Topic 1: Mind, Brain & Genes

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Topic 1: Mind, Brain & Genes

A quiz that asks different random questions that are designed to test your knowledge on how well you know the mind, brain, and genes. It might not be as easy as you think but just try it out to see how you will do.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A _____ explanation describes WHY a structure or behaviour evolved as it did.
    • A. 

      Ontogenetic

    • B. 

      Evolutionary

    • C. 

      Functional

    • D. 

      Physiological

  • 2. 
    A ______ explanation relates a behaviour to the activity of the brain and other organs. It deals with the machinery of the body eg. the chemical reactions that enable hormones to influence brain activity.
    • A. 

      Evolutionary

    • B. 

      Ontogenetic

    • C. 

      Physiological

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 3. 
    What is the difference between commonsense explanations of behaviour and biological explanations?
  • 4. 
    Define determinism
  • 5. 
    What is the phi phenomenon?
  • 6. 
    How is attention relevant to consciousness?
  • 7. 
    A _____ explanation describes how a structure or behaviour develops, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences and their interactions.
    • A. 

      Physiological

    • B. 

      Ontogenetic

    • C. 

      Evolutionary

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 8. 
    What are non sex chromosmes called
    • A. 

      Nucleusomes

    • B. 

      Autosomes

    • C. 

      Trisasomes

    • D. 

      Ribosomes

    • E. 

      None

  • 9. 
    Which of the following positions would most likely be considered the opposite ofmaterialism?
    • A. 

      Monism

    • B. 

      Mentalism

    • C. 

      Identity Position

    • D. 

      Solipsism

  • 10. 
    A _____ attention process is intentional.
    • A. 

      Top-down

    • B. 

      Bottom-down

    • C. 

      Top-up

    • D. 

      Bottom-up

  • 11. 
    What does Homozygous mean?
    • A. 

      That the two alleles are the same

    • B. 

      The two alleles are different

  • 12. 
    A particular pair of alleles that an individual inherits for a special trait is called a______
    • A. 

      Phenotype

    • B. 

      Genotype

    • C. 

      Heterozygous

  • 13. 
    The lower case letter in a genotype is:
    • A. 

      Heterozygous

    • B. 

      Dominant

    • C. 

      Homozygous

    • D. 

      Recessive

  • 14. 
    Homozygous dominant is:
    • A. 

      Hh

    • B. 

      HH

    • C. 

      Hh

  • 15. 
    If a person believes that hormones released at different stages of the menstrualcycle affect a person’s mood, then it would be considered a(n) _________explanation.
    • A. 

      Function

    • B. 

      Ontogenetic

    • C. 

      Physiological

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

  • 16. 
    A problem facing dualism is
    • A. 

      Explaining the relationship between mind and spirit.

    • B. 

      Explaining how neural activity produces mental activity.

    • C. 

      Explaining how a non-physical mind can influence a physical brain.

    • D. 

      Explaining why the mind has non-physical properties.

  • 17. 
    If you believe the mind and brain to be separate, but somehow interact with eachother, you would be considered a
    • A. 

      Dualist

    • B. 

      Materialist

    • C. 

      Monist

    • D. 

      Separatist

  • 18. 
    The study of cellular and physiological phenotypic trait variations that are caused by external or environmental factors that switch genes on and off and affect how cells read genes instead of being caused by changes in the DNA sequence.
    • A. 

      Genetic changes

    • B. 

      Evolution

    • C. 

      Epigenetics

    • D. 

      Heredity

  • 19. 
    A _____ explanation reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure or behaviour. The characteristic features of an animal are almost always modifications of something found in ancestral species.
    • A. 

      Functional

    • B. 

      Ontogenetic

    • C. 

      Physiological

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

  • 20. 
    Mentalism refers to:
    • A. 

      The view that only the mind really exists and that the physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it.

    • B. 

      The view that everything that exists is material, or physical.

    • C. 

      The view that mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing described in different terms.

    • D. 

      The belief that the mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently.

  • 21. 
    A _____ attention process depends on the stimulus.
    • A. 

      Top-down

    • B. 

      Bottom-up

    • C. 

      Bottom-down

    • D. 

      Top-up

  • 22. 
    Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of
    • A. 

      Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • B. 

      Ribonucleic acid

    • C. 

      Autosomal genes

    • D. 

      Recombination genes

  • 23. 
    In carrying out a particular visual task, what advice would help a patient withspatial neglect?
    • A. 

      Tell the person to look to the right

    • B. 

      Tell them to keep their hands from crossing over each other

    • C. 

      Tell them to close one eye and complete the task monocularly

    • D. 

      Tell the person to look to the left

  • 24. 
    RNA is
    • A. 

      An exact copy of DNA

    • B. 

      A complementary copy of one stand of a DNA molecule

    • C. 

      The combination of many proteins

    • D. 

      The product of digesting DNA

  • 25. 
    A person with two recessive genes is considered to be ____ for that trait
    • A. 

      Homozygous

    • B. 

      Heterozygous

    • C. 

      Unitary

    • D. 

      Marginal

  • 26. 
    Spatial neglect is generally associated with damage to the
    • A. 

      Postcentral gyrus

    • B. 

      Precentral gyrus

    • C. 

      Fusiform gyrus

    • D. 

      Parietal cortex

  • 27. 
    Suppose ‘A’ is a dominant gene and ‘a’ is a recessive gene. One part has genesAa and the other parent has genes aa. What genes will the children probablyhave?
    • A. 

      All will be AA

    • B. 

      All will be aa

    • C. 

      ¾ will be Aa; ¼ will be aa

    • D. 

      ½ will be Aa; ½ will be aa

  • 28. 
    Suppose both the father and mother are ‘heterozygous’ for the gene that controlsthe ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and this gene is dominant. What can wepredict about their children?
    • A. 

      All will be heterozygous for the ability to curl

    • B. 

      All will be homozygous for the ability to curl

    • C. 

      All will be heterozygous for the inability to curl

    • D. 

      They may be homozygous or heterozygous for the ability to curl, or homozygous for the inability to curl

  • 29. 
    Suppose you have high sensitivity to the taste of PTC. If your mother also has high sensitivity, what (if anything) can you predict about your father's taste sensitivity?
    • A. 

      He has high taste sensitivity

    • B. 

      He has low taste sensitivity

    • C. 

      We do not have enough information to make a prediction

  • 30. 
    Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?
    • A. 

      RNA

    • B. 

      Chromosomes

    • C. 

      Genes

    • D. 

      Autosomes

  • 31. 
    Suppose you have high sensitivity to the taste of PTC. If your mother has low sensitivity, what (if anything) can you predict about your father's taste sensitivity?
    • A. 

      He has high taste sensitivity

    • B. 

      He has low taste sensitivity

    • C. 

      We do not have enough information to make a prediction

  • 32. 
    What is a sex-limited gene?
    • A. 

      A gene on the X chromosome

    • B. 

      A gene on the Y chromosome

    • C. 

      A gene that sex hormones activate

    • D. 

      A gene that becomes active during sexual acitivity

  • 33. 
    Suppose someone identifies a "gene for" certain aspects of sexual development. In what ways might that statement be misleading?
    • A. 

      The statement didn't specify whether the gene was dominant or recessive

    • B. 

      Many aspects of sexual development are not apparent until puberty

    • C. 

      Almost any characteristic depends on many genes, as well as influences from the environment

  • 34. 
    How does adding a methyl or acetyl group to histone protein alter gene activity?
    • A. 

      A methyl group turns genes off. An acetyl group loosens histone's grip and increases gene activiation.

    • B. 

      A methyl group turns genes on. An acetyl group tightens histone's grip and decreases gene activation.

    • C. 

      A methyl group increases the probability of a mutation, whereas an acetyl group decreases the probability

    • D. 

      A methyl group decreases the probability of a mutation, whereas an acetyl group increases the probability

  • 35. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the main types of evidence to estimate the heritability of some behaviour?
    • A. 

      Comparisons between monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    • B. 

      Similarities between adopted children and their biological parents

    • C. 

      Examination of identified genes that might vary between people showing one behaviour and another

    • D. 

      Comparisons of people living in different cultures

  • 36. 
    Of the following, which is a reason favouring the use of animals in biological psychology research aimed at solving human problems?
    • A. 

      Nonhuman animals engage in all the same behaviours as humans

    • B. 

      One human differs from another, but nonhumans are nearly the same as one another

    • C. 

      The nervous system of nonhuman animals resembles that of humans in many ways

  • 37. 
    The information about phenylketonuria (PKU) supports which of these conclusions?
    • A. 

      Several genes active in the human brain are not found in other species

    • B. 

      Each brain area controls a different behavioural function

    • C. 

      A change in the environment can alter the effects of a gene

    • D. 

      Epigenetic changes depend on methyl and acetate groups

  • 38. 
    How does an epigenetic change differ from a mutation?
    • A. 

      An epigenetic change is a duplication or deletion of part of a gene

    • B. 

      An epigenetic change is an alteration of gene activity without structurally replacing any part of the gene itself

    • C. 

      An epigenetic change alters more than one gene at a time

    • D. 

      An epigenetic is beneficial, whereas a mutation is harmful

  • 39. 
    Suppose someone determines the heritability of IQ scores for a given population. Then society changes in a way that provides the best possible opportunity for everyone within that population. How will the heritability of IQ change, if at all?
    • A. 

      Heritability will increase

    • B. 

      Heritability will decrease

    • C. 

      Heritability will stay the same

  • 40. 
    What, if anything, can we predict about the future of human evolution?
    • A. 

      People will get smarter, wiser and more cooperative

    • B. 

      People will not change, because evolution no longer affects humans

    • C. 

      People will become more like whichever people tend to have the most children

  • 41. 
    Which of these is the LEAST acceptable explanation for how an altruistic gene might spread in a population?
    • A. 

      Selection for a gene that benefits the individuals' relatives

    • B. 

      Selection for helping individuals who might return the favour

    • C. 

      Selection for genes that benefit the species

    • D. 

      Selection for groups that are more cooperative than other groups

  • 42. 
    What is meant by "monism"?
    • A. 

      The idea that all forms of life evolved from a single ancestor

    • B. 

      The idea that conscious and unconscious motivation combine to produce behaviour

    • C. 

      The idea that the mind is made of the same substance as the rest of the universe

    • D. 

      The idea that the mind is one type of substance as matter is another

  • 43. 
    What is "hard" about the "hard problem"?
    • A. 

      To solve it, we would need to conduct extremely expensive research

    • B. 

      The research to solve this problem would raise difficult ethical issues

    • C. 

      The question is philosophically challenging, and we don't know where to begin

    • D. 

      We already know the answer, but it is hard to get most people to accept it

  • 44. 
    Of the following, which one is an example of an evolutionary explanation (as opposed to a functional explanation)?
    • A. 

      People evolved a fear of snakes because many snakes are dangerous

    • B. 

      Humans have a (tiny) tailbone because our ancient monkey-like ancestors had a tail

    • C. 

      People evolved an ability to recognise faces because that ability is essential for cooperative social behaviours

    • D. 

      People evolved a tendency to form long-term male-female bonds because human infants benefit from the help of two parents during their long period of dependence.

  • 45. 
    For people who do well on the Stroop task, activity must increase in the _____ areas of the brain and decrease in the _____ areas
    • A. 

      Colour-vision / word

    • B. 

      Word / attention

    • C. 

      Attention / auditory

    • D. 

      Auditory / colour-vision

  • 46. 
    What theoretical conclusion do the studies on binocular rivalry support?
    • A. 

      Unconscious processes control much of human behaviour

    • B. 

      A stimulus activates much of the brain when you are conscious of it

    • C. 

      Damage to the right hemisphere leads to a tendency to neglect the left side of space

    • D. 

      Certain people who appear to be in a vegetative state may nevertheless be conscious

  • 47. 
    If someone has spatial neglect of the left side, which of these procedures, if any, would increase attention to a touch sensation on the left side?
    • A. 

      Ask the person to look to the left during the touch sensation

    • B. 

      Ask the person to look to the right during the touch sensation

    • C. 

      Ask the person to listen to music during the touch sensation

    • D. 

      None of these procedures would have any noticeable effect

  • 48. 
    Which of the following best states the identity position regarding mind and brain?
    • A. 

      The physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it

    • B. 

      Mental activity causes brain activity

    • C. 

      Brain activity cause mental activity

    • D. 

      Mental activity and brain activity are the same thing

  • 49. 
    What does a "minimalist" favour with regard to animal research?
    • A. 

      All research should have a minimum of at least 10 animals per group

    • B. 

      A minimum of three people should review each research proposal

    • C. 

      Interference with animal research should be held to a minimum

    • D. 

      Animal research is permissible but should be held to a minimum

  • 50. 
    What procedure is used in backward masking?
    • A. 

      A participant views a stationary dot surrounded by bright flashing dots

    • B. 

      Researchers present a brief visual stimulus followed by a longer stimulus

    • C. 

      A participant views one scene in the left eye and an incompatible scene in the right eye

    • D. 

      A participant views a dot in one position alternating with a similar dot nearbly

  • 51. 
    What is the purpose of experimenters using flash suppression, backward masking, and binocular rivalry?
    • A. 

      To measure how effectively a person can control attention

    • B. 

      To find out what happens in the brain during consciousness

    • C. 

      To study the brain mechanisms responsible for consolidation of memory

    • D. 

      To describe changes in the brain as someone recovers from a stroke

  • 52. 
    Which of the following questions, if any, can current research methods answer?
    • A. 

      Why does consciousness exist at all?

    • B. 

      What behaviours become possible because of consciousness that we could not do otherwise?

    • C. 

      What types of brain activity occur during consciousness that don't occur otherwise?

    • D. 

      Current methods do not enable us to answer any of these questions

  • 53. 
    People are conscious of a prolonged stimulus, but not one with an extremely short presentation. What happens at an intermediate duration of presentation?
    • A. 

      People report being partly conscious of it

    • B. 

      People are sometimes conscious of it and sometimes not, and the difference depends only on what happens at that moment

    • C. 

      People are sometimes conscious of it and sometimes not, and stimuli after the event can influence the outcome

  • 54. 
    If your left eye views red vertical stripes and your right eye views green horizontal stripes, what do you perceive?
    • A. 

      Red and green stripes superimposed

    • B. 

      Yellow diagonal stripes

    • C. 

      A white field without stripes

    • D. 

      Alternation between seeing red stripes and seeing green stripes

  • 55. 
    Certain people in a vegetative state gave possible indication of consciousness by doing what?
    • A. 

      Laughing or crying in response to what someone said

    • B. 

      Moving their eyes to the left or the right to answer yes/no questions

    • C. 

      Responding to directions to think about tennis or walking around the house

    • D. 

      Squeezing the hand of a loved one

  • 56. 
    Suppose someone who is trying to divide a horizontal line in half picks a spot far to the right of the centre. This result suggest probably damage or malfunction in which part of the brain?
    • A. 

      The left hemisphere

    • B. 

      The right hemisphere

    • C. 

      The prefrontal cortex

    • D. 

      The primary visual cortex