Topic 10: Movement

42 Questions

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Topic 10: Movement

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What is a neuromuscular junction?
  • 2. 
    Which neurotransmitter is most important at the neuromuscular junction?
    • A. 

      Serotonin

    • B. 

      Norepinephrine

    • C. 

      Acetylcholine

    • D. 

      Orexin

  • 3. 
    What is a muscle spindle?
  • 4. 
    What is the function of the golgi tendon organ?
  • 5. 
    What is a central pattern generator?
  • 6. 
    What is a result of cerebellar damage?
  • 7. 
    Which are part of the basal ganglia?
    • A. 

      Caudate nucleus

    • B. 

      Amygdala

    • C. 

      Putamen

    • D. 

      Globus pallidus

    • E. 

      Dorsal striatum

  • 8. 
    What is the basal ganglia important for?
  • 9. 
    Which one do you like?
    • A. 

      Option 1

    • B. 

      Option 2

    • C. 

      Option 3

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 10. 
    After acetylcholine causes a flexor muscle to move your hand toward your should, what would move it to the other direction?
    • A. 

      A different transmitter causes the muscle to relax

    • B. 

      A different transmitter causes the muscle to move the other direction

    • C. 

      Acetylcholine causes the extensor muscle to contract

    • D. 

      A different transmitter causes the extensor muscle to contract

  • 11. 
    Which of the following is true of mammal's slow-twitch muscle fibers?
    • A. 

      Because they are aerobic, they are subject to rapid fatigue

    • B. 

      Because they are anaerobic, they are subject to rapid fatigue

    • C. 

      Because they are aerobic, they do not fatigue rapidly

    • D. 

      Because they are anaerobic, they do not fatigue rapidly

  • 12. 
    Which of the following describes a stretch reflex?
    • A. 

      The receptor detects a muscle is stretched, and sends a signal to contract it reflexively

    • B. 

      The receptor detects that a muscle is contracted, and sends a signal to stretch it reflexively

  • 13. 
    A muscle spindle and a Golgi tendon organ are both described as what?
    • A. 

      Optic receptors

    • B. 

      Metabolic receptors

    • C. 

      Proprioceptors

    • D. 

      Chemoreceptors

  • 14. 
    A brief stimulation in the motor cortex, less than 50ms, produces what kind of result?
    • A. 

      Isolated muscle twitches

    • B. 

      Contraction of a particular combination of muscles

    • C. 

      Contraction of whatever muscles are necessary to produce a particular outcome

    • D. 

      Contractions of different muscles that vary unpredictably from one trial to another

  • 15. 
    When do the posterior parietal cortex, premotor cortex, and supplementary motor cortex become most active?
    • A. 

      During the second or two in preparation for a movement

    • B. 

      During the movement itself

    • C. 

      During the second or two after a movement

  • 16. 
    The lateral tract of the spinal cord controls ______. The medial tract controls _____.
    • A. 

      Peripheral movements on the contralateral side (relative to the side of the brain where the tract originated) / trunk movements bilaterally

    • B. 

      Peripheral movements on the ipsilateral side / trunk movements bilaterally

    • C. 

      Trunk movements bilaterally / peripheral movements on the contralateral side

    • D. 

      Trunk movements bilaterally / peripheral movements on the ipsilateral side

  • 17. 
    Where does the medial corticospinal tract originate in the brain?
    • A. 

      From the primary motor cortex

    • B. 

      From the primary motor cortex plus the red nucleus

    • C. 

      From many parts of the cortex, plus the tectum, reticular formation, and vestibular nucleus

    • D. 

      From the somatosensory cortex

  • 18. 
    What is the probable role of the indirect pathway in the basal ganglia?
    • A. 

      It is active when the animal is at rest

    • B. 

      It stimulates appropriate movements

    • C. 

      It inhibits inappropriate competing movements

    • D. 

      It produces imitation of other people's movements

  • 19. 
    Which of the following generally characterises the movements that depend heavily on the basal ganglia?
    • A. 

      Stimulus-triggered, and generally faster than self-initiated movements

    • B. 

      Stimulus-triggered, and generally slower than self-initiated movements

    • C. 

      Self-initiated, and generally faster than responses that a stimulus triggers

    • D. 

      Self-initiated, and generally slower than responses that a stimulus triggers

  • 20. 
    According to Libet's study, what is the order of events in a voluntary movement?
    • A. 

      People form an intention, then activity begins in the premotor cortex, and finally the movement starts

    • B. 

      People form an intention at the same time that activity begins in the premotor cortex, and a bit later, the movement starts

    • C. 

      Activity begins in the premotor cortex, and a bit later, people are aware of forming an intention, and finally the movement starts

    • D. 

      Activity begins in the premotor cortex, and a bit later, people are aware of forming an intention, and simultaneously the movement starts

  • 21. 
    What evidence suggest that people misperceive the time when they made a conscious decision?
    • A. 

      People inaccurately report the time of a sensory stimulus

    • B. 

      An event shortly after the movement changes the reported time of the decision

    • C. 

      People who are more highly motivated report earlier decision times

  • 22. 
    Parkinson's disease results from damage to _____-releasing axons from the _____ to the striatum.
    • A. 

      Dopamine / substantia nigra

    • B. 

      GABA / basal forebrain

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine / locus coeruleus

    • D. 

      Serotonin / raphe nucleaus

  • 23. 
    People with Parkinson's disease show the greatest impairment with which type of movement?
    • A. 

      Reflexes

    • B. 

      Spontaneous voluntary movements

    • C. 

      Movements in response to a stimulus

    • D. 

      Movements when other people are around

  • 24. 
    What is the most common age of onset for Huntington's disease?
    • A. 

      Early childhood (3 to 7 years old)

    • B. 

      Teenage years (13 to 19)

    • C. 

      Middle age (30 to 50)

    • D. 

      Old age (65 to 80)

  • 25. 
    Axons release _____ at junctions with skeletal muscles.
    • A. 

      Many different neurotransmitters.

    • B. 

      Dopamine.

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine.

    • D. 

      Acetylcholine.

  • 26. 
    Myasthenia gravis is caused by
    • A. 

      Damage to dopamine-containing cells in the substantia nigra.

    • B. 

      Damage to acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

    • C. 

      Loss of cell bodies in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex.

    • D. 

      Damage to the myelin sheath that covers axons in the spinal cord.

  • 27. 
    A muscle spindle responds to the
    • A. 

      Oxygen level in the muscle.

    • B. 

      Acetylcholine concentration at the nerve-muscle junction.

    • C. 

      Fatigue of the muscle.

    • D. 

      Stretch of the muscle.

  • 28. 
    A Golgi tendon organ responds to
    • A. 

      Increases in muscle tension.

    • B. 

      Decreases in muscle tension.

    • C. 

      Increases in muscle length.

    • D. 

      Decreases in muscle length.

  • 29. 
    Activity of a muscle spindle is to ______, as activity of the Golgi tendon organ is to _______
    • A. 

      Contraction; inhibition of contraction.

    • B. 

      Inhibition of contraction; contraction.

    • C. 

      Inhibition of contraction; inhibition of contraction.

    • D. 

      Contraction; contraction.

  • 30. 
    Central patter generators
    • A. 

      Contribute to the rhythmic patterns of movement.

    • B. 

      Generate movement which is unresponsive to environmental stimulation.

    • C. 

      Constrict the pupils in response to bright light.

    • D. 

      Control all reflexes in adult humans.

  • 31. 
    The part of the cortex which is most active during preparations for a movement and less active during the movement itself is the
    • A. 

      Premotor cortex.

    • B. 

      Somatosensory cortex.

    • C. 

      Inferior temporal cortex.

    • D. 

      Tabes dorsalis.

  • 32. 
    A quick typist would rely heavily on the _____ cortex to organize smooth sequences of finger movements.
    • A. 

      Supplementary.

    • B. 

      Premotor.

    • C. 

      Prefrontal.

    • D. 

      Occipital.

  • 33. 
    Mirror neurons are active when
    • A. 

      Viewing reversed images.

    • B. 

      Watching others perform movements.

    • C. 

      Identifying ourselves in the mirror.

    • D. 

      Playing the piano.

  • 34. 
    The finger-to-nose test is a common way of testing for the possible damage to what structure?
    • A. 

      Spinal cord.

    • B. 

      Basal ganglia.

    • C. 

      Medulla.

    • D. 

      Cerebellum.

  • 35. 
    The symptoms of cerebellar damage resemble those of
    • A. 

      A heart attack.

    • B. 

      Parkinson’s disease.

    • C. 

      Intoxication.

    • D. 

      Mental illness.

  • 36. 
    What is one of the main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?
    • A. 

      Rapid fatigue of the muscles.

    • B. 

      Loss of saccadic eye movements.

    • C. 

      Difficulty initiating movements.

    • D. 

      Inability to coordinate speech with movements.

  • 37. 
    The immediate cause of Parkinson’s disease is the
    • A. 

      Net decrease in the excitatory output from the globus pallidus.

    • B. 

      Gradual, progressive death of neurons in the substantia nigra.

    • C. 

      Immediate, mass death of neurons releasing acetylcholine.

    • D. 

      Accumulation of amyloid-beta in neurons.

  • 38. 
    What is the most common drug in the treatment for Parkinson’s disease?
    • A. 

      Haloperidol.

    • B. 

      Physostigmine.

    • C. 

      Dilantine.

    • D. 

      L-dopa.