Sour cream is made by fermenting cream with lactic acid bacteria.
Sour cream is only partially fermented, which is why it must be kept refrigerated.
If sour cream producers use thickening agents such as gelatin, rennet, guar and carrageen, they are required to call the product “Processed Sour Cream.”
Sour cream is 18-20% butterfat.
American cheese does not qualify as “processed cheese” because it contains enzymes.
American cheese is created by a quick “catalytic” process of separating curds from whey.
The primary flavor of American cheese derives from additives rather than from bacteria or enzymes.
Orange and white American cheese vary substantially in texture and flavor.
Whipping cream and cream are synonymous because all cream can be whipped.
Whipping cream is a general term for cream with a fat content of at least 30%.
Whipping cream is generally thicker than cream not labeled “whipping.”
In the US, heavy whipping cream generally has a fat content of at least 35%.
They are identical. Kefir is just the Bulgarian term for yogurt.
Yogurt is much easier to digest than kefir since it has a smaller curd size.
Kefir is yogurt made from goat or sheep milk.
Yogurt is fermented with bacteria only, while kefir uses bacteria and yeast.
They are produced using different bacteria.
Camembert production began centuries before that of Brie.
They each use a highly regulated blend of sheep’s milk and cow’s milk.
Brie ages more quickly than Camembert.
Cottage cheese is made from the whey byproduct of cheese production.
Ricotta cheese is made from the whey byproduct of cheese production.
Cottage cheese is made from the curd byproduct of cheese production.
Ricotta cheese has a lighter texture than cottage cheese, which is lumpier.
Refers to vanilla ice cream containing specks of French vanilla.
Tends to be lower in fat than American ice cream.
Is made from an egg custard base.
Uses milk rather than cream for the dairy component.
All butter is unsalted, unless the label specifically reads “salted.”
If the label reads “Sweet Butter,” the USDA prohibits the addition of salt.
The USDA mandates that all butter must contain at least 80% milk fat.
If the label reads “Sweet Butter,” the USDA allows up to 5.5% sugar.
By boiling for a minimum of fifteen seconds.
By heating the milk to 161°F (72°C ) for 15 seconds. This is below boiling point.
By heating the milk to 145 °F (63 °C) for two minutes.
By a process of centrifugal filtering of milk boiled five seconds.
Must be made from cow’s milk.
May only be made from sheep’s milk.
May only be made from goat’s milk.
May be made from sheep’s milk and up to 30% goat’s milk.
May only be produced in the village of Cheddar in Somerset, England.
May only be produced from local milk within four counties of Southwest England.
May be produced in England, Wales or Scotland if the milk used is from the Cheddar cow.
May be produced anywhere in the United Kingdom if the cheddaring process is used.
Goes through a second fermentation to give it its creamy texture.
Is strained to remove liquid whey and lactose.
Contains less fat than regular yogurt.
Is higher in calcium than regular yogurt.
Bacteria must be added to turn the product into cheese.
The result is called whey.
This is how fresh cheese is produced.
The product can be called cheese if it is allowed to fully dry.
The bacteria, fungi or other microorganisms used to cure the cheese.
The relative levels of the milk protein casein.
Age for relatively long periods of time.
Are matured in brine.
Are invariably hard, to promote keeping qualities in hot climates.
Is made from the cottage cheese-like dish called Labneh.
Is made from the whey left over from feta cheese production.
Is made from a base of goat’s milk cream and olive oil.
Is made from strained goat or sheep milk yogurt.
The rind is scrubbed in a saline solution to remove molds that compete with beneficial flavor-developing microorganisms in the interior of the cheese.
The rind is scrubbed in a mild acetic solution to neutralize growth of alkaline bacteria.
The rind is repeatedly cured in a briny nutrient solution allowing odor and flavor creating bacteria to flourish.
The center is invariably soft and oozy.
By USDA specifications, may not be produced by the incorporation of air.
Usually requires stabilizers like gelatin and guar gum, to help the yogurt hold together.
Has, following USDA rules, a maximum of 7.5% sweetening.
Contains, by USDA specifications, a minimum of 20.5% milk solids.
Is produced from cow’s milk from a strictly delimited Lazio region around Rome.
Is produced from cow’s milk from Lazio and on the island of Sardinia.
Is produced from sheep’s milk from Lazio and on the island of Sardinia.
May be produced from either sheep or cow’s milk in either Lazio or Sardinia.
Is made by inoculating the cheese with a penicillin mold.
May only be produced from the milk of select breeds of goat.
Is produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk.
Is matured in specially-built barns.
Is a chilled South Asian condiment consisting of yogurt seasoned with herbs and spices and often mixed with sliced onions or cucumbers.
Is a chilled South Asian yogurt soup, usually laced with cardamom and cinnamon.
Is a yogurt-based beverage, either salty or sweet, popular in the Indian subcontinent.
Is a Greek cold yogurt soup traditionally served at weddings and christenings.
Often contains some proportion of natural cheese.
Lacks the emulsifiers present in natural cheese.
Separates quickly into protein and fat when heated.
Is infrequently labeled as “processed.”
The lactic acid in milk inhibits microbial growth.
The protein casein combines with milk fat to discourage bacteria.
It contains a natural anti-microbial enzyme.
None of the above.
Sugar provides sweetening alone, and can be substituted one-for-one with artificial sweetener.
Sugar makes the ice cream more digestible by countering the effects of lactose.
Sugar adds texture as well as sweetness, requiring that artificially sweetened ice cream producers add emulsifiers and stabilizers for texture and mouthfeel.
Sugar concentration is almost always lower than fat concentration in percentage terms.
Queso de Manchego
Queso de Murcia
Has a higher milk fat content than regular ice cream.
Is whipped twice to be lighter and smoother than conventional ice cream.
Has a lower percentage of sugar than cheaper ice cream.
Is identical to other ice cream. It just costs more and is sold in smaller packages.
Is an informal term for a type of light smooth yogurt, often mixed with fruits or flavorings.
Is a legal FDA specification, indicating that the yogurt has some degree of sweetening.
Refers only to yogurt packed with fruit at the bottom of the cup that must be mixed by the user.
Is a direct descendant of the full-fat alpine yogurts popular in Switzerland.
Traditional string cheese is produced through pulling, aligning the fats of the cheese into strings.
Mexican Oaxaca cheese is string cheese, stretched into long ribbons during production.
String cheese can be produced artificially by cutting the cheese into long fibrous strands.
“Second string cheese” is a humorous term used by the USDA insiders to refer to the massive blocks of commodity cheddar that clog government warehouses.
Non-dairy and dairy-free are synonymous terms.
The FDA regulates the use of the term “dairy-free” which strictly disallows addition of whey, casein or other dairy constituents.
The FDA’s regulation on the term “non-dairy” allows for the presence of milk protein (casein) and other dairy ingredients.
The term “lactose-free” also indicates that a product is strictly dairy-free.
The FDA considers it a cheese if it contains a minimal proportion of cheese product.
The FDA considers it a cheese if it is produced using rennet for curd creation.
FDA regulations prohibit the addition of soybean oil.
Although frequently labeled “lactose-free,” it is often not completely dairy-free.
Refers to any yogurt that uses a combination of two starter bacteria: Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and Brevibacterium linens.
Indicates that the yogurt is made using the starter bacteria Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and Streptococcus Thermophilus only, without adding additional bacteria.
Refers to a yogurt variety that is much thicker even than Greek yogurt.
Refers to yogurts cultured using a variety of a starter culture that grows on bulgar wheat grains.
It is served at a significantly warmer temperature than ice cream.
It contains more air than most American ice creams, explaining its smoothness.
It has less sugar than most American ice creams.
It is actually an egg-based custard rather than a true ice cream.
Goat’s milk usually has a greater level of fat.
Goat’s milk usually has less fat.
Goat’s milk has about the same level of fat.
The fat in goat’s milk is identical in composition to the fat in cow’s milk.
Is made from raw cow's milk.
Must be aged a minimum of six months.
Can legally be produced only in the Piemonte region of northwestern Italy.
May be produced anywhere in the European Community if certain procedures are used.
Is soured by combining fresh cream with citric acid.
Is soured by combining fresh cream with tartaric acid.
Is soured with a bacterial culture.
Is more sour and has less fat than standard American sour cream.
Refers to the liquid left behind when butter is churned.
Refers to a sour beverage made from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria.
Refers to a beverage made by curdling milk with the addition of an acid like lemon juice or vinegar.
All of the above.
A butter produced in a specific Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) in Normandy.
A high fat cheese produced in a specific Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) in Normandy.
A type of clarified butter, commercially sold and used in cooking.
Any cow’s milk butter with a percentage of fatty solids greater than 82.5%.
Milk is inoculated with an active lactic starter, which creates acid and starts curdling.
The more the enzyme rennet is used, the larger the curd.
The more the enzyme rennet is used, the higher the acid (tanginess) level.
Fully drained and pressed cottage cheese becomes farmer’s cheese.
French double crème cheeses start with a milk and cream mixture with least 60% butterfat.
French triple crème cheeses start with a milk and cream mixture with least 75% butterfat.
French double and triple crème cheeses must be made with raw unpasteurized milk.
Double and triple crème cheeses are typically soft in the center.
Is produced by heating full cream cow’s milk and then cooling to allow clots to form.
Is produced from skimmed cow’s milk, clotted with the addition of citric acid or lemon juice.
Is produced from skimmed sheep’s milk, clotted with the addition of citric acid or lemon juice.
Is produced from full cream sheep’s milk, clotted with the addition of citric acid or lemon juice.
Is a specialty variety of cheddar produced in or around the village of Stilton in Cambridgeshire.
May only be produced in the three counties of Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire, hence it may not be manufactured in the actual village of Stilton.
Is characteristically delicate in taste.
Had a thick rind and an oozy center and is considered the British equivalent of the French Brie.
Is usually produced by removing water from skimmed milk.
Contains an incomplete array of essential amino acids.
Is not an option when dealing with buttermilk, because of its acidity.
Must not include whey, as this inhibits the powdering process.
Has excellent melting characteristics.
Is briefly aged (typically 4-5 days).
May be made by curdling heated milk with lemon or lime juice, or vinegar.
Is never pressed.