Theories Of Forgetting

5 Questions
Educational Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Psychology AS Level

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Cue-dependancy Theory (Tulving, 1972) Theory is based around Tulving's  _______ SPECIFICITY PRINCIPLE which states, 'the greater the similiarity between the encoding event and _______ event, the greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory.' Examples of context-dependant forgetting:
    • LOCATION; Godden & _______ (next question)
    • MUSIC; Smith showed that without the same music as a _____ cue, recall is impaired
    Examples of state-dependant forgetting:
    • ALCOHOL; Duka found that ______ with alcohol and ______ with alcohol worked best as participants were using the same physical state
    • EXERCISE: Miles & _______ found that learning while _____ and recalling while _____ worked best
    • FEAR; Lang found that students that were fearful of _____ and spiders and had their ____ induced when learning a list of words, recalled them better when induced again.
  • 2. 
    Context-dependant Memory Experiment (Godden & _______, 1975) ___ participants, field experiment Aim: to investigate whether a natural environment can act as a ____ for recall Findings: recall was about _____ higher when the learning and recall contexts were the _____ Conclusion: environment can act as a contextual cue for ______
  • 3. 
    Evaluation of Context-dependant Memory Experiment STRENGTHS:
    • order effects, such as fatigue, were avoided using ______________ of the 4 conditions
    • findings support ______'s cue-dependancy theory
    • low ______ _______, task is unlike real-life
    • ________ such as weather conditions and noise levels could not be _________ in this field setting
  • 4. 
    Repression (Freud) Repression is one of our brain's defence _________. Freud believed that these blocked memories remain active in the unconcious mind and can trigger inexplained ______ illness, or inexplicable and abnormal behaviours. Evaluation STRENGTHS:
    • supported by research by Koehler (2002); sweat and stress study, _______ words caused more stress in individual
    • undermined by reasearch by Hadley & Mckay (2007); students shown words, _____ words were more likely to be recalled
  • 5. 
    KEY ISSUE - Eye Witness Testimony Reasons why it's accurate:
    • LOP Theory would suggest that any ______ information (crime scene, people involved - what they looked like) would only be processed shallowly and would not be well _________
    • RECON Theory would suggest that memories would become distorted over time due to ______ and _________ information
    • Cue-dependancy theory would suggest that _____ of events may be poor without state/______ cues
    • Repression theory suggests that witnesses to emotionally disturbing events will have a poor ______
    Reasons why it's accurate:
    • LOP theory also suggests that recall is likely to be accurate. If the information was processed _________, they're more likely to remember
    • Yuille & ______'s research into real-life accounts suggest that memories are accurate