# Stars And Galaxies Quiz Noel Pd 2 2015

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Questions: 40 | Attempts: 77

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• 1.

### The positions of the constellations appear to change throughout the year because ____.

• A.

Earth revolves around the Moon

• B.

Earth revolves around the Sun

• C.

The constellations revolve around Earth

• D.

The Sun revolves around Earth

B. Earth revolves around the Sun
Explanation
The positions of the constellations appear to change throughout the year because the Earth revolves around the Sun. As the Earth orbits the Sun, it changes its position in relation to the stars, causing them to appear to shift in the night sky. This phenomenon is known as the apparent motion of the stars and is responsible for the changing positions of the constellations throughout the year.

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• 2.

### Its _________________ makes Sirius the brightest star in the sky.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Parallax

• C.

Color

• D.

Absolute magnitude

A. Apparent magnitude
Explanation
The brightness of a star as seen from Earth is determined by its apparent magnitude. Sirius is the brightest star in the sky because it has a high apparent magnitude. This means that it appears very bright to us when we observe it from Earth. The other options, such as parallax, color, and absolute magnitude, do not directly affect the brightness of a star as seen from Earth.

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• 3.

### The distances to nearby stars can be measured by using ______________.

• A.

Absolute magnitude

• B.

Temperature

• C.

Color

• D.

Parallax

D. Parallax
Explanation
Parallax is a method used to measure the distances to nearby stars. It involves observing the apparent shift in the position of a star when viewed from different points in Earth's orbit around the Sun. By measuring the angle of this shift, known as the parallax angle, astronomers can calculate the distance to the star. This method relies on the principle of triangulation, similar to how we perceive depth with our two eyes. The larger the parallax angle, the closer the star is to Earth, allowing for accurate distance measurements.

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• 4.

### About 90% of the stars in space are classified as___________________ stars.

• A.

Nebula

• B.

Giant

• C.

Main sequence

• D.

White dwarf

C. Main sequence
Explanation
Main sequence stars are the most common type of stars in the universe. They are in a stable phase of their evolution, where they are fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores. This process generates the energy that allows them to shine brightly. Main sequence stars come in a range of sizes and temperatures, from small, cool red dwarfs to large, hot blue giants. They are the stars that populate the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, which plots their luminosity against their temperature. Therefore, it is reasonable to say that about 90% of the stars in space are classified as main sequence stars.

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• 5.

### The hottest stars in space are __________ color.

• A.

Yellow

• B.

Red

• C.

Blue

• D.

White

C. Blue
Explanation
Blue stars are the hottest stars in space. The color of a star is determined by its temperature, with hotter stars emitting more blue light and cooler stars emitting more red light. Blue stars have extremely high temperatures, often exceeding 30,000 Kelvin, and they emit a large amount of energy in the form of blue light. This is why blue stars are considered to be the hottest in space.

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• 6.

### A main sequence star becomes a _________ after it uses up the hydrogen in its core.

• A.

Nebula

• B.

Supernova

• C.

Black hole

• D.

Red giant

D. Red giant
Explanation
A main sequence star becomes a red giant after it uses up the hydrogen in its core. As a main sequence star, hydrogen fusion in the core provides the energy that keeps the star stable. However, once the hydrogen fuel is exhausted, the core contracts and heats up, causing the outer layers of the star to expand and cool. This expansion leads to the formation of a red giant, a large and relatively cool star. Eventually, the red giant may undergo further transformations, such as shedding its outer layers and becoming a white dwarf or even a planetary nebula.

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• 7.

### The Sun produces energy by fusing hydrogen atoms into ________ atoms in its core.

• A.

Carbon

• B.

Helium

• C.

Iron

• D.

Oxygen

B. Helium
Explanation
The Sun produces energy by fusing hydrogen atoms into helium atoms in its core. This process, known as nuclear fusion, occurs at extremely high temperatures and pressures. The fusion of hydrogen atoms releases a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat, which is what sustains the Sun's brightness and provides heat to Earth.

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• 8.

### A galaxy that has a shape similar to a football is a(n) _____________ galaxy.

• A.

Normal spiral

• B.

Barred spiral

• C.

Elliptical

• D.

Irregular

C. Elliptical
Explanation
An elliptical galaxy is a galaxy that has a shape similar to a football. Unlike spiral galaxies, which have a distinct spiral arm structure, or irregular galaxies, which lack a defined shape, elliptical galaxies are smooth and featureless. They are typically composed of older stars and have a more spherical or elongated shape, resembling the shape of a football.

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• 9.

### The Big Bang theory of the formation and expansion of our universe is supported by the observed ___________.

• A.

Blue-violet shift

• B.

Doppler (Red) shift

• C.

"big crunch"

• D.

Shorter wave lengths

B. Doppler (Red) shift
Explanation
The Doppler (Red) shift is the correct answer because it provides evidence for the expansion of the universe, which is a key component of the Big Bang theory. The redshift occurs when light from distant galaxies is stretched as the universe expands, causing the wavelengths to become longer and shift towards the red end of the spectrum. This observation supports the idea that the universe is continuously expanding from a single point of origin, as predicted by the Big Bang theory.

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• 10.

### Although it has a greater ____ than Sirius, Rigel does NOT look as bright in the night sky.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Parallax

• C.

Black hole

• D.

Absolute magnitude

D. Absolute magnitude
Explanation
The brightness of a star as seen from Earth is determined by its apparent magnitude. However, Rigel, despite having a greater apparent magnitude than Sirius, does not appear as bright in the night sky. This suggests that Rigel has a lower absolute magnitude, which is a measure of a star's intrinsic brightness. Therefore, the correct answer is absolute magnitude.

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• 11.

### A _______ is a region so dense that nothing, including light, can escape its gravity field.

• A.

Supernova

• B.

White dwarf

• C.

Black hole

• D.

Supergiant

C. Black hole
Explanation
A black hole is a region in space that is extremely dense, causing its gravity field to be so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from it. This is due to the massive amount of matter packed into a small space, creating a gravitational pull that is too powerful for anything to overcome. Unlike supernovas, white dwarfs, and supergiants, black holes have such intense gravity that they trap everything within their event horizon, making them the only option that fits the description given in the question.

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• 12.

### Dark, cooler areas of the Sun's surface are called ___________.

• A.

Sunspots

• B.

Solar flares

• C.

Coronas

• D.

Prominences

A. Sunspots
Explanation
Sunspots are dark, cooler areas on the Sun's surface that appear as dark spots because they are cooler than the surrounding areas. They are caused by intense magnetic activity on the Sun, which inhibits the flow of heat, resulting in lower temperatures. Sunspots often occur in pairs or groups and can vary in size and shape. They are temporary phenomena that can last from a few days to several weeks before dissipating.

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• 13.

### The coolest stars in the sky are _______ in color.

• A.

Yellow

• B.

Red

• C.

Blue

• D.

White

B. Red
Explanation
The coolest stars in the sky are red in color. This is because the color of a star is determined by its temperature. Cooler stars emit less energy and have lower surface temperatures, causing them to appear red. On the other hand, hotter stars emit more energy and have higher surface temperatures, making them appear blue or white. Therefore, red stars are considered the coolest in terms of temperature.

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• 14.

### A group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity is a

• A.

Galaxy

• B.

Constellation

• C.

Local Group

A. Galaxy
Explanation
A galaxy is a group of stars, gas, and dust that are bound together by gravity. It is a large-scale structure in the universe, consisting of billions or even trillions of stars, along with various other celestial objects. Galaxies come in different shapes and sizes, ranging from spiral, elliptical, to irregular. They play a crucial role in the formation and evolution of the universe, serving as the building blocks of the cosmos.

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• 15.

### The sequence of star colors from hottest to coolest is ______________.

• A.

Blue, yellow, orange, red

• B.

Red, orange, yellow, blue

• C.

Blue, red, yellow, orange

• D.

Yellow, blue, orange, red

A. Blue, yellow, orange, red
Explanation
The sequence of star colors from hottest to coolest is blue, yellow, orange, red. This is because the color of a star is determined by its surface temperature. Blue stars have the highest surface temperature, followed by yellow, orange, and red stars, which have the lowest surface temperature.

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• 16.

### _________ are patterns of stars in the sky.

• A.

Galaxies

• B.

Constellations

• C.

Star clusters

• D.

Binaries

B. Constellations
Explanation
Constellations are patterns of stars in the sky that have been named and recognized by different cultures throughout history. These patterns form imaginary figures, animals, or objects, and they help people navigate and identify specific stars and celestial objects. Unlike galaxies, which are vast collections of stars, constellations are smaller and more defined patterns. Star clusters are also groups of stars, but they do not form recognizable patterns like constellations. Binaries refer to pairs of stars that orbit around a common center of mass, and they are not necessarily part of a larger pattern or formation.

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• 17.

### As Earth travels in its ____________, different constellations are visible at different times of the year.

• A.

Atmosphere

• B.

Orbit

• C.

Galaxy

• D.

Star cluster

B. Orbit
Explanation
As Earth travels in its orbit, it goes around the Sun in a regular path. This means that at different times of the year, Earth is positioned in different parts of its orbit, causing different constellations to be visible in the night sky. The position of Earth in its orbit determines which constellations are visible from our perspective on the planet.

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• 18.

### A measure of the amount of light given off by a star is its ___________________

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Absolute magnitude

• C.

Position in space

• D.

Size

B. Absolute magnitude
Explanation
The correct answer is absolute magnitude. Absolute magnitude is a measure of the amount of light given off by a star. It represents the intrinsic brightness of a star and is independent of its distance from Earth. This measurement allows astronomers to compare the brightness of different stars and understand their true luminosity.

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• 19.

### A measure of the amount of light received on Earth is a star's  _________________.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Absolute magnitude

• C.

Position in space

• D.

Size

A. Apparent magnitude
Explanation
The apparent magnitude of a star refers to the measure of the amount of light received on Earth from that star. It is a way to quantify the brightness of a star as observed from our planet. This measurement takes into account factors such as the star's distance from Earth and its intrinsic luminosity. The apparent magnitude allows astronomers to compare the brightness of different stars and study their properties.

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• 20.

### ______________ is the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different locations.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Absolute magnitude

• C.

Parallax

• D.

The Doppler shift

C. Parallax
Explanation
Parallax is the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different locations. This phenomenon occurs because each eye or camera lens views the object from a slightly different angle. The closer the object is to the viewer, the greater the parallax shift will be. Parallax is commonly used in astronomy to measure the distance to nearby stars. By observing the apparent shift in the position of a star when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit, astronomers can calculate its distance from Earth.

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• 21.

### A star begins as a ___________, a large cloud of gas and dust.

• A.

Nebula

• B.

Giant

• C.

Dwarf

• D.

Black hole

A. Nebula
Explanation
A star begins as a nebula, which is a large cloud of gas and dust. This cloud collapses under its own gravity, causing the gas and dust to come together and form a protostar. As the protostar continues to collapse and heat up, nuclear fusion begins in its core, leading to the birth of a star. Therefore, the correct answer is nebula.

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• 22.

### The Sun produces energy in its core by fusing hydrogen into _______________.

• A.

Carbon

• B.

Helium

• C.

Hydrogen

• D.

Oxygen

B. Helium
Explanation
The Sun produces energy in its core by a process called nuclear fusion, where hydrogen atoms combine to form helium. This fusion reaction releases a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat, which sustains the Sun's temperature and brightness. Helium is the end product of this fusion process, making it the correct answer.

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• 23.

### Prominences and flares on the Sun are related to sunspots because they all are caused by ________.

• A.

Electricity

• B.

Too much heat

• C.

Earth's orbit around the sun

• D.

Intense magnetic fields

D. Intense magnetic fields
Explanation
Prominences and flares on the Sun are related to sunspots because they all are caused by intense magnetic fields. Sunspots are areas of strong magnetic activity on the Sun's surface, and prominences are large, bright loops of gas that are suspended above the Sun's surface by magnetic forces. Flares, on the other hand, are sudden releases of energy in the Sun's atmosphere, also driven by magnetic fields. Therefore, the intense magnetic fields associated with sunspots are responsible for the formation and behavior of prominences and flares on the Sun.

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• 24.

### Our Sun is considered average because its temperature and absolute magnitude place it in the _______ range of the H-R diagram.

• A.

White dwarf

• B.

Red giant

• C.

Main sequence

• D.

Supergiant

C. Main sequence
Explanation
The Sun is considered average because its temperature and absolute magnitude place it in the main sequence range of the H-R diagram. The main sequence is a diagonal band on the H-R diagram where stars spend the majority of their lives. It is characterized by stars that are fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores, like the Sun. Stars in the main sequence have a stable balance between the inward pull of gravity and the outward push of nuclear fusion, making them average in terms of temperature and luminosity.

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• 25.

### Our Sun is unusual because it does not belong to a(n) _________________.

• A.

Solar system

• B.

Universe

• C.

Galaxy

• D.

Binary star system

D. Binary star system
Explanation
Our Sun is unusual because it does not belong to a binary star system. A binary star system consists of two stars orbiting around a common center of mass. However, our Sun is a single star, not part of a binary system.

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• 26.

### The spiral shape of the Milky Way Galaxy CANNOT be seen from Earth because _________________.

• A.

We are located above the galaxy

• B.

We are located within one of its spiral arms

• C.

Our view is blocked by the sun

• D.

None of the choices are correct

B. We are located within one of its spiral arms
Explanation
The spiral shape of the Milky Way Galaxy cannot be seen from Earth because we are located within one of its spiral arms. This means that we are situated within the same plane as the spiral arms, making it difficult to observe the overall shape of the galaxy. Instead, we see a band of stars and dust known as the Milky Way, which is the combined light of billions of stars in our galaxy.

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• 27.

### The ____________ states that between 15 and 20 billion years ago, the universe began expanding in all directions as a result of an enormous explosion.

• A.

H-R Diagram

• B.

Binary Star theory

• C.

Big Bang theory

• D.

Oscillating Model theory

C. Big Bang theory
Explanation
The Big Bang theory states that between 15 and 20 billion years ago, the universe began expanding in all directions as a result of an enormous explosion. This theory is widely accepted by scientists and is supported by various pieces of evidence, such as the observed redshift of galaxies and the abundance of light elements in the universe. It explains the origin and evolution of the universe, including the formation of galaxies, stars, and planets.

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• 28.

### A red shift in the spectrum of the light from an object indicates the object is moving _________________ you.

• A.

Away from

• B.

Toward

• C.

At a right angle from

• D.

None of the above

A. Away from
Explanation
A red shift in the spectrum of light from an object indicates that the wavelengths of the light are stretched, causing them to shift towards the red end of the spectrum. This phenomenon is known as the Doppler effect and is caused by the object moving away from the observer. Therefore, the correct answer is "away from."

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• 29.

### A galaxy type without a definite shape is called a(n) ___________________.

• A.

Elliptical galaxy

• B.

Irregular galaxy

• C.

Barred spiral galaxy

• D.

Spin-off galaxy

B. Irregular galaxy
Explanation
An irregular galaxy refers to a galaxy type that lacks a distinct or defined shape. Unlike other galaxy types such as elliptical or spiral galaxies, irregular galaxies have a more chaotic and disorganized structure. They often exhibit irregularities in their shape, size, and distribution of stars, making them unique and different from other well-defined galaxy types.

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• 30.

### A distance measurement based on the speed of light and is used for objects in space is called a  ___________.

• A.

Parallax

• B.

Light year

• C.

H-R diagram

• D.

Astronomical Unit (AU)

B. Light year
Explanation
A distance measurement based on the speed of light and is used for objects in space is called a light year. This unit of measurement represents the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum. Since light travels at a constant speed, using light years allows astronomers to accurately measure vast distances in space, which would be impractical to measure using other units.

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• 31.

### The graph that shows the relationship of a star's temperature to its absolute magnitude is called  ____________.

• A.

A parallax

• B.

An H-R Diagram

• C.

A syntax

• D.

A barred spiral

B. An H-R Diagram
Explanation
An H-R Diagram, also known as a Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, is a graph that displays the relationship between a star's temperature and its absolute magnitude. It helps astronomers classify stars based on their characteristics and understand their evolutionary stages. The diagram shows that as a star's temperature increases, its absolute magnitude can vary, allowing scientists to categorize stars into different spectral types and luminosity classes.

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• 32.

### The Milky way galaxy is said to be ____________________ light years across.

• A.

100,000

• B.

10,000

• C.

1,000,000

• D.

1,000

A. 100,000
Explanation
The Milky Way galaxy is estimated to be approximately 100,000 light years across. This means that it would take light 100,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. The vast size of the Milky Way is one of the reasons why it is so difficult for humans to explore and fully understand its entirety.

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• 33.

### The last stage in a low mass star's evolution formed as the core of the main sequence star uses up its helium and the outer core is blown off into space.

• A.

Red giant

• B.

White dwarf

• C.

Supernova

• D.

High mass star

B. White dwarf
Explanation
The last stage in a low mass star's evolution is a white dwarf. This occurs after the core of the main sequence star uses up its helium and the outer core is blown off into space. A white dwarf is a dense, compact object that remains after the outer layers of the star are expelled. It is composed mainly of carbon and oxygen and no longer undergoes fusion.

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• 34.

### According to the H-R Diagram below, red giants are hotter than white dwarfs.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The H-R Diagram is a graphical representation of stars based on their luminosity and temperature. In this diagram, stars are plotted based on their temperature on the x-axis and their luminosity on the y-axis. Red giants are located in the top right portion of the diagram, indicating that they have high luminosity but relatively low temperature. On the other hand, white dwarfs are located in the bottom left portion of the diagram, indicating that they have low luminosity but relatively high temperature. Therefore, the statement that red giants are hotter than white dwarfs is false.

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• 35.

### According to the H-R diagram below, Betelgeuse is considered a ______________ star.

• A.

Giant

• B.

Super Giant

• C.

White Dwarf

• D.

Main Sequence

B. Super Giant
Explanation
Based on the information provided in the H-R diagram, Betelgeuse is classified as a supergiant star. The H-R diagram is a graph that plots the luminosity (brightness) of stars against their surface temperature. Supergiant stars are extremely bright and have a larger size compared to other types of stars. Betelgeuse, being classified as a supergiant, indicates that it is a massive and highly luminous star in its late stage of evolution.

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• 36.

### According to the H-R diagram below, our sun is brighter than a white dwarf star.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
According to the H-R diagram, our sun is located in the main sequence, which represents stars in the middle of their lifespan. White dwarf stars, on the other hand, are at a later stage of evolution and have exhausted their nuclear fuel. As a result, they are much dimmer than main sequence stars like our sun. Therefore, it can be concluded that our sun is indeed brighter than a white dwarf star.

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• 37.

### According to the H-R diagram below, the approximate absolute magnitude of Rigel is ___________.

• A.

0

• B.

-10

• C.

-2.5

• D.

+2.5

C. -2.5
Explanation
Based on the given H-R diagram, the approximate absolute magnitude of Rigel is -2.5. This can be determined by locating Rigel's position on the diagram and identifying the corresponding absolute magnitude value.

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• 38.

### According to the H-R Diagram below,the Sun is hotter than Vega.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
According to the H-R Diagram, the temperature of a star is represented by its position on the diagram. The Sun is classified as a G-type main-sequence star, while Vega is classified as an A-type main-sequence star. A-type stars are hotter than G-type stars. Therefore, the statement that the Sun is hotter than Vega is false.

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• 39.

### If the diagram below depicts the life cycle of a star, letter F would be identified as a low mass star called a ___________.

• A.

Main sequence star

• B.

Neutron star

• C.

White dwarf

• D.

Supernova

C. White dwarf
Explanation
In the diagram, letter F is identified as a white dwarf. A white dwarf is a low mass star that has exhausted its nuclear fuel and has collapsed under its own gravity. It is the final stage of stellar evolution for stars with masses similar to or less than that of the Sun. White dwarfs are extremely dense and hot, but they no longer undergo nuclear fusion and gradually cool down over billions of years.

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• 40.

### If the diagram below depicts the life cycle of a star, letter E would be identified as a high mass ___________.

• A.

Main sequence star

• B.

Neutron star

• C.

White dwarf

• D.

Supernova

B. Neutron star
Explanation
The diagram represents the life cycle of a star, and letter E is identified as a high mass neutron star. A neutron star is formed when a massive star undergoes a supernova explosion, causing its core to collapse. The collapse is so intense that protons and electrons combine to form neutrons, hence the name neutron star. Neutron stars are incredibly dense and have a strong gravitational pull.

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