Stars And Galaxies Mcfadden Period 2 2015

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• 1.

The positions of the constellations appear to change throughout the year because ____.

• A.

Earth revolves around the Moon

• B.

Earth revolves around the Sun

• C.

The constellations revolve around Earth

• D.

The Sun revolves around Earth

B. Earth revolves around the Sun
Explanation
The positions of the constellations appear to change throughout the year because Earth revolves around the Sun. As Earth orbits the Sun, it changes its position in space, causing a different perspective of the night sky from different locations on Earth. This change in perspective leads to the apparent movement of the constellations throughout the year.

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• 2.

Its _________________ makes Sirius the brightest star in the sky.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Parallax

• C.

Color

• D.

Absolute magnitude

A. Apparent magnitude
Explanation
The brightness of a star as observed from Earth is determined by its apparent magnitude. Sirius is the brightest star in the sky because it has a high apparent magnitude. This means that it appears very bright to us when we look up at the night sky. The apparent magnitude of a star is influenced by factors such as its distance from Earth and its intrinsic brightness. In the case of Sirius, it is relatively close to us and also has a high intrinsic brightness, contributing to its status as the brightest star in the sky.

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• 3.

The distances to nearby stars can be measured by using ______________.

• A.

Absolute magnitude

• B.

Temperature

• C.

Color

• D.

Parallax

D. Parallax
Explanation
Parallax is a technique used to measure the distances to nearby stars. It involves observing the apparent shift in the position of a star against the background of more distant stars as the Earth orbits the Sun. By measuring the angle of this shift, known as the parallax angle, astronomers can calculate the distance to the star. This method is based on the principle that objects closer to us will appear to move more compared to objects that are further away. Therefore, parallax is an effective way to determine the distances to nearby stars.

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• 4.

About 90% of the stars in space are ___________________ stars.

• A.

Nebula

• B.

Giant

• C.

Main sequence

• D.

White dwarf

C. Main sequence
Explanation
Main sequence stars are the most common type of stars in the universe, accounting for about 90% of all stars. These stars are in a stable phase of their lives, where they are fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores. They have a wide range of sizes and temperatures, with the largest and hottest being blue and the smallest and coolest being red. Main sequence stars include our Sun, as well as many other stars that are visible in the night sky.

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• 5.

The hottest stars in space are __________ color.

• A.

Yellow

• B.

Red

• C.

Blue

• D.

White

C. Blue
Explanation
Blue stars are the hottest stars in space. This is because the color of a star is determined by its temperature. Blue stars have the highest temperatures, while red stars have the lowest temperatures. As stars get hotter, they emit more energy and their color shifts from red to blue. Therefore, blue stars are the hottest and most energetic stars in space.

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• 6.

A main sequence star becomes a _________ after it uses up the hydrogen in its core.

• A.

Nebula

• B.

Supernova

• C.

Black hole

• D.

Giant

D. Giant
Explanation
A main sequence star becomes a giant after it uses up the hydrogen in its core. As a star burns hydrogen in its core, it releases energy and maintains a stable size and temperature. However, once the hydrogen is depleted, the core contracts and heats up, causing the outer layers of the star to expand. This expansion leads to the star becoming a giant, with a larger size and lower surface temperature compared to its previous main sequence phase.

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• 7.

The Sun produces energy by fusing hydrogen atoms into ________ atoms in its core.

• A.

Carbon

• B.

Helium

• C.

Iron

• D.

Oxygen

B. Helium
Explanation
The Sun produces energy by fusing hydrogen atoms into helium atoms in its core. This process, known as nuclear fusion, releases a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat. The Sun's core is extremely hot and dense, allowing for the fusion of hydrogen nuclei to form helium. This fusion reaction is what powers the Sun and provides the energy needed to sustain life on Earth.

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• 8.

The intense magnetic fields of sunspots cause huge arching columns of gas called______________.

• A.

Solar eclipses

• B.

Corona

• C.

Photospheres

• D.

Prominences

D. Prominences
Explanation
The intense magnetic fields of sunspots cause huge arching columns of gas called prominences. These prominences are large loops or sheets of glowing gas that extend outwards from the surface of the Sun. They are often seen during solar eclipses as they appear as bright, glowing structures against the darkened background of the Moon. The magnetic fields play a crucial role in shaping and holding these prominences in place, creating beautiful and dynamic features on the Sun's surface.

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• 9.

Our Sun is NOT ___________.

• A.

A part of a binary system

• B.

A main sequence star

• C.

In a galaxy

• D.

A medium hot star

A. A part of a binary system
Explanation
The given statement implies that our Sun is not a part of a binary system. A binary system consists of two stars orbiting around a common center of mass. However, our Sun is a solitary star, meaning it does not have a companion star.

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• 10.

A galaxy that has a shape similar to a football is a(n) _____________ galaxy.

• A.

Normal spiral

• B.

Barred spiral

• C.

Elliptical

• D.

Irregular

C. Elliptical
Explanation
An elliptical galaxy is the correct answer because it is the only option that describes a galaxy with a shape similar to a football. Elliptical galaxies have a rounded and elongated shape, resembling the shape of a football. Normal spiral galaxies have a flat disk shape with spiral arms, barred spiral galaxies have a central bar structure, and irregular galaxies have a chaotic and irregular shape.

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• 11.

All of the following are true of the Milky Way EXCEPT that it ___________________.

• A.

Is a spiral galaxy

• B.

Has more than 800 billion stars

• C.

Is a member of the Local Group

• D.

Is 100,000 light years across

B. Has more than 800 billion stars
Explanation
The given statement "has more than 800 billion stars" is not true of the Milky Way. This implies that the Milky Way does not have more than 800 billion stars.

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• 12.

The Big Bang theory of the formation and expansion of our universe is supported by the observed ___________.

• A.

Blue-violet shift

• B.

Red shift

• C.

"big crunch"

• D.

Shorter wave lengths

B. Red shift
Explanation
The observed red shift supports the Big Bang theory because it indicates that galaxies are moving away from each other. This suggests that the universe is expanding, which aligns with the idea that the universe originated from a single point in a massive explosion known as the Big Bang. The red shift occurs when light from distant galaxies is stretched to longer wavelengths as they move away from us, causing a shift towards the red end of the spectrum. This phenomenon provides evidence for the expansion of the universe and supports the Big Bang theory.

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• 13.

Although it has a greater ____ than Sirius, Rigel does NOT look as bright in the night sky.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Parallax

• C.

Black hole

• D.

Absolute magnitude

D. Absolute magnitude
Explanation
The given question states that Rigel, despite having a greater attribute than Sirius, does not appear as bright in the night sky. The only option that fits this scenario is "absolute magnitude." Absolute magnitude is a measure of the intrinsic brightness of a celestial object, independent of its distance from Earth. Therefore, even if Rigel has a greater absolute magnitude than Sirius, it may still appear less bright in the night sky due to its distance from Earth.

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• 14.

A _______ is a region so dense that nothing, including light, can escape its gravity field.

• A.

Supernova

• B.

White dwarf

• C.

Black hole

• D.

Supergiant

C. Black hole
Explanation
A black hole is a region in space where the gravitational pull is so strong that nothing, including light, can escape from it. This occurs when a massive star collapses under its own gravity, forming a singularity with infinite density and a gravitational field so intense that it traps everything within its event horizon. Unlike other celestial objects like supernovae, white dwarfs, and supergiants, black holes have an incredibly strong gravitational force that prevents anything from escaping, making them the only objects known to have this property.

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• 15.

Dark, cooler areas of the Sun's surface are called ___________.

• A.

Coronas

• B.

Prominences

• C.

Sunspots

• D.

Solar flares

C. Sunspots
Explanation
Dark, cooler areas of the Sun's surface are called sunspots. Sunspots are temporary phenomena that appear as dark spots on the Sun's photosphere. They are cooler than the surrounding areas because they are regions of intense magnetic activity that inhibit the convective transfer of heat. Sunspots often occur in pairs or groups and can vary in size and shape. They are important for studying the Sun's magnetic field and can sometimes be associated with solar flares and other solar activity.

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• 16.

The Clouds of Magellan are two __________ galaxies orbiting the Milky Way.

• A.

Normal spiral

• B.

Barred spiral

• C.

Irregular

• D.

Elliptical

C. Irregular
Explanation
The Clouds of Magellan are two irregular galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. Irregular galaxies are characterized by their lack of defined structure or shape, unlike spiral or elliptical galaxies. The Clouds of Magellan, also known as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, are irregular in shape and contain a mix of young and old stars. They are located relatively close to the Milky Way and can be seen from the southern hemisphere.

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• 17.

The coolest stars in the sky are _______ in color.

• A.

Yellow

• B.

Red

• C.

Blue

• D.

White

B. Red
Explanation
Red stars are the coolest stars in the sky. This is because the color of a star is determined by its surface temperature. Cooler stars have lower surface temperatures, which causes them to emit more red light. Therefore, red stars have the lowest surface temperatures and are considered the coolest stars in the sky.

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• 18.

A large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity is a

• A.

Galaxy

• B.

Constellation

• C.

Local Group

• D.

Both a and b

A. Galaxy
Explanation
A large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity is called a galaxy. Galaxies are vast systems consisting of billions or even trillions of stars, along with interstellar matter. They come in various shapes and sizes and are bound together by their collective gravitational forces. Constellations, on the other hand, are patterns formed by stars as seen from Earth, but they are not physically connected. The Local Group refers to a specific group of galaxies, including the Milky Way, that are gravitationally bound to each other. Therefore, the correct answer is galaxy.

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• 19.

The sequence of star colors from hottest to coolest is ______________.

• A.

Blue, yellow, orange, red

• B.

Red, orange, yellow, blue

• C.

Blue, red, yellow, orange

• D.

Yellow, blue, orange, red

A. Blue, yellow, orange, red
Explanation
The sequence of star colors from hottest to coolest is blue, yellow, orange, red. This is because the color of a star is determined by its temperature, with hotter stars emitting bluer light and cooler stars emitting redder light. Therefore, blue stars are the hottest, followed by yellow stars, then orange stars, and finally red stars, which are the coolest.

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• 20.

_________ are patterns of stars in the sky.

• A.

Galaxies

• B.

Constellations

• C.

Star clusters

• D.

Binaries

B. Constellations
Explanation
Constellations are patterns of stars in the sky that have been recognized and named by different cultures throughout history. These patterns often depict mythological figures, animals, or objects. They serve as a way to navigate the night sky and have been used for centuries to tell stories and track the movement of celestial objects. Galaxies, star clusters, and binaries are not patterns of stars, but rather different types of astronomical objects.

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• 21.

As Earth travels in its ____________, different constellations are visible at different times of the year.

• A.

Atmosphere

• B.

Orbit

• C.

Galaxy

• D.

Star cluster

B. Orbit
Explanation
As Earth travels in its orbit, different constellations are visible at different times of the year. The orbit refers to Earth's path around the sun, which takes approximately 365 days to complete. As Earth moves along its orbit, its position relative to the stars changes, causing different constellations to come into view. This is why we observe different constellations during different seasons. The atmosphere, galaxy, and star cluster are not directly responsible for the visibility of different constellations throughout the year.

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• 22.

A measure of the amount of light given off by a star is its ___________________

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Absolute magnitude

• C.

Position in space

• D.

Size

B. Absolute magnitude
Explanation
The absolute magnitude of a star is a measure of the amount of light it gives off, regardless of its distance from Earth. It represents the intrinsic brightness of the star and allows astronomers to compare the luminosity of different stars. Apparent magnitude, on the other hand, is a measure of the star's brightness as seen from Earth and is affected by both the star's intrinsic brightness and its distance from us. Position in space and size are not directly related to the amount of light given off by a star.

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• 23.

A measure of the amount of light received on Earth is a star's  _________________.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Absolute magnitude

• C.

Position in space

• D.

Size

A. Apparent magnitude
Explanation
The apparent magnitude of a star refers to the measure of the amount of light received on Earth from that star. It is a relative measure that takes into account the star's brightness as seen from Earth. The apparent magnitude is influenced by factors such as the star's distance from Earth and its intrinsic luminosity. Therefore, the apparent magnitude is a suitable measure for determining the amount of light received on Earth from a star.

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• 24.

______________ is the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different locations.

• A.

Apparent magnitude

• B.

Absolute magnitude

• C.

Parallax

• D.

The Doppler shift

C. Parallax
Explanation
Parallax is the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from two different locations. This phenomenon occurs because each eye or observer sees the object from a slightly different angle, causing the object to appear to shift. Parallax is commonly used in astronomy to measure the distance to nearby stars. By observing the apparent shift in the position of a star from different locations on Earth, scientists can calculate its distance based on the principles of trigonometry.

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• 25.

A star begins as a ___________, a large cloud of gas and dust.

• A.

Nebula

• B.

Giant

• C.

Dwarf

• D.

Black hole

A. Nebula
Explanation
A star begins as a nebula, which is a large cloud of gas and dust. Within this nebula, gravity causes the gas and dust to come together and form a dense core. As the core becomes denser, it starts to heat up and eventually reaches a temperature where nuclear fusion can occur. This fusion process releases a tremendous amount of energy, causing the core to become a star. Therefore, a nebula is the initial stage in the formation of a star.

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• 26.

The Sun produces energy in its core when hydrogen fuses into __________ .

• A.

Uranium

• B.

Helium

• C.

Hydrogen

• D.

Oxygen

B. Helium
Explanation
In the Sun's core, the process of nuclear fusion occurs, where hydrogen atoms combine to form helium. This fusion reaction releases an enormous amount of energy in the form of heat and light. Therefore, the correct answer is helium.

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• 27.

Prominences and flares on the Sun are related to sunspots because they all are caused by ________.

• A.

Electricity

• B.

Too much heat

• C.

Earth's orbit around the sun

• D.

Intense magnetic fields

D. Intense magnetic fields
Explanation
Prominences and flares on the Sun are related to sunspots because they all are caused by intense magnetic fields. Sunspots are regions on the Sun's surface where the magnetic field is concentrated. Prominences are large, bright, and often loop-like structures that extend from the Sun's surface into the corona, and they are caused by the interaction of the Sun's magnetic field with charged particles. Flares, on the other hand, are sudden and intense releases of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, particles, and plasma, and they are also a result of the Sun's magnetic field.

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• 28.

The number of observed sunspots, prominences, and flares increases in a cycle that occurs every _______ years.

• A.

11

• B.

15

• C.

20

• D.

31

C. 20
Explanation
The number of observed sunspots, prominences, and flares increases in a cycle that occurs every 20 years. This suggests that there is a regular pattern in the occurrence of these solar activities, with a peak in activity every 20 years. This cycle is known as the solar cycle and is influenced by the sun's magnetic field. During the peak of the cycle, there are more sunspots, prominences, and flares, indicating increased solar activity.

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• 29.

Our Sun is considered average because its temperature and absolute magnitude place it in the _______ range of the H-R diagram.

• A.

White dwarf

• B.

Red giant

• C.

Main sequence

• D.

Supergiant

C. Main sequence
Explanation
The Sun is considered average because its temperature and absolute magnitude place it in the main sequence range of the H-R diagram. The main sequence is a diagonal band on the H-R diagram that represents stars in the stable phase of their lives, where they are fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores. The Sun falls within this range, indicating that it is in a stable phase of its life and is neither too hot nor too cool compared to other stars.

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• 30.

Our Sun is unusual because it does not belong to a(n) _________________.

• A.

Solar system

• B.

Universe

• C.

Galaxy

• D.

Binary star system

D. Binary star system
Explanation
Our Sun is unusual because it does not belong to a binary star system. A binary star system is a system in which two stars orbit around a common center of mass. However, our Sun is a single star and does not have a companion star that it orbits around. Instead, it belongs to a galaxy called the Milky Way, which is a large collection of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity.

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• 31.

Two stars orbit each other in a(n) _________________ star system.

• A.

Binary

• B.

Closed

• C.

Single

• D.

Individual

A. Binary
Explanation
In a binary star system, two stars orbit each other. This means that the stars are gravitationally bound to each other and revolve around a common center of mass. This is in contrast to a single star system where there is only one star, a closed star system where the stars are isolated from other celestial objects, and an individual star system which is not a commonly used term in astronomy. Therefore, the correct answer is binary.

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• 32.

The spiral shape of the Milky Way Galaxy CANNOT be seen from Earth because _________________.

• A.

We are located above the galaxy

• B.

We are located within one of its spiral arms

• C.

Our view is blocked by the sun

• D.

None of the above

B. We are located within one of its spiral arms
Explanation
The spiral shape of the Milky Way Galaxy cannot be seen from Earth because we are located within one of its spiral arms. Since we are inside the galaxy, our perspective does not allow us to see the overall shape of the spiral structure. Instead, we see a band of stars and dust known as the Milky Way, which is the combined light from billions of stars within our galaxy.

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• 33.

The ____________ states that between 15 and 20 billion years ago, the universe began expanding out of an enormous explosion.

• A.

H-R Diagram

• B.

Binary Star theory

• C.

Big Bang theory

• D.

"big crunch" theory

C. Big Bang theory
Explanation
The Big Bang theory states that between 15 and 20 billion years ago, the universe began expanding out of an enormous explosion. This theory is widely accepted in astrophysics and cosmology as it provides a comprehensive explanation for the origin and evolution of the universe. The theory suggests that all matter and energy were concentrated in a singularity, which then rapidly expanded, leading to the formation of galaxies, stars, and other celestial bodies. The Big Bang theory is supported by various pieces of observational evidence, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation and the observed redshift of distant galaxies.

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• 34.

A red shift in the spectrum of the light from an object indicates the object is moving _________________ you.

• A.

Away from

• B.

Toward

• C.

At a right angle from

• D.

None of the above

A. Away from
Explanation
A red shift in the spectrum of light from an object indicates that the wavelengths of the light are stretched, which suggests that the object is moving away from the observer. This phenomenon is known as the Doppler effect, and it occurs when there is a relative motion between the source of light and the observer. As the object moves away, the light waves get stretched, causing a shift towards longer wavelengths, which is perceived as a red shift.

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• 35.

A galaxy type without a definite shape is called a(n) ___________________.

• A.

Elliptical galaxy

• B.

Irregular galaxy

• C.

Barred spiral galaxy

• D.

Spin-off galaxy

B. Irregular galaxy
Explanation
An irregular galaxy is a type of galaxy that does not have a definite shape. Unlike elliptical or spiral galaxies, which have well-defined shapes, irregular galaxies appear disorganized and lack symmetry. They often have chaotic structures, with no clear pattern or central bulge. Irregular galaxies are typically smaller and less massive than other galaxy types, and they are thought to have been formed through interactions with other galaxies or by gravitational disturbances.

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• 36.

Recent evidence has suggested that the Milky Way Galaxy may be classified as a(n) ________________ .

• A.

Elliptical galaxy

• B.

Irregular galaxy

• C.

Barred spiral galaxy

• D.

Spin-off galaxy

C. Barred spiral galaxy
Explanation
Recent evidence has suggested that the Milky Way Galaxy may be classified as a barred spiral galaxy. This classification is based on observations of a central bar-like structure in the galaxy, which is surrounded by spiral arms. This is supported by studies of the distribution of stars and gas in the Milky Way, as well as the presence of other barred spiral galaxies in the universe. The presence of a bar in the Milky Way suggests a certain level of dynamical activity and can help explain the formation and evolution of the galaxy.

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• 37.

A distance measurement based on the speed of light and is used for objects in space is called a  ___________.

• A.

Parallax

• B.

Light year

• C.

H-R diagram

• D.

Astronomical Unit (AU)

B. Light year
Explanation
A light year is a distance measurement used in astronomy that is based on the speed of light. It represents the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum. Since the speed of light is constant, using light years as a unit allows astronomers to easily describe the vast distances between objects in space.

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• 38.

The graph that shows the relationship of a star's temperature to its absolute magnitude is called  ____________.

• A.

A parallax

• B.

An H-R Diagram

• C.

A syntax

• D.

A barred spiral

B. An H-R Diagram
Explanation
The correct answer is an H-R Diagram. This diagram, also known as a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, is a graph that plots the temperature of stars against their absolute magnitude. It is a powerful tool used in astronomy to study the life cycle and characteristics of stars. By analyzing the position of stars on the H-R diagram, scientists can determine their stage of evolution, size, and luminosity.

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• 39.

The Milky way galaxy is said to be ____________________ light years across.

• A.

100,000

• B.

10,000

• C.

1,000,000

• D.

1,000

A. 100,000
Explanation
The Milky Way galaxy is estimated to be approximately 100,000 light years across. This means that it would take light, which travels at a speed of about 186,282 miles per second, 100,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. The vast size of the Milky Way is a testament to the immense scale of the universe and the countless stars and celestial bodies it contains.

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• 40.

The stage in a star's evolution formed as the core of a low mass main sequence star uses up its helium and the outer core is blown off into space.

• A.

Red giant

• B.

White dwarf

• C.

Supernova

• D.

High mass star

B. White dwarf
Explanation
When a low mass main sequence star exhausts its helium fuel, it expands and becomes a red giant. Eventually, the outer layers of the red giant are blown off into space, leaving behind a hot, dense core called a white dwarf. This core is composed mainly of carbon and oxygen and is no longer undergoing nuclear fusion. It gradually cools down over billions of years, eventually becoming a cold, dark object known as a black dwarf.

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• 41.

If the diagram below depicts the life cycle of a star, letter B would be identified as a ___________.

• A.

Main sequence star

• B.

Neutron star

• C.

White dwarf

• D.

Supernova

A. Main sequence star
Explanation
The diagram is depicting the life cycle of a star, and letter B is identified as a main sequence star. A main sequence star is a star that is in the longest and most stable phase of its life cycle. It is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium and undergoes nuclear fusion in its core to produce energy. This phase lasts for billions of years before the star evolves into a different stage depending on its mass.

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• 42.

According to the H-R Diagram below, red giants are hotter than white dwarfs.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The H-R Diagram is a plot of the luminosity (brightness) of stars against their surface temperature. In this diagram, red giants are located in the upper right corner, indicating that they are cooler (lower surface temperature) but brighter (higher luminosity) than white dwarfs, which are located in the lower left corner. Therefore, the statement that red giants are hotter than white dwarfs is false.

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• 43.

According to the H-R diagram below, Betelgeuse is considered a ______________ star.

• A.

Blue Giant

• B.

Super Giant

• C.

White Dwarf

• D.

Main Sequence

B. Super Giant
Explanation
Based on the information provided in the H-R diagram, Betelgeuse is classified as a super giant star. This is because it is located in the upper-right region of the diagram, indicating a high luminosity and large size. Super giant stars are known for their immense size and brightness, making Betelgeuse a fitting example of this stellar classification.

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• 44.

According to the H-R diagram below, our sun is brighter than a white dwarf star.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
According to the H-R diagram, our sun is positioned on the main sequence, which is where the majority of stars, including relatively young and stable stars like the sun, are located. On the other hand, white dwarf stars are at a later stage of their evolution, characterized by a smaller size and lower luminosity compared to main sequence stars. Therefore, it can be inferred that our sun is indeed brighter than a white dwarf star.

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• 45.

According to the H-R diagram below, the approximte absolute magnitude of Rigel is ___________.

• A.

+5

• B.

-10

• C.

-2.5

• D.

+2.5

C. -2.5
Explanation
Based on the H-R diagram, the approximate absolute magnitude of Rigel is -2.5. This can be determined by locating the position of Rigel on the diagram and identifying its corresponding absolute magnitude. The negative value indicates that Rigel is a very bright star.

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• 46.

If the diagram below depicts the life cycle of a star, letter F would be identified as a ___________.

• A.

Main sequence star

• B.

Neutron star

• C.

White dwarf

• D.

Supernova

C. White dwarf
Explanation
The diagram illustrates the life cycle of a star, and letter F is identified as a white dwarf. A white dwarf is the remnant core of a star that has exhausted its nuclear fuel and has collapsed under its own gravity. It is very dense and hot, but no longer undergoing nuclear fusion. This stage occurs after the star has gone through the main sequence phase and has shed its outer layers in a planetary nebula.

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• 47.

If the diagram below depicts the life cycle of a star, letter E would be identified as a ___________.

• A.

Main sequence star

• B.

Neutron star

• C.

White dwarf

• D.

Supernova