Pope Pius IX
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
Alfonso La Mormora
Florence, Rome, Ancona
Naples, Bari, Pescara
Turin, Milan, Genova
Venice, Bologna, Ancona
A lack of natural resources in Italy, especially coal and iron
Trade patterns that favored contact between the North and its close neighbors - France, Switzerland, and Austria
Increased migration to Italy which overwhelmed the labor force
The rise in brigandage and the growth of criminal organizations in the North, which were to become groups such as the Mafia
Difficult terrain down the peninsula and underdeveloped infrastructure, which hindered the movement of goods to the South
The leveraging of tariffs on goods within the country (taxes on trade) which protected local economies of the South
A traditional belief system that overwhelmingly valued the ownership of land as a means of establishing oneself and as a status symbol.
The consolidation of political power and cultural influence in the Center and North of the newly formed country.
Widespread social awareness about the possibilities gained through formal education and the presence of equal opportunities for schooling throughout Italy.
Increased rates of taxation which put substantial pressure on small landowners in the South, making business investments impossible
External maneuvering from foreign powers such as Spain and Portugal who wished to keep the South of Italy in impoverished conditions.
Imperialist military expeditions in East Africa which bolstered military spending but diverted funds from being invested in infrastructure improvements and upgrading of services in the South.
Il Popolo d'Italia
La Gazzetta del Re
Founding of youth organizations and recreational groups to structure free time and promote cultural opportunities
Enhancement of the country's infrastructure, including the introduction of the autostrada or Italian highway system
Increase in the requirement of schooling for the youth with the passage of the Gentile Law.
Enacted a democratic system of government
Elimination of organized crime in southern Italy
Harnessing of the power of the cinema for propaganda and create the first state-sponsored documentary agency, the Istituto Luce (Light Institute)
Promoting the free expression of ideas and tolerated instances of explicit dissent
End to the Roman Question by recognizing the political entity of the Church in the creation of Vatican City through the Lateran Pacts