force in the South Pacific
Establishing a protectorate over China
Europeans preferred not to trade with the United States.
High tariff rates limited access of European goods to the American market and the ability of Europeans to earn dollars for repayment.
Low tariff rates devalued European goods in the American market.
The United States lacked a developed banking system necessary to process international payments.
American isolationism increased
A congressional resolution for war passed unanimously
The United States avoided involvement in the European conflict
Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States
The Soviet Union
They tend to facilitate trade by making imported goods more valuable through the costs added.
They have no impact on trade because their impact on an imported goods’ price is negligible.
They tend to hinder international trade by making imported goods costlier and therefore less appealing to consumers.
They have historically been responsible for the greatest trade booms in global history.
Saw the British defeat a massive German land invasion of the British Isles
Was the single greatest defeat that Britain faced during World War II
Was mostly a propaganda war between Germany and Britain that saw little actual bloodshed
Saw the British turn back a massive German air attack and force Germany to postpone its invasion plans
Declaring war on the United States
Invading the Soviet Union
Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1941 that reaffirmed American neutrality
Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
Franklin Roosevelt died in office
Congress passed legislation that allowed the arming of merchant ships
Congress increased the defense spending by voting for $17 billion for the defense budget
The United States began making increased stocks of arms, planes, and munitions available to the British
Roosevelt ceded most of his decision-making authority to his military leaders
Roosevelt established a National Defense Research Committee to coordinate military research
Republican promises not to ask for a peacetime draft
Ninety-nine-year leases on a series of British naval and air bases in the Western Hemisphere
Congressional approval of a draft registration act
Fifty “outdated” British aircraft carriers
Supporters of Roosevelt’s foreign policy
Opposed to risking conflict with Germany
Supportive of isolationist policies
Not worried about the threat that Nazi Germany posed to U.S. interests
World War I
World War II
The Red Scare
The Great Depression
Catholics favored the Spanish Republic
The Neutrality Act of 1938 forbade intervention
He wanted to keep the fight localized
Germany and Italy were supporting the Spanish Republic
Permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France as long as they paid up-front and allowed American ships to deliver the purchase
Prohibited all arms exports, even to countries with cash who could carry them on their own ships
Was removed from the final bill due to isolationist opposition to permitting any trade with warring nations
Permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France if they paid up-front and carried their purchases on their own ships
Freedom of the seas
The elimination of communism
Self-determination for all peoples
Was a joint British-American statement of anti-Axis war aims
Reaffirmed American neutrality in the wars in Europe and Asia
Is another name for the American declaration of war against Germany
Advocated expanding the war in Europe to fight communism
It intensified his isolationist sentiments and desire to stay out of Europe’s problems.
He no longer professed impartiality in the impending European struggle.
He worked to appease Hitler to avoid further conquests.
He blamed Czechoslovakia for provoking the attack.
More supportive of foreign interventions
More isolationist in sentiment
More supportive of joining the League of Nations
Reduced the Allied war debt
Outlawed war as an instrument of national policy among the signatories
Limited the size of America’s standing army
Was defeated in the Senate
The United States
Was directed against Japanese aggression in China
Allowed the U.S. Navy to stop and search German ships on the high seas
Permitted the United States to sell arms and munitions to warring nations to ensure the United States did not have to get involved
Forbade the sale of arms and munitions to warring nations
Support the Boxer Rebellion
Support the principle of the Open Door
Commit signatory nations to keeping troops in China
Renounce the Open Door
Investigated and criticized the role that bankers and munitions makers played in America’s entry into World War I
Recommended that Europeans appease Hitler by allowing him to annex Czechoslovakia
Compiled an official list of America’s international obligations under existing treaties
Praised the role that bankers and munitions makers played in applying their resources to protect national security
Went poorly and required German assistance
Prevented the Germans from suffering an embarrassing defeat at the hands of the British
Proved to be a wildly successful demonstration of Italian power
Forced France to enter the war
Was the event that sparked the war between Japan and China
Was a Japanese attack on an American ship in China
Was the event that sparked the war between Japan and the United States
Was a Japanese attack on the British embassy in Tokyo
Internationalist sentiment was weakening.
The president lost control over Congress.
Isolationist strength was weakening.
Americans paid little attention to the European war.
Reflected the administration’s isolationist leanings
Proved the administration preferred communism
Reflected an effort to increase foreign markets
Was blocked by Congress
Allowed the president to lower tariff rates significantly for countries that did the same for American goods
Suspended all U.S. tariffs on imported goods
Raised tariffs on all imports into the United States
Removed all authority over international trade from the president and gave it to Congress
Could receive American military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials if they rented them at fair market value
Could purchase American military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials made available through Canada
Must declare war on Germany in order to be eligible for American material support
Could receive military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials even if that country lacked the funds to pay for those items
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
The Nine-Power Treaty
The Trade Agreements Act
The Munich agreement
Both had established communist forms of government.
Both had thriving liberal democracies.
Both had strong monarchies.
Both had established Fascist forms of government.
An intention to provoke the United States to attack Japan first
The priority of defeating Chinese guerrilla fighters operating in Indochina
A desire to reobtain the Philippines from the United States, which had seized the islands from Japan
The expansion’s provision of access to vitally needed oil, rubber, and other strategic materials
The Soviet Union
League of Nations
American Committee for the Outlawry of War
Franklin Roosevelt named a Republican as his vice-presidential running mate in the name of national unity.
Franklin Roosevelt became the first sitting president to lose a reelection bid in the midst of a national crisis.
Republican Thomas Dewey defeated Franklin Roosevelt in a landslide.
Franklin Roosevelt became the only president to run for and win a third term.
It was one part of a larger Japanese offensive launched into Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
A specific attack on Pearl Harbor had been long expected by American officials.
The attack killed more than 2,400 U.S. servicemen and sank nineteen ships.
The attack ignored onshore facilities and oil tanks.
Italy was unwilling to enter the war despite the alliance with Germany.
The British defeated the Axis in Egypt and Libya, but at great cost.
Momentum seemed to shift from the Germans to the British.
The Nazi juggernaut appeared unstoppable.
They effectively ensured international cooperation and preserved international peace throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s.
Their strict stipulations and rigorous enforcement mechanisms ended up only encouraging international disagreement and conflict.
They effectively outlawed war among all the signatories.
They were actually without obligation and without mechanisms for enforcement, and ultimately proved ineffective.