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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Experimental social psychology began with 
    • A. 

      Allport

    • B. 

      Durkheim

    • C. 

      Tarde

    • D. 

      Shove

  • 2. 
    The country leading social psychology is
    • A. 

      US

    • B. 

      UK

    • C. 

      China

    • D. 

      Sweden

  • 3. 
    Sociology is NOT associated with which of the following?
    • A. 

      Deduction methodology

    • B. 

      Social constructionism origin

    • C. 

      Language and culture processes

    • D. 

      Qualitative methodology

  • 4. 
    Logical empiricism focuses on ...
    • A. 

      Scientific methodology

    • B. 

      Social transformation

    • C. 

      Language and culture

    • D. 

      A concern for shared social meaning

  • 5. 
    A key critique for social psychology is that it ignores ...
    • A. 

      Context

    • B. 

      Theory

    • C. 

      Groups

    • D. 

      Scientific method

  • 6. 
    Shove (2010) discussed what criticism/s of social psychology in his paper - 'Beyond ABC'?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Too heavily focused on individuals

    • C. 

      Does not consider societal transformation

    • D. 

      The models of social change are restrictive

  • 7. 
    Whitmarsh et al. (2010) responded to Shove's criticism of social psychology by ..
    • A. 

      Claiming that separating sociology and psychology is unproductive

    • B. 

      Discussing the flaws in sociology

    • C. 

      Claiming social psychology as superior

    • D. 

      Agreeing with Shove's claim but disagreeing with the evidence supplied

  • 8. 
    Social psychology is largely experimental based in the lab with ...
    • A. 

      Low external validity, high internal validity

    • B. 

      Low external validity, low internal validity

    • C. 

      High external validity, high internal validity

    • D. 

      High external validity, low internal validity

  • 9. 
    A study in which participants are likely to express concern about climate change because they know Alexa studies climate change can be said to be affected by ...
    • A. 

      Demand characteristics

    • B. 

      Social conformity

    • C. 

      Methodological pluralism

    • D. 

      Confounding effects

  • 10. 
    Random assignment would prevent which of the following effects from impacting a social psychology study?
    • A. 

      Demand characteristics

    • B. 

      Social conformity

    • C. 

      Methodological pluralism

    • D. 

      Confounding effects

  • 11. 
    Conducting a psychological study brings about what risk?
    • A. 

      Increased error

    • B. 

      Decreased external validity

    • C. 

      Increased demand characteristics

    • D. 

      Increased diversity

  • 12. 
    Observing differences in the world without manipulating IVs is described as
    • A. 

      A Field study

    • B. 

      A Field experiment

    • C. 

      Survey research

    • D. 

      A quasi experiment

  • 13. 
    APA ethics guidlines (2002) do NOT promote ethical practice around which of the following?
    • A. 

      It promotes ethical practice concerning all of these

    • B. 

      Anonymity

    • C. 

      Consent

    • D. 

      Debriefing

  • 14. 
    50-75% of psychology experiments involve deception to some degree, which of the following is NOT an accepted justification of deception according to APA?
    • A. 

      Debriefing a participant afterwards of the deception to prevent confusion

    • B. 

      No other non-deceptive means exists

    • C. 

      There is a possibility of significant contribution to science

    • D. 

      Deception is not expected to cause harm

  • 15. 
    If an individual changes their behaviour as a result of their awareness of being studied, they have experienced ...
    • A. 

      The Hawthorne Effect

    • B. 

      Demand characteristics

    • C. 

      The Confounding Effect

    • D. 

      Social/experimental pressure

  • 16. 
    Authoritarian theory of prejudice and discrimination - a person is discriminatory due to an obsession with rank and status developed in childhood through excessive harsh and disciplinarian practices is an example of what meta theory of social psychology?
    • A. 

      Neo-behaviourism

    • B. 

      Cognitive

    • C. 

      Evolutionary

    • D. 

      Collectivism

  • 17. 
    Bandura's 1977 social modelling is an example of what meta theory of social psychology?
    • A. 

      Behaviourism

    • B. 

      Cognition

    • C. 

      Evolutionary

    • D. 

      Collectivism

  • 18. 
    • A. 

      Cognitive

    • B. 

      Evolutionary

    • C. 

      Neuroscience

    • D. 

      Behaviourism

  • 19. 
    • A. 

      Collectivism

    • B. 

      Personality

    • C. 

      Behaviour

    • D. 

      Neuroscience

  • 20. 
    The contrasting meta theory in social psychology to collectivism is?
    • A. 

      Personality

    • B. 

      Neuroscience

    • C. 

      Evolutionary

    • D. 

      Cognitive

  • 21. 
    The accusation that social psychology explains a phenomena at a low level of analysis, potentially leaving the original question unanswered is the ... criticism
    • A. 

      Reductionist

    • B. 

      Common sense

    • C. 

      Positivist

    • D. 

      Simplification

  • 22. 
    Social psychology was accused of being too positivist in the the 1970's, which of the following is an adequate description of the effects of positivism?
    • A. 

      Devalues and ignores subjective data

    • B. 

      Non-critical acceptance of the scientific method

    • C. 

      All of these

    • D. 

      Only recognising that which can be scientifically verified

  • 23. 
    The method used to overcome positivism in social psychology was ...
    • A. 

      Through employing rigorous scientific methods

    • B. 

      Through peer reviewing

    • C. 

      Through ignoring subjective data

    • D. 

      Through a non-critical acceptance of the scientific method

  • 24. 
    Many often assume that social psychology is simply common sense since it is, after all, answering real life questions but many people often
    • A. 

      Fall for hindsight bias

    • B. 

      Ignore the reductionism approach

    • C. 

      Ignore the scientific methods involved

    • D. 

      Over-simplify the process

  • 25. 
    Data snooping refers to ...
    • A. 

      Looking at your data and finishing data collection early if it fits your hypothesis

    • B. 

      Omitting data points so that the resulting analysis fits your hypothesis

    • C. 

      Changing your hypothesis after you have analysed your data

    • D. 

      The practice of looking at other people's data to see what they found out pre-publication

  • 26. 
    Cherry picking refers to ...
    • A. 

      Looking at your data and finishing data collection early if it fits your hypothesis

    • B. 

      Omitting data points so that the resulting analysis fits your hypothesis

    • C. 

      Changing your hypothesis after you have analysed your data

    • D. 

      Focusing on individual cases that confirm your hypothesis while ignoring a significant proportion of cases that contradict that position

  • 27. 
    HARKing refers to ...
    • A. 

      Looking at your data and finishing data collection early if it fits your hypothesis

    • B. 

      Omitting data points so that the resulting analysis fits your hypothesis

    • C. 

      Changing your hypothesis after you have analysed your data

    • D. 

      Focusing on individual cases that confirm your hypothesis while ignoring a significant proportion of cases that contradict that position

  • 28. 
    When Staples and Smeesters were caught for fraudulent data, what was the community response?
    • A. 

      All of these responses

    • B. 

      Open access to research and data sharing

    • C. 

      Setting up replication projects

    • D. 

      Setting up pre-register studies

  • 29. 
    Social cognition always assumes ...
    • A. 

      A rational decision maker

    • B. 

      Universal set of attitudes

    • C. 

      A universal set of behaviours

    • D. 

      A universal set of schemas

  • 30. 
    Social cognition = how ... 
    • A. 

      Attitudes and perceptions influence our beliefs and behaviours

    • B. 

      Beliefs and behaviours influence our attitudes and perceptions

    • C. 

      Attitudes and beliefs influence our expectations and stereotypes

    • D. 

      These are all valid descriptions of social cognition

  • 31. 
    The tendency to take cognitive shortcuts and find the most simple way to a problem has led to social cognition to assume that all people are ...
    • A. 

      Cognitive misers

    • B. 

      Cognitively lazy

    • C. 

      Heuristic decision makers

    • D. 

      Irrational decision makers

  • 32. 
    Categorisation is a good example of a step towards
    • A. 

      Cognitive economy

    • B. 

      Rational decision making

    • C. 

      Stereotypes

    • D. 

      Cognitive monopoly

  • 33. 
    • A. 

      Prototype

    • B. 

      Feature based

    • C. 

      Rule based

    • D. 

      Exemplar

  • 34. 
    A rule based approach to categorisation presented by Bruner et al. (1956) can be criticised in which way?
    • A. 

      All of these make it difficult

    • B. 

      People can disagree on the rules of a category

    • C. 

      Rules do not indicate how well something represents the category

    • D. 

      It can be hard to define rules sometimes

  • 35. 
    Associative networks of categorisation is similar to what other theory?
    • A. 

      Prototype

    • B. 

      Exemplar

    • C. 

      Rule-based

    • D. 

      Feature-based

  • 36. 
    Schemas are ...
    • A. 

      Conceptually driven

    • B. 

      Disorganised

    • C. 

      Only consciously activated

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 37. 
    If you went to a new gym class, you would know that to prepare you should change into sports clothes and wait in the appropriate room for an instructor. this is an example of a:
    • A. 

      Script

    • B. 

      Subliminal prime

    • C. 

      Prototype

    • D. 

      Exemplar

  • 38. 
    A schema activated concerning a football players positioning and tactical awareness when taking up a particular position on the football pitch is an ... schema
    • A. 

      Place

    • B. 

      Person

    • C. 

      Role

    • D. 

      Script

  • 39. 
    Once activated schemas do NOT directly influence
    • A. 

      Our mood and happiness

    • B. 

      Information processing and interference

    • C. 

      Our judgements and behaviours

    • D. 

      How we encode, remember and respond to events

  • 40. 
    When Bargh et al. (1996) made their pariticpants walk down a corridor slower than controls by presenting them with an old-aged stereotype - this is an example of?
    • A. 

      Subliminal priming

    • B. 

      Schema generalisation

    • C. 

      Role schema

    • D. 

      Cognitive representation

  • 41. 
    Sagar and Schofield (1980) showed that schema's can bias interpretations of ...
    • A. 

      Ambiguous events

    • B. 

      Personal encounters

    • C. 

      Multi-racial situations

    • D. 

      Secondary encounters

  • 42. 
    The process of assigning causes for our own behaviour to that of others is
    • A. 

      Attribution

    • B. 

      Application

    • C. 

      Inference

    • D. 

      Association

  • 43. 
    Common sense theories of understanding behaviour are found through ...
    • A. 

      The Naive scientist model

    • B. 

      Correspondent inference theory

    • C. 

      Covariation model

    • D. 

      Attribution theory

  • 44. 
    The Naive Scientist model is concerned with all people looking for ... through observing behaviours
    • A. 

      Innate desires

    • B. 

      Current thoughts

    • C. 

      Biases/prejudices

    • D. 

      Cognitive biases

  • 45. 
    Within the Naive scientist model - which of these is not a disposition?
    • A. 

      Behaviour

    • B. 

      Personality

    • C. 

      Characteristics

    • D. 

      Beliefs

  • 46. 
    • A. 

      Act had positive consequences

    • B. 

      Act was freely chosen

    • C. 

      Act was not socially desirable

    • D. 

      Act had personal consequences for you

  • 47. 
    The theory of attribution that maintains that an act is a true characteristic of the person (as long as it conforms to a set of cues) is what theory?
    • A. 

      Correspondent interference theory

    • B. 

      Naive scientist

    • C. 

      Covariation model

    • D. 

      Attribution theory

  • 48. 
    In Correspondent Interference Theory, what are non-common effects that allow?
    • A. 

      The uniquenesses between multiple alternatives for a chosen action

    • B. 

      The commonalities between multiple alternatives for a chosen action

    • C. 

      Effects of a chosen action that were not socially desirable

    • D. 

      Effects of a chosen action that were socially desirable

  • 49. 
    • A. 

      There are more than just 5 cues that are essential to deciding if a behaviour can lead to internal inferences

    • B. 

      It focuses only on intentional behaviour when we can also make inferences about unintentional behaviour

    • C. 

      Non-common effects imply that each individual weights up all non-chosen actions, which is unlikely

    • D. 

      It ignores situational factors that come into play when making inferences - inferences are automatic but they are often corrected

  • 50. 
    • A. 

      Covariation model

    • B. 

      Correspondent Interference Theory

    • C. 

      Naive scientist

    • D. 

      Attribution theory

  • 51. 
    Despite you flatmate being really grumpy after class you decide it was due to a terrible lecture as everyone in that class was grumpy. This is an example of using which type of information to make an attribution?
    • A. 

      Consensus

    • B. 

      Consistency

    • C. 

      Social desirability

    • D. 

      Distinctiveness

  • 52. 
    • A. 

      Covariation model

    • B. 

      Correspondent Interference Theory

    • C. 

      Naive scientist

    • D. 

      Attribution theory

  • 53. 
    An assessment about whether a person behaves in a certain way in other situations is a measure of ...
    • A. 

      Distinctiveness

    • B. 

      Consensus

    • C. 

      Consistency

    • D. 

      Disparity

  • 54. 
    When making a Covariation assumption of attribution, which is the correct order to consider whether an attribution is internal vs. external?
    • A. 

      Consistency - Consensus - Distinctiveness

    • B. 

      Consistency - Distinctiveness - Consensus

    • C. 

      Consensus - Consistency - Distinctiveness

    • D. 

      Consensus - Distinctiveness - Consistency

  • 55. 
    You are in a long queue in a shop with your friend and they are getting increasingly irritated with how long it is taking. If you ask yourself the question of whether your friend usually gets frustrated when standing in long queues, you are assessing?
    • A. 

      Consistency

    • B. 

      Consensus

    • C. 

      Distinctiveness

    • D. 

      Social conformity

  • 56. 
    You are in a long queue in a shop with your friend and they are getting increasingly irritated with how long it is taking. If you ask yourself the question of do other people get frustrated in long queues it is assessing what?
    • A. 

      Consistency

    • B. 

      Consensus

    • C. 

      Distinctiveness

    • D. 

      Social conformity

  • 57. 
    You are in a long queue in a shop with your friend and they are getting increasingly irritated with how long it is taking. If you ask yourself the question of does your friend generally get frustrated in other situations involving long waits, it is assessing what?
    • A. 

      Consistency

    • B. 

      Consensus

    • C. 

      Distinctiveness

    • D. 

      Social conformity

  • 58. 
    Kelley's Covariation model of attribution does NOT invoke which of the following criticisms?
    • A. 

      Covariation does not pay enough attention to situation factors

    • B. 

      How available is the information to the individual e.g. how accessible is consensus information when making an attribution

    • C. 

      People are generally poor at assessing covariation

    • D. 

      Covariation is NOT causation

  • 59. 
    • A. 

      Weiner's attribution theory

    • B. 

      Heider's naive scientist model

    • C. 

      Correspondent inference theory

    • D. 

      Kelly's covariation model

  • 60. 
    Within Weiner's attribution theory, mood is an example of an attribution that is
    • A. 

      Internal, uncontrollable, unstable

    • B. 

      External, uncontrollable, unstable

    • C. 

      Internal, controllable, stable

    • D. 

      Internal, controllable, unstable

  • 61. 
    Within Weiner's attribution theory, task difficulty is an example of an attribution that is
    • A. 

      Internal, uncontrollable, stable

    • B. 

      External, uncontrollable, unstable

    • C. 

      External, uncontrollable, stable

    • D. 

      External, controllable, unstable

  • 62. 
    Within Weiner's attribution theory, luck is an example of an attribution that is
    • A. 

      Internal, uncontrollable, stable

    • B. 

      External, uncontrollable, unstable

    • C. 

      External, uncontrollable, stable

    • D. 

      External, controllable, unstable

  • 63. 
    Within Weiner's attribution theory, ability is an example of an attribution that is
    • A. 

      Internal, uncontrollable, unstable

    • B. 

      External, uncontrollable, unstable

    • C. 

      Internal, uncontrollable, stable

    • D. 

      Internal, controllable, unstable

  • 64. 
    Within Weiner's attribution theory, unusual input from others is an example of an attribution that is
    • A. 

      Internal, uncontrollable, stable

    • B. 

      External, uncontrollable, unstable

    • C. 

      External, controllable, stable

    • D. 

      External, controllable, unstable

  • 65. 
    Within Weiner's attribution theory, typical effort is an example of an attribution that is
    • A. 

      Internal, uncontrollable, stable

    • B. 

      External, uncontrollable, unstable

    • C. 

      Internal, controllable, stable

    • D. 

      Internal, controllable, unstable

  • 66. 
    Weiner's attribution dimensions does not rely on which of the following?
    • A. 

      Consistency

    • B. 

      Locus of control

    • C. 

      Locus of causality

    • D. 

      Stability

  • 67. 
    • A. 

      Weiner's attribution theory

    • B. 

      Kelley's Covariation model

    • C. 

      Correspondent inference theory

    • D. 

      Heider's naive scientist model

  • 68. 
    • A. 

      All of these are uncontrollable

    • B. 

      Ability

    • C. 

      Mood

    • D. 

      Luck

  • 69. 
    • A. 

      It ignores situational factors in making inferences

    • B. 

      The controllability dimension is perhaps over-stated

    • C. 

      Do people really analyse outcomes through the three dimensions this way

    • D. 

      There has been recent focus on the role of responsibility rather than causation

  • 70. 
    Weiner's attribution theory utilises what idea from Rotter (1966)?
    • A. 

      Consistency

    • B. 

      Locus of control

    • C. 

      Locus of causality

    • D. 

      Stability

  • 71. 
    Making a quick judgement based on how similar something you encounter is to a stored representation is an example of which heuristic?
    • A. 

      Representativeness

    • B. 

      Availability

    • C. 

      Fundamental Attribution Error

    • D. 

      Anchoring and Adjustment

  • 72. 
    Making a quick judgement on the commonality of an event based on the number of instances of that event that can be brought to mind is an example of which heuristic?
    • A. 

      Representativeness

    • B. 

      Availability

    • C. 

      Fundamental Attribution Error

    • D. 

      Anchoring and Adjustment

  • 73. 
    Making a subsequent judgement concerning an event based upon an initial schema is an example of which heuristic?
    • A. 

      Representativeness

    • B. 

      Availability

    • C. 

      Fundamental Attribution Error

    • D. 

      Anchoring and Adjustment

  • 74. 
    I blame my burnt dinner on the fact I'm really busy, my husband thinks I'm rubbish at cooking. This difference in attribution is an example of ...
    • A. 

      The actor-observer effect

    • B. 

      The fundamental attribution error

    • C. 

      The self-serving bias

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

  • 75. 
    • A. 

      Fails to take account of information salience

    • B. 

      It is not fundamental

    • C. 

      There are linguistic biases

    • D. 

      Some believe that it is a complete category shift from internal to external rather than just a difference in estimation

  • 76. 
    The tendency to overestimate the significance of dispositional factors only when assessing other's behaviours is a description of ...
    • A. 

      The actor-observer effect

    • B. 

      The fundamental attribution error

    • C. 

      The self-serving bias

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

  • 77. 
    The correspondence bias is another name for ...
    • A. 

      The actor-observer effect

    • B. 

      The fundamental attribution error

    • C. 

      The self-serving bias

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

  • 78. 
    The fundamental attribution error is likely a result of ...
    • A. 

      Saliency of person information

    • B. 

      Differential forgetting

    • C. 

      The just-world hypothesis

    • D. 

      All of these can account for FAE

  • 79. 
    The just-world hypothesis leads to the fundamental attribution error because ...
    • A. 

      It promotes a universal force that restores moral balance

    • B. 

      It encourages hyper-attention to only salient dispositional information

    • C. 

      People tend to 'forget' situational causes for behaviour more readily

    • D. 

      It encourages all of these things

  • 80. 
    Differential forgetting leads to the fundamental attribution error because ...
    • A. 

      People tend to 'forget' dispositional causes for behaviour more readily

    • B. 

      It encourages hyper-attention to only salient dispositional information

    • C. 

      People tend to 'forget' situational causes for behaviour more readily

    • D. 

      It encourages hyper-attention to only salient situational information

  • 81. 
    To explain the actor-observer effect, what is salient in the perceptual field of the observer?
    • A. 

      The actor

    • B. 

      The situation

    • C. 

      The actor and the situation

    • D. 

      Neither the actor nor the situation

  • 82. 
    • A. 

      Perspective taking

    • B. 

      Role playing

    • C. 

      Self presentation

    • D. 

      Ethnocentrism

  • 83. 
    To explain the actor-observer effect, what is salient in the perceptual field of the actor?
    • A. 

      The actor

    • B. 

      The situation

    • C. 

      The actor and the situation

    • D. 

      Neither the actor nor the situation

  • 84. 
    The tendency to attribute success internally and failure externally is a description of ... 
    • A. 

      The actor-observer effect

    • B. 

      The fundamental attribution error

    • C. 

      The self-serving bias

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

  • 85. 
    When adjusting for self presentational concerns, what effect does this have on the self-serving bias?
    • A. 

      Reduces but does not eliminate

    • B. 

      Eliminates

    • C. 

      Does not effect

    • D. 

      Reverses the bias

  • 86. 
    The fundamental attribution error can be reversed by?
    • A. 

      Focusing people on the situation rather than the actor

    • B. 

      Portray situations as happening in a different country

    • C. 

      Punishing people if they make this type of error

    • D. 

      Training people in the nature of the bias

  • 87. 
    The ultimate attribution error is the tendency to ...
    • A. 

      Make negative attributions for outgroup member behaviour only

    • B. 

      Make positive attributions for ingroup members behaviour only

    • C. 

      Make negative attribution for behaviour of both ingroup and outgroup members

    • D. 

      Make internal attributions for ingroup members behaviour only

  • 88. 
    Ethnocentrism would not confer with which of the following?
    • A. 

      Positive behaviour in the outgroup = dispositional

    • B. 

      Positive behaviour in the ingroup = dispositional

    • C. 

      Negative behaviour in the ingroup = situational

    • D. 

      Positive behaviour in the outgroup = situational

  • 89. 
    • A. 

      Chinese ranked negative acts by Chinese people as dispositional

    • B. 

      Chinese ranked positive acts by Malay people as dispositional

    • C. 

      Malay ranked positive acts by Malay people as dispositional

    • D. 

      Malay ranked negative acts by Chinese people as dispositional

  • 90. 
    The ethnocentrism found in Hewstone and Ward's study with Chinese and Malay participants was heavily reduced when the study was conduced in Singapore rather than Malaysia, what does this mean?
    • A. 

      Group dynamics within a location are key

    • B. 

      People are more likely to exhibit ethnocentricism in their home country

    • C. 

      Racism is unlikely to exist in a neutral country for the two races

    • D. 

      The ultimate attribution error is not ultimate

  • 91. 
    Intergroup attribution can be explained by cognitive neglect like other attribution errors but the motivation to maintain a positive ingroup profile could arise from?
    • A. 

      Social identity theory

    • B. 

      Fundamental attribution error

    • C. 

      Heuristic reasoning

    • D. 

      Egocentric biases

  • 92. 
    • A. 

      All of these build an attitude

    • B. 

      An object label and rules for applying it

    • C. 

      An evaluative summary of an object

    • D. 

      A knowledge structure supporting object evalutation

  • 93. 
    • A. 

      Affect

    • B. 

      Behaviour

    • C. 

      Cognition

    • D. 

      Mental readiness

  • 94. 
    The dual model of attitude relies on ...
    • A. 

      Mental readiness to guide evaluative responses

    • B. 

      Affect and cognition

    • C. 

      Affect and mental readiness

    • D. 

      Affect to guide evaluative responses

  • 95. 
    If an attitude object was beer - which of the three arms of the tripartite model would be represented by a belief based attitude such as 'Beer helps me to relax'?
    • A. 

      Cognitive

    • B. 

      Affective

    • C. 

      Behavioural

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

  • 96. 
    If an attitude object was beer - which of the three arms of the tripartite model would be represented by an attitude such as 'I enjoy drinking beer'?
    • A. 

      Cognitive

    • B. 

      Affective

    • C. 

      Behavioural

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

  • 97. 
    If an attitude object was beer - which of the three arms of the tripartite model would be represented by an intention based attitude such as 'I plan to drink more beer after exams'?
    • A. 

      Cognitive

    • B. 

      Affective

    • C. 

      Behavioural

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

  • 98. 
    • A. 

      Mood-as-information

    • B. 

      Mere exposure

    • C. 

      Observational learning

    • D. 

      Classical/Instrumental conditiong

  • 99. 
    The idea that I can begin to form a positive attitude about broccolli just be continuing to eat it is an example of what theory?
    • A. 

      Mere exposure

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning

    • C. 

      Instrumental conditioning

    • D. 

      Mood-as-information hypothesis

  • 100. 
    If a child picks up a racist attitude from their parents through vicarious experience, this is an example of ...
    • A. 

      Observational learning

    • B. 

      Instrumental conditioning

    • C. 

      Classical conditioning

    • D. 

      Mere exposure

  • 101. 
    • A. 

      Self-perception theory

    • B. 

      Information integration theory

    • C. 

      Mood-as-information hypothesis

    • D. 

      Heuristic processing

  • 102. 
    If I misattribute my negative feeling of receiving a bad mark in an exam to the person sitting next to me in the exam hall, I have used which theory of attitude formation?
    • A. 

      Self-perception theory

    • B. 

      Information integration theory

    • C. 

      Mood-as-information hypothesis

    • D. 

      Heuristic processing

  • 103. 
    I have negative attitudes for lettuce, cabbage and peas and conclude that I just don't like green vegetables, I have since avoided all green vegetables assuming they are all negative, what theory of attitude formation am I using?
    • A. 

      Self-perception theory

    • B. 

      Information integration theory

    • C. 

      Mood-as-information hypothesis

    • D. 

      Heuristic processing

  • 104. 
    A man has coffee with a girl from his office during a lunch break. On reflection he notices that he was very nervous and uncomfortable during that time. He takes this to mean he has feelings for the girl, otherwise why would he have been so anxious. What is this an example of?
    • A. 

      Self-perception theory

    • B. 

      Information integration theory

    • C. 

      Mood-as-information hypothesis

    • D. 

      Heuristic processing

  • 105. 
    We form attitudes from mass media and our parents as we grow, what is the strongest association between the attitudes of our parents and ourselves?
    • A. 

      Attitudes on broad issues e.g. politics

    • B. 

      Attitudes on specific issues e.g. table manners

    • C. 

      Attitudes on both specific and broad, attitudes are infectious and most will not be consciously fought

    • D. 

      There is no correlation, it depends how much you agree with the attitudes of your parents

  • 106. 
    Attitudes are conscious/unconscious motives and have a variety of functions, the utilitarian function allows us to ...
    • A. 

      Behave in socially acceptable ways to reap the benefits

    • B. 

      Organise the information we encounter to ensure cognitive economy

    • C. 

      Express personally held values and hold a sense of identity

    • D. 

      Collaborate with people that share our attitudes and build connections

  • 107. 
    • A. 

      Mental readiness

    • B. 

      Knowledge

    • C. 

      Ego-defensive

    • D. 

      Value expressive

  • 108. 
    The fact we use attitudes to preserve a positive sense of self is part of the ... function
    • A. 

      Ego-defensive

    • B. 

      Egocentric

    • C. 

      Value expressive

    • D. 

      Individualistic

  • 109. 
    The issue with using a Semantic Differential scale for measuring attitudes is?
    • A. 

      Adjectives may not be bipolar

    • B. 

      Its hard to match numbers to attitudes

    • C. 

      You can get an acquiescent response set

    • D. 

      All of these are issues with it

  • 110. 
    The Likert Scale of attitudes can create an acquiescent response set because
    • A. 

      If people are impartial they tend to agree with the wording of the question

    • B. 

      People are likely to choose numbers in the middle of a response set rather than picking strongly agree or disgree

    • C. 

      People are likely to randomly choose a number on the scale for issues they do not have attitudes about

    • D. 

      All of these could produce an acquiescent response set

  • 111. 
    Fazio's autmatic activation model for attitudes underlies ...
    • A. 

      Implicit attitude measures

    • B. 

      Physiological attitude measures

    • C. 

      Unobtrusive attitude behavioural measures

    • D. 

      Attitude scales

  • 112. 
    • A. 

      All of these strengthen the activation

    • B. 

      When the attitudes are relevant to the individual

    • C. 

      When the attitudes are recently activated

    • D. 

      When the attitudes are important to the individual

  • 113. 
    A consistent finding in the attitude-behaviour relationship is that?
    • A. 

      There is a small positive correlation

    • B. 

      There is a small negative correlation

    • C. 

      There is a large negative correlation

    • D. 

      There is a large positive correlation

  • 114. 
    There are methodological reasons why experiments have failed to find a strong attitude behaviour relationship but Fishbein (1967) importantly concluded that ...
    • A. 

      Attitudes alone will not predict behaviour

    • B. 

      Context and time are crucial to predict behaviour

    • C. 

      Attitude measures are too generalisable to predict behaviour

    • D. 

      Intentions are more important to predicting behaviour than attitudes

  • 115. 
    Fishbein's expectancy-value model of attitudes claims you must do what to produce an appropriate attitude score?
    • A. 

      Belief x Value

    • B. 

      Normative belief x motivation to comply

    • C. 

      Attitude x Intention

    • D. 

      Belief x Intention

  • 116. 
    The theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen) claims that intentions are the combination of 3 of the following 4 variables, which is the odd one out?
    • A. 

      Motivation to comply

    • B. 

      Attitudes

    • C. 

      Subjective Norms

    • D. 

      Perceived Control

  • 117. 
    In the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen). Normative beliefs x motivation to comply culminates in ...
    • A. 

      Subjective norms

    • B. 

      Perceived control

    • C. 

      Attitudes

    • D. 

      Intentions

  • 118. 
    If not attitudes alone, which of the following components interact with attitudes to predict behaviour?
    • A. 

      All of them

    • B. 

      Values

    • C. 

      Intentions

    • D. 

      Beliefs

    • E. 

      Intentions and beliefs

  • 119. 
    • A. 

      The delivery

    • B. 

      The content

    • C. 

      The communicator

    • D. 

      The audience

  • 120. 
    In terms of The Source of an effective persuasive message, which of the following does NOT increasing the effectiveness of a communicator
    • A. 

      Speaking slowing and clearly

    • B. 

      Being an expert

    • C. 

      Being popular

    • D. 

      Being attractive

  • 121. 
    Bochner and Insko had a noble prize winner and a YMCA instructor provide people with recommendations on the number of hours of sleep to have per night. These recommendations varied from 8 hours to you don't need to sleep. What did they find concerning how people valued a source of evidence?
    • A. 

      Highly credible experts were more persuasive then less credible experts when recommending very low amounts of sleep

    • B. 

      Highly credible experts were more persuasive than less credible experts across all recommendations

    • C. 

      Less credible experts were just as persuasive as highly credible experts when giving recommendations

    • D. 

      Highly credible experts were only more persuasive than less credible experts until recommending very low amounts of sleep, at which point common sense kicked in

  • 122. 
    To enhance the persuasive ability of the content of my message I should
    • A. 

      All of these assist the persuasive ability of a message

    • B. 

      Repeat it constantly to increase familiarity and liking

    • C. 

      Match my arguments to the current attitude functions of my audience

    • D. 

      Make sure my message is not obviously trying to be influencing

  • 123. 
    McGuire suggested an inverted-U hypothesis to explain the power of fear in persuasion, how does this manifest?
    • A. 

      Only messages with a moderate amount of fear will achieve the desired results

    • B. 

      Only message with very high or very low fear can hope to achieve results, all others lack a fear element worth discussing

    • C. 

      The success of fear in a message depends on the context, high and low fear work equally well in separate contexts

    • D. 

      The highest attitude change is seen in the absence of fear

  • 124. 
    A meta-analysis by Witte and Allen (2000) on fear appeals found that the greatest behavioural change was found with
    • A. 

      High fear and high efficacy messages

    • B. 

      High fear and low efficacy messages

    • C. 

      Low fear but a high efficacy message

    • D. 

      Low fear and a low efficacy message

  • 125. 
    A meta-analysis by Witte and Allen (2000) on fear appeals found that maladaptive actions such as defensive avoidance of the issues that the appeal was attempting to address is found from?
    • A. 

      High fear and high efficacy messages

    • B. 

      High fear and low efficacy messages

    • C. 

      Low fear but a high efficacy message

    • D. 

      Low fear and a low efficacy message

  • 126. 
    Spence et al. (2010) examined how messages about climate change concerning gains or the opposite losses would be effective in terms of persuasion. The loss message contained more fear and ...
    • A. 

      Were more memorable

    • B. 

      Induced defensive responses

    • C. 

      Increased positive attitudes towards climate change mitigation

    • D. 

      Decreased perceived problem severity

  • 127. 
    In terms of the content of a message to be persuasive, outcome framing suggests the most effective message should ...
    • A. 

      Focus on gains for low risk behaviours and losses for high risk behaviours

    • B. 

      Focus on gains for low and high risk behaviours

    • C. 

      Focus on losses for low and high risk behaviours

    • D. 

      Focus on losses for low risk behaviours and gains for high risk behaviours

  • 128. 
    Eagly and Chaiken (1983) examined the effect that the medium of a message would have on the opinion change, what did they find?
    • A. 

      Written message is best for difficult messages

    • B. 

      Written message is best for easy messages

    • C. 

      Audiotape is best for easy messages

    • D. 

      Videotape is best for hard messages

  • 129. 
    McGuire proposed an inverted-U relationship for the effect of self-esteem on attitude change (as well as for fear) - how does this manifest?
    • A. 

      Only those with a moderate self-esteem will see a reasonable attitude change

    • B. 

      Those with the lowest self-esteem are most susceptible to persuasion

    • C. 

      Those with the lowest and highest self-esteem are vulnerable to persuasion for different reasons

    • D. 

      Those with moderate self-esteem are more anxious and less attentive

  • 130. 
    Women are more easily persuaded than men and men tend to resist the influence of women, what factor tends to make women more persuasive?
    • A. 

      When talking on traditional female domains

    • B. 

      When communicating in a highly competent and powerful style

    • C. 

      When women show warmth and communality

    • D. 

      All of these will make women more persuasive to men

  • 131. 
    Dual process models of persuasion suggest there are two routes to persuasion, which of the following statements is correct?
    • A. 

      The peripheral route of processing is not careful and depends on the presence of persuasion cues

    • B. 

      The peripheral route of processing is careful and depends on the quality of arguments

    • C. 

      The central route of processing is careful and depends on the presence of persuasion cues

    • D. 

      The central route of processing is not careful and depends on the quality of argument

  • 132. 
    Heuristic processing (vs. systematic processing) would be unlikely to be convinced by?
    • A. 

      Multiple sources

    • B. 

      A long argument

    • C. 

      Statistics

    • D. 

      The communicators appearance

  • 133. 
    Mood and emotion can halt systematic processing of a persuasive message how?
    • A. 

      People in good moods tend to use heuristics

    • B. 

      People in bad moods tend to use heuristics

    • C. 

      Highly emotive messages tend to promote heuristics use

    • D. 

      Low emotive messages tend to promote heuristic use

  • 134. 
    An unpleasant state of psychological tension when inconsistency occurs is referred to as ...
    • A. 

      Cognitive dissonance

    • B. 

      Dual process disagreement

    • C. 

      Cognitive miser

    • D. 

      Cognitive instability

  • 135. 
    Cognitive dissonance theory has three premises, which of the following is not one of them?
    • A. 

      A person will do everything to ignore information that will cause dissonance

    • B. 

      If a person is presented with information that is contradictory to their attitudes - internal conflict arises

    • C. 

      Dissonance motivates people to restore equilibrium though behavioural or internal alterations

    • D. 

      There are three ways to attenuate dissonance

  • 136. 
    • A. 

      Social affirmation

    • B. 

      Attitude change

    • C. 

      Cognitive re-appraisal

    • D. 

      Behaviour change

  • 137. 
    If a student believes they are intelligent but did not perform well in their exams, they might say they don't care much for intelligence after all therefore this situation doesn't upset them so much, this is an example of in cognitive dissonance theory?
    • A. 

      Reducing a dissonant element

    • B. 

      Cognitive re-appraisal

    • C. 

      Changing a dissonant element

    • D. 

      Removing a dissonant element

  • 138. 
    If a student believes they are intelligent but did not perform well in their exams, they might blame the result on the quality of the teaching or the time they had to study, therefore this situation doesn't upset them so much, this is an example of in cognitive dissonance theory?
    • A. 

      Reducing a dissonant element

    • B. 

      Cognitive re-appraisal

    • C. 

      Changing a dissonant element

    • D. 

      Removing a dissonant element

  • 139. 
    If a student believes they are intelligent but did not perform well in their exams, they might study harder to get good grades the next time, therefore this situation doesn't upset them so much, this is an example of in cognitive dissonance theory?
    • A. 

      Reducing a dissonant element

    • B. 

      Cognitive re-appraisal

    • C. 

      Changing a dissonant element

    • D. 

      Removing a dissonant element

  • 140. 
    Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) had participants do a boring task and then asked them to state how interesting it was afterwards, which group of participants had the highest rating of liking for the task? 
    • A. 

      Those paid £1 for completing it

    • B. 

      Those that were not paid

    • C. 

      Those paid £20 for completing it

    • D. 

      Any participant that was paid rated higher enjoyment

  • 141. 
    • A. 

      Idea that if the public knew more they would support the issue at hand

    • B. 

      Idea that there is a lack of engagement from the public on key science and technology issues

    • C. 

      Idea that people who are not very science literate tend to support morally contentious research

    • D. 

      Idea that the public doesn't know enough about science and technology

  • 142. 
    • A. 

      There is often a deficit in knowledge

    • B. 

      They often correspond to reality

    • C. 

      They often correspond to experts

    • D. 

      They often match what experts predict

  • 143. 
    Evans and Durant (1995) found out what concerning the relationship between knowledge and attitudes?
    • A. 

      Knowledge correlated positively with attitudes for useful research

    • B. 

      Knowledge correlated negatively with attitudes for non-useful research

    • C. 

      Knowledge correlated positively for morally contentious research

    • D. 

      All of these were found

  • 144. 
    • A. 

      Social trust

    • B. 

      Values

    • C. 

      Moral standpoint

    • D. 

      Attention

  • 145. 
    One way to align public perceptions to a potentially controversial technological issues is to include the public in the decisions at the early stage of its development. This is referred to as ...
    • A. 

      Upstream engagement

    • B. 

      Public empowerment

    • C. 

      Preliminary public involvement

    • D. 

      Public engagement

  • 146. 
    Spence et al. 2011 found that people who had experienced flooding were 
    • A. 

      More concerned about climate change

    • B. 

      Just as concerned about climate change

    • C. 

      More likely to make external attributions to climate change

    • D. 

      Were less likely to undertake energy saving behaviour

  • 147. 
    • A. 

      Cognitive

    • B. 

      Spatial

    • C. 

      Social

    • D. 

      Temporal

  • 148. 
    • A. 

      Contextual considerations

    • B. 

      Abstract thinking

    • C. 

      Schematic considerations

    • D. 

      High level construals

  • 149. 
    Participants had to decide whether to attend a guest lecture or not that was occurring in the distant future. Which factors would Construal Level Theory predict would be most influential in influencing attendance
    • A. 

      How interesting the lecture is likely to be

    • B. 

      How convenient it is to get to the lecture theatre

    • C. 

      Whether your friends will be attending the lecture

    • D. 

      The timing of the lecture in relation to the participant's schedule

  • 150. 
    The theory to explain the differences between psychological closeness and distance is ...
    • A. 

      Construal level theory

    • B. 

      Psychological distance theory

    • C. 

      Behavioural spill over

    • D. 

      Cognitive evaluation theory

  • 151. 
    • A. 

      Contextual considerations

    • B. 

      Concrete thinking

    • C. 

      Schematic considerations

    • D. 

      Low level construals

  • 152. 
    Objects considered psychologically distant will ...
    • A. 

      Be considered in more abstract terms

    • B. 

      Lead us to feel less confident about their outcome

    • C. 

      Be seen as less desirable

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 153. 
    • A. 

      Feasability

    • B. 

      Desirability

    • C. 

      Enjoyment

    • D. 

      Success

  • 154. 
    Bar-Anan et al. (2007) used a picture-word stroop task to test automatic processing of psychological distance and found a significant stroop effect in ...
    • A. 

      All aspects of distance

    • B. 

      Temporal distance and social distance

    • C. 

      Spatial distance only

    • D. 

      Spatial distance and uncertainty

  • 155. 
    Construal level theory allows additional understanding of ...
    • A. 

      Why we describe outgroups in more abstract and enduring terms

    • B. 

      Why we are more likely to assign dispositional attributions to ourselves

    • C. 

      Why were are more likely to assign situational attributions to others

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 156. 
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      20

    • D. 

      5

  • 157. 
    • A. 

      More abstract

    • B. 

      More organised

    • C. 

      More situational

    • D. 

      More discrete

  • 158. 
    • A. 

      Conservation

    • B. 

      Self-enhancement

    • C. 

      Self-transcendence

    • D. 

      Openness to change

  • 159. 
    • A. 

      Conservation

    • B. 

      Self-enhancement

    • C. 

      Self-transcendence

    • D. 

      Openness to change

  • 160. 
    • A. 

      Conservation

    • B. 

      Self-enhancement

    • C. 

      Self-transcendence

    • D. 

      Openness to change

  • 161. 
    • A. 

      Conservation

    • B. 

      Self-enhancement

    • C. 

      Self-transcendence

    • D. 

      Openness to change

  • 162. 
    • A. 

      Spirituality

    • B. 

      Hedonism

    • C. 

      Power

    • D. 

      Security

  • 163. 
    Maio et al. (2009) found results that would lead us to believe that maybe we use values as social tools and are 'activated' rather than always being innate. What did he find that created this idea?
    • A. 

      People shift their values to match unknown peers

    • B. 

      People readily drop their values when confronted

    • C. 

      People describe their values differently upon multiple times of asking

    • D. 

      All of these things were found by Maio

  • 164. 
    If a campaign to make me turn more lights off in my house also made me consider other energy saving behaviours such car pooling, what has happened?
    • A. 

      Behavioural spillover

    • B. 

      Behavioural rebound

    • C. 

      Attitude extension

    • D. 

      Cognitive evaluation

  • 165. 
    Negative behavioural spillover would result in ...
    • A. 

      Undertaking small actions as a justification for not undertaking others

    • B. 

      Using good actions in one domain to justify bad actions in another

    • C. 

      Undertaking irrelevant actions to distract from cognitive dissonance

    • D. 

      Undertaking bad actions as a result of cognitive dissonance

  • 166. 
    The rebound effect in behavioural spill over would result in ...
    • A. 

      Undertaking small actions as a justification for not undertaking others

    • B. 

      Using good actions in one domain to justify bad actions in another

    • C. 

      Undertaking irrelevant actions to distract from cognitive dissonance

    • D. 

      Undertaking bad actions as a result of cognitive dissonance

  • 167. 
    Motivation determines the ... of behaviour
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Strength

    • C. 

      Direction

    • D. 

      Persistence

  • 168. 
    • A. 

      Esteem needs

    • B. 

      Safety needs

    • C. 

      Belongingness and love needs

    • D. 

      Physiological needs

  • 169. 
    • A. 

      Self-actualisation

    • B. 

      Esteem

    • C. 

      Belongingness and love

    • D. 

      These are all deficiency needs

  • 170. 
    • A. 

      The Overjustification effect is where competence is overemphasised

    • B. 

      The Overjustification effect is where the individual feels controlled by the reward offered

    • C. 

      The Overjustification effect is where the individual is offered the rewards in advance

    • D. 

      The Overjustification effect is where the individual feels social approval for their behaviour

  • 171. 
    • A. 

      Regulation

    • B. 

      Relatedness

    • C. 

      Autonomy

    • D. 

      Competence

  • 172. 
    • A. 

      Giving him a surprise reward because he did so well

    • B. 

      Tell him as long as he tries hard he'll get a reward

    • C. 

      Tell him if he's good he'll get a reward

    • D. 

      Saying, Well done, you must keep it up!

  • 173. 
    If I pay someone to play videogames but then remove that reward and find that they play videogames less during that time, what has happened
    • A. 

      Undermining of intrinsic motivation

    • B. 

      Overestimation of intrinsic motivation

    • C. 

      Masking of intrinsic motivation

    • D. 

      External attribution of intrinsic motivation

  • 174. 
    • A. 

      Satisfaction

    • B. 

      Rewards

    • C. 

      Demands

    • D. 

      Pressure

  • 175. 
    Cognitive evaluation theory ...
    • A. 

      Examines the effects of external events on intrinsic motivation

    • B. 

      Examines the effects of internal events on intrinsic motivation

    • C. 

      Examines the effects of external events on extrinsic motivation

    • D. 

      Examine the effects of external events on extrinsic motivation

  • 176. 
    Deci et al. conducted a meta-analysis and found that what type of reward was the only one to not effect intrinsic motivation?
    • A. 

      Task non-contingent

    • B. 

      Engagement-contingent

    • C. 

      Completion contingent

    • D. 

      Performance contingent

  • 177. 
    Deci et al. conducted a meta-analysis and found that what type of reward undermined intrinsic motivation but did not effect self reported interest?
    • A. 

      Task non-contingent

    • B. 

      Engagement-contingent

    • C. 

      Completion contingent

    • D. 

      Performance contingent

  • 178. 
    • A. 

      Tangible rewards

    • B. 

      Positive verbal feedback

    • C. 

      Verbal rewards

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 179. 
    When completing a mind-numbing task, what is the best way to observe the undermining effect?
    • A. 

      Undermining does not occur without intrinsic motivation

    • B. 

      Pay me to do it and then remove the reward

    • C. 

      Inform me about a reward as long as I carry out good work

    • D. 

      Place a reward in front of me and promise me it if I complete the task

  • 180. 
    • A. 

      Positive verbal reward

    • B. 

      Engagement-contingent rewards

    • C. 

      Highly salient rewards

    • D. 

      Completion-contingent rewards

  • 181. 
    When forming an impression of someone, which information is of most importance?
    • A. 

      Earliest

    • B. 

      Most recent

    • C. 

      Most typical

    • D. 

      Most central

  • 182. 
    • A. 

      To prevent cognitive dissonance

    • B. 

      Save cognitive energy

    • C. 

      Helps make category predictions

    • D. 

      Maintain a positive self-esteem

  • 183. 
    Haire and Grune (1950) found that participants had a hard time integrating what piece of information into their stereotypical description of a working man?
    • A. 

      Intelligence

    • B. 

      Hard working

    • C. 

      Opinionated

    • D. 

      Leader

  • 184. 
    The crucial underlying of stereotypes is 
    • A. 

      Schemas

    • B. 

      Motivation

    • C. 

      Attitudes

    • D. 

      Ego

  • 185. 
    If I assume that 'immigrants are taking our jobs' - I have ...
    • A. 

      Performed an illusory correlation

    • B. 

      Behaved as a cognitive miser

    • C. 

      Fallen for my stereotype

    • D. 

      Over-extended an observation

  • 186. 
    The reductionist critique of social psychology states that social psychology ... ?
    • A. 

      Overly reduces the complexity of an issue

    • B. 

      Accepts the scientific method without criticism

    • C. 

      Devalues subjective data

    • D. 

      Did not give enough focus to individuals

  • 187. 
    In Jones and Harris' (1967) classic experiment participants asked to rate an essay writer's true attitudes on the basis of an essay written from one of two points of view and whether that view was chosen or not. Participants tended to disregard situational (choice) and overstate dispositional (essay point of view) information, this is evidence for ...?
    • A. 

      The actor-observer effect

    • B. 

      The fundamental attribution error

    • C. 

      The self-serving bias

    • D. 

      The availability heuristic

  • 188. 
    Of these personal statements, which is the affective attitude?
    • A. 

      I just love ice-cream

    • B. 

      Ice-cream helps me calm down

    • C. 

      Ice-cream gives me a cold headache

    • D. 

      Ice-cream makes you fat

  • 189. 
    Bernard is strongly career focused and is determined to become part of senior management in the company he works for as soon as possible. Which values would you expect Bernard to particularly endorse?
    • A. 

      Conservation

    • B. 

      Self-enhancement

    • C. 

      Self-transcendence

    • D. 

      Openness to change

  • 190. 
    Research on impression formation suggests that people tend to ...
    • A. 

      Dismiss later information about a person

    • B. 

      Use later information in their interpretation of early information about a person

    • C. 

      Have low attention during an initial meeting with a person

    • D. 

      Disregard earlier information about a person

  • 191. 
    Paired distinctiveness means that ...
    • A. 

      I associate minority groups with negative events because both occur less

    • B. 

      I associate minority groups with negative events because I have negative schema for both

    • C. 

      I associate ingroup with positive events because both occur less

    • D. 

      I associate ingroup with positive events because I have positive schema for both

  • 192. 
    • A. 

      Stereotypes are deployed in situations of social tension

    • B. 

      They are acquired at a later age

    • C. 

      They are quick to change with conflicting information

    • D. 

      Stereotypes are inaccurate and wrong representations

  • 193. 
    The Princeton Trilogy (1933 - 69) of studies concerning racial stereotypes provided evidence that ...
    • A. 

      Stereotypes have faded over the years

    • B. 

      Stereotypes have gotten stronger over the years

    • C. 

      Stereotypes have persisted over the years

    • D. 

      New stereotypes have replaced old stereotypes

  • 194. 
    Madon et al. (2001) repeated the Princeton Trilogy study and found that ...
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Stereotypes have changed in content over time

    • C. 

      Stereotypes have an increased consensus over time

    • D. 

      Stereotypes have become more favourable over time

  • 195. 
    Fiske et al. (2002) devised the stereotype content model which bases individual on their competence and warmth, a drug addict would be?
    • A. 

      Low competence, Low warmth

    • B. 

      Low competence, High warmth

    • C. 

      High competence, High warmth

    • D. 

      High competence, Low warmth

  • 196. 
    Fiske et al. (2002) devised the stereotype content model which bases individual on their competence and warmth, an elderly person would be?
    • A. 

      Low competence, Low warmth

    • B. 

      Low competence, High warmth

    • C. 

      High competence, High warmth

    • D. 

      High competence, Low warmth

  • 197. 
    Fiske et al. (2002) devised the stereotype content model which bases individual on their competence and warmth, a business person would be?
    • A. 

      Low competence, Low warmth

    • B. 

      Low competence, High warmth

    • C. 

      High competence, High warmth

    • D. 

      High competence, Low warmth

  • 198. 
    If my racist attitudes are maintained by my persistent avoidance of contact with members of another race, this is an example of?
    • A. 

      Aversive racism

    • B. 

      Implicit racism

    • C. 

      Innate racism

    • D. 

      Avoidant racism

  • 199. 
    Fiske et al. (2002) devised the stereotype content model which bases individual on their competence and warmth, a student would be?
    • A. 

      Low competence, Low warmth

    • B. 

      Low competence, High warmth

    • C. 

      High competence, High warmth

    • D. 

      High competence, Low warmth

  • 200. 
    Devine's (1989) studies that examine the stereotype process concluded that?
    • A. 

      Racism is due to a difference in motivation to inhibit an automatic stereotype

    • B. 

      Racism is due to differences in innate biases concerning race

    • C. 

      Racism is due to a difference in knowledge about stereotypes

    • D. 

      Racism is due to difference in stereotype priming effects

  • 201. 
    Detecting aversive racism would be unsuccessful with which of the following methods?
    • A. 

      Measuring verbal responses in an interview

    • B. 

      IAT reaction time task

    • C. 

      Measuring the bystander effect

    • D. 

      Measuring the linguistic intergroup bias effect

  • 202. 
    Racism is expressed when ...
    • A. 

      Egalitarian values are weak and they are in a homogenous group

    • B. 

      Egalitarian values are strong and they are in a homogenous group

    • C. 

      Egalitarian values are weak and they are in a heterogenous group

    • D. 

      Egalitarian values are strong and they are in a heterogenous group

  • 203. 
    An unfavourable attitude towards a social group and its members is ...
    • A. 

      Prejudice

    • B. 

      Discrimination

    • C. 

      Stereotyping

    • D. 

      Dehumanisation

  • 204. 
    Singling out members of a social group and treating them unfairly based on their group membership is ...
    • A. 

      Prejudice

    • B. 

      Discrimination

    • C. 

      Stereotyping

    • D. 

      Dehumanisation

  • 205. 
    Stripping people of their dignity and their humanity ...
    • A. 

      Prejudice

    • B. 

      Discrimination

    • C. 

      Stereotyping

    • D. 

      Dehumanisation

  • 206. 
    Tokenism is ...
    • A. 

      A small act to mask underlying prejudice

    • B. 

      Denying someone help because of race

    • C. 

      Favouring a minority group member

    • D. 

      Acting on a strong highly accessible negative attitude

  • 207. 
    Reverse discrimination is ...
    • A. 

      A small act to mask underlying prejudice

    • B. 

      Denying someone help because of race

    • C. 

      Favouring a minority group member

    • D. 

      Acting on a strong highly accessible negative attitude

  • 208. 
    • A. 

      Homophobia

    • B. 

      Tokenism

    • C. 

      Favouritism

    • D. 

      Reluctance to help

  • 209. 
    • A. 

      Social dominance theory

    • B. 

      Social identity theory

    • C. 

      Social learning theory

    • D. 

      Mere exposure effect

  • 210. 
    Familiarity increases liking is the hallmark of what theory of discrimination?
    • A. 

      Social dominance theory

    • B. 

      Social identity theory

    • C. 

      Social learning theory

    • D. 

      Mere exposure effect

  • 211. 
    Observational learning is the hallmark of what theory of discrimination?
    • A. 

      Social dominance theory

    • B. 

      Social identity theory

    • C. 

      Social learning theory

    • D. 

      Mere exposure effect

  • 212. 
    Group membership is the hallmark of what theory of discrimination?
    • A. 

      Social dominance theory

    • B. 

      Social identity theory

    • C. 

      Social learning theory

    • D. 

      Mere exposure effect

  • 213. 
    • A. 

      Frustration and aggression can occur in isolation

    • B. 

      There are no examples of scape goatism

    • C. 

      There is no appreciation of individual behaviour

    • D. 

      Anger towards target rarely spills over onto similar others

  • 214. 
    • A. 

      Neuroticism

    • B. 

      Dogmatism

    • C. 

      Authoritiarian

    • D. 

      Social dominance

  • 215. 
    • A. 

      Authoritarian personality

    • B. 

      Dogmatic personality

    • C. 

      Social dominant personality

    • D. 

      Social identity and self categorisation

  • 216. 
    Personality theories of discrimination fail to account for ...
    • A. 

      All of these things

    • B. 

      Situational factors

    • C. 

      Sudden attitude changes

    • D. 

      Social processes that shape individual behaviour

  • 217. 
    The desire for your own group to be dominant to others groups and maintain that status quo is the hallmark of ...
    • A. 

      Social dominance theory

    • B. 

      Authoritarian personality

    • C. 

      Dogmatic personality

    • D. 

      Social identity theory

  • 218. 
    The biggest problem with belief congruence theory of prejudice is that
    • A. 

      It is too restrictive

    • B. 

      It is too unrestricted

    • C. 

      It is not supported by evidence

    • D. 

      It accounts for prejudice but not for discrimination

  • 219. 
    Multiple cultures and both genders agree that women are ...
    • A. 

      Low competence, high warmth

    • B. 

      Low competence, low warmth

    • C. 

      High competence, high warmth

    • D. 

      High competence, low warmth

  • 220. 
    Multiple cultures and both genders agree that men are ...
    • A. 

      Low competence, high warmth

    • B. 

      Low competence, low warmth

    • C. 

      High competence, high warmth

    • D. 

      High competence, low warmth

  • 221. 
    Sex stereotypes persist mostly due to ...
    • A. 

      Minor personality differences that are exaggerated

    • B. 

      Prevalent personality differences that confirm the stereotypes

    • C. 

      Cognitive laziness

    • D. 

      Social pressure to behave a certain way for men and women

  • 222. 
    The glass-ceiling effect within sex discrimination refers to ...
    • A. 

      Women rarely entering top-flight management due to competence perceptions

    • B. 

      Women rarely being promoted despite the perception that they will

    • C. 

      Women being over-promoted due to tokenism creating an unreal perception that society believes in their competence

    • D. 

      Women only succeeding in jobs that are in the traditional woman's sphere of work

  • 223. 
    The largest responsibility for maintaining sex stereotypes arguably belongs with ...
    • A. 

      The media

    • B. 

      Men

    • C. 

      Women

    • D. 

      The government

  • 224. 
    Face-ism is a term coined to describe ...
    • A. 

      The greater prominence of women's bodies in the media

    • B. 

      The greater prominence of women's heads in the media

    • C. 

      The reduced prominence of female actors in films

    • D. 

      The greater prominence of female actors that are conventionally attractive in films

  • 225. 
    If a women succeeds in a difficult task, her performance will be attributed more readily to ...
    • A. 

      Luck

    • B. 

      Ability

    • C. 

      Effort

    • D. 

      Determination

  • 226. 
    A group in terms of psychology does NOT defined on what characteristic?
    • A. 

      A history of interactions between members

    • B. 

      Individuals that interact and influence each other

    • C. 

      A perception between individuals of belonging to the group

    • D. 

      Interdependence among group members

    • E. 

      Seeking to achieve a common goal/need

  • 227. 
    The dynamic relationship between the group and its members in terms of changes in roles and commitment is termed?
    • A. 

      Group socialisation

    • B. 

      Group evolution

    • C. 

      Group dynamics

    • D. 

      Group development

  • 228. 
    In Tuckman's (1965) model of group socialisation, which is the final step?
    • A. 

      Adjourning

    • B. 

      Performing

    • C. 

      Norming

    • D. 

      Storming

    • E. 

      Forming

  • 229. 
    • A. 

      Forming - Storming - Norming - Performing - Adjourning

    • B. 

      Forming - Norming - Storming - Performing - Adjourning

    • C. 

      Forming - Storming - Performing - Norming - Adjourning

    • D. 

      Forming - Norming - Performing - Storming - Adjourning

  • 230. 
    Although Tuckman's (1965) model was the first to consider groups as non-static entities, what was the additional element that Moreland and Levine's model had that enhanced the view of group socialisation?
    • A. 

      Examined dynamics across the lifespan of a group

    • B. 

      Examined dynamics within small interactive groups

    • C. 

      Examined the processes by which groups dissolve

    • D. 

      Examined the processes of group equilibrium

  • 231. 
    • A. 

      Working through disagreements to build identity

    • B. 

      Evaluation of rewards and contributions

    • C. 

      Evaluations of commitment

    • D. 

      Role transitions

  • 232. 
    At which point within Moreland and Levine's model of group socialisation does role negotion occur?
    • A. 

      Full member

    • B. 

      Prospective member

    • C. 

      Marginal member

    • D. 

      New member

  • 233. 
    The force binding people as members of a group is referred to as ...
    • A. 

      Cohesiveness

    • B. 

      Commitment

    • C. 

      Conforming

    • D. 

      Socialisation

  • 234. 
    Festinger et al. (1950) said that cohesiveness within a group was the product of a field of forces, which of these is not one of his forces?
    • A. 

      Adherence to group standards

    • B. 

      Attractiveness of individual and of the group

    • C. 

      Social interaction

    • D. 

      Mediation of individual goals

  • 235. 
    A group that achieves high cohesiveness is likely to additionally have ...
    • A. 

      All of these things

    • B. 

      Specific intra-group communication

    • C. 

      Have high conformity to group norms

    • D. 

      Accentuated similarity

  • 236. 
    Summation is ..
    • A. 

      Average interpersonal attraction across a group

    • B. 

      Average cohesiveness behaviours exhibited by a group

    • C. 

      Average similarity between group members

    • D. 

      Average acceptance of a new comer within a group

  • 237. 
    If I have a high social attraction with members of my group but a low personal attraction to a specific member this means that
    • A. 

      I like the person as a group member but not as a person

    • B. 

      I like the group but not everyone in it

    • C. 

      I like the person until they are within the group context

    • D. 

      I dislike the person but put up with them for the sanctity of the group

  • 238. 
    Group norms ...
    • A. 

      Have a strong effect on people's behaviour

    • B. 

      Add uncertainty about socially appropriate actions

    • C. 

      Cannot be enforced by law

    • D. 

      Rarely lead to vilifcation if violated

  • 239. 
    • A. 

      Creating control and conformity over group members

    • B. 

      Division of labour

    • C. 

      Creating clear-cut social expectations

    • D. 

      Creating self-definition and place within groups

  • 240. 
    The prestige of a job that a member has within a group is its ..
    • A. 

      Status

    • B. 

      Structure

    • C. 

      Role

    • D. 

      Rank

  • 241. 
    • A. 

      Expectation states theory

    • B. 

      Specific status theory

    • C. 

      Diffuse status theory

    • D. 

      Societal status theory

  • 242. 
    • A. 

      Expectation states theory

    • B. 

      Specific status theory

    • C. 

      Diffuse status theory

    • D. 

      Societal status theory

  • 243. 
    • A. 

      Expectation states theory

    • B. 

      Specific status theory

    • C. 

      Diffuse status theory

    • D. 

      Societal status theory

  • 244. 
    In a study by Knotterus and Greenstein (1981) examining percentage yielding responses from a participants under different conditions of status to a confederate, which situation saw the highest yielding rate?
    • A. 

      When the participant had a lower specific status and lower diffuse status

    • B. 

      When the participant had a lower specific status but higher diffuse status

    • C. 

      When the participant had a higher specific status but lower diffuse status

    • D. 

      When the participant had a higher specific status and higher diffuse status

  • 245. 
    Groups perform better than individuals when solving ...
    • A. 

      Factual problems

    • B. 

      Real-world problems

    • C. 

      Factual and real-world problems

    • D. 

      Individuals performed better in both situations

  • 246. 
    Groups find real world problems harder than factual problems. This is unlikely to be due to ...
    • A. 

      Conformity to a single person's opinion

    • B. 

      Concerns with social judgements and offending others

    • C. 

      Unwillingness to take responsibility

    • D. 

      Lack of confidence in solutions

  • 247. 
    In which of these situations would you be better to sit alone to solve the problem than consult the group?
    • A. 

      Brainstorming ideas for a holiday

    • B. 

      Remembering the details of a film you all went to see

    • C. 

      Working out a budget plan

    • D. 

      Solving a crossword

  • 248. 
    In a memory tasks, the Group did not out perform the individual in ...
    • A. 

      Number of errors made

    • B. 

      The amount of correct information recalled

    • C. 

      Number of meta-statements

    • D. 

      Number of over-interpretations

  • 249. 
    Systematic reviews of brainstorming have showed that individuals ... 
    • A. 

      Are 2x more creative than groups

    • B. 

      Generate 2x more ideas than groups

    • C. 

      Are equally as creative as groups

    • D. 

      Generate about half the number of ideas as group

  • 250. 
    Brainstorming is ineffective, which of these is NOT suggested as a reason why ...
    • A. 

      Cognitive laziness

    • B. 

      Fear of evaluation

    • C. 

      Free riding and motivation loss

    • D. 

      Production blocking

  • 251. 
    • A. 

      Excessive group cohesiveness

    • B. 

      Stereotyping of out group members

    • C. 

      Feeling of invulnerability

    • D. 

      Unquestioning belief that the group is right

    • E. 

      Tendency to ignore information that is contrary to the group

  • 252. 
    • A. 

      Direct pressure exerted on dissidents to bring them into line

    • B. 

      Insulation of group from external influence

    • C. 

      Lack of impartial leadership and norms

    • D. 

      Ideological homogeneity of membership

  • 253. 
    McCauley (1989) - reanalysed 6 historical group think cases and found that only three of the following for antecedents of group think were unique to Groupthink cases, which one was also found in non-Groupthink cases?
    • A. 

      Group cohesion

    • B. 

      Group insulation

    • C. 

      Lack of impartial leadership

    • D. 

      Ideological group homogeneity

  • 254. 
    Esser's 1998 review of Groupthink experimentation found mixed results but found which general finding?
    • A. 

      Directive leadership predicted Groupthink

    • B. 

      Directive leadership and group cohesiveness predicted Groupthink

    • C. 

      Group cohesiveness predicted Groupthink

    • D. 

      There were no strong predictors of Groupthink

  • 255. 
    • A. 

      Removing excessive group cohesiveness

    • B. 

      Discussing solution with expert non-group members

    • C. 

      Having a neutral and open leader who accepts criticism

    • D. 

      Considering unpopular alternatives as a group

  • 256. 
    The tendency for group discussion to make people more extreme in their views and decisions is called ...
    • A. 

      Group polarization

    • B. 

      Group extremism

    • C. 

      Group determinism

    • D. 

      Group coercion

  • 257. 
    A polarized group needs what additional factor to make their decisions more dangerous?
    • A. 

      To value risk-taking

    • B. 

      To be intolerant of other people's viewing

    • C. 

      To be in a highly cohesive setting

    • D. 

      To be authoritarian personality types

  • 258. 
    The idea that group polarisation occurs because of a greater exposure to more arguments supporting one's opinion is 
    • A. 

      Persuasive arguments theory

    • B. 

      Bandwagon effect

    • C. 

      Pluralistic ignorance

    • D. 

      Social identity theory

  • 259. 
    The idea that group polarisation occurs because we take more extreme views to differentiate ourselves from others is ...
    • A. 

      Persuasive arguments theory

    • B. 

      Bandwagon effect

    • C. 

      Pluralistic ignorance

    • D. 

      Social identity theory

  • 260. 
    The idea that group polarisation occurs because group discussion can liberate people to be true to their beliefs is 
    • A. 

      Persuasive arguments theory

    • B. 

      Bandwagon effect

    • C. 

      Pluralistic ignorance

    • D. 

      Social identity theory

  • 261. 
    The idea that group polarisation occurs because group membership encourages conformity to group norms is ...
    • A. 

      Persuasive arguments theory

    • B. 

      Bandwagon effect

    • C. 

      Pluralistic ignorance

    • D. 

      Social identity theory

  • 262. 
    • A. 

      Societal

    • B. 

      Economic

    • C. 

      Motivational

    • D. 

      Cognitive

  • 263. 
    The negative outcomes from intergroup behaviour are regulated by ...
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Awareness of social groups

    • C. 

      Identification with social group

    • D. 

      Power/status of social group

  • 264. 
    The motivational perspective of explaining intergroup conflict does not involve ...
    • A. 

      Realistic conflict theory

    • B. 

      Relative deprivation

    • C. 

      Social Identity theory

    • D. 

      Terror management theory

  • 265. 
    Realistic Conflict theory suggests what as the cause for intergroup conflict?
    • A. 

      Resources

    • B. 

      In-group attitudes

    • C. 

      Mental processes

    • D. 

      Lack of intergration

  • 266. 
    Sherif's Realistic Conflict Theory does NOT involve what idea?
    • A. 

      Relative deprivation

    • B. 

      Ethnocentrism

    • C. 

      Resources

    • D. 

      Emphasis on the actual/real differences between groups

  • 267. 
    Sherif's summer camp experiment required the two teams of boys to go through four phases, which of the following was NOT a phase in the experiment?
    • A. 

      Intragroup competition

    • B. 

      Spontaneous friendship forming

    • C. 

      Intergroup competition

    • D. 

      Intergroup cooperation

  • 268. 
    Mutually exclusive goals between individuals will likely result in ...
    • A. 

      Inter-individual competition

    • B. 

      Group formation

    • C. 

      Cooperation

    • D. 

      Ethnocentrism and conflict

  • 269. 
    Mutually exclusive goals between groups will result in ...
    • A. 

      Intergroup conflict

    • B. 

      Intergroup cooperation

    • C. 

      Inter-individual competition

    • D. 

      Intragroup conflict

  • 270. 
    Superordinate goals between groups will result in ...
    • A. 

      Intergroup conflict

    • B. 

      Intergroup cooperation

    • C. 

      Inter-individual competition

    • D. 

      Intragroup conflict

  • 271. 
    By providing a superordinate goal that multiple groups to work towards you can effectively ....
    • A. 

      Merge the competing groups into one unit

    • B. 

      Remove intergroup conflict long-term

    • C. 

      Promote cooperation for only as long as the superordinate goal remains

    • D. 

      Increase intergroup conflict and hostility

  • 272. 
    Dickerson's critical review of Realistic Conflict Theory did NOT suggest that ...
    • A. 

      Is competition really understood through group processes?

    • B. 

      Is competition necessary for conflict?

    • C. 

      Is cooperation sufficient for reducing conflict?

    • D. 

      Are perceived material threats truly irrelevant?

  • 273. 
    The discrepancy between actualities and expectations of entitlements is 
    • A. 

      Relative deprivation

    • B. 

      Terror management theory

    • C. 

      Cognitive conflict theory

    • D. 

      Realistic conflict theory

  • 274. 
    Davies' J-Curve (1969) represents ...
    • A. 

      Relative deprivation

    • B. 

      Terror management

    • C. 

      Realistic conflict

    • D. 

      Procedural injustice

  • 275. 
    Egotistical Relative Deprivation (RD) is an individuals own sense of deprivation compared to others, what is the term for a collective sense of deprivation where one group feels that it has less than it is entitled to?
    • A. 

      Fraternalistic RD

    • B. 

      Communual RD

    • C. 

      Collective RD

    • D. 

      Sororitic RD

  • 276. 
    There are four factors affecting the rate of Fraternalistic Relative Deprivation, which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      Discrimination and Prejudice

    • B. 

      Strong group identification

    • C. 

      Perceived effectiveness of action

    • D. 

      Ingroup-outgroup comparisons

  • 277. 
    The Minimal Group Paradigm (Tajfel, 1981) showed that which criteria was necessary for group conflict to occur?
    • A. 

      None of these were necessary

    • B. 

      A strong criterion to form an in-group with

    • C. 

      Past history OR possible future of the group

    • D. 

      Knowledge of other members of the group to at least some degree

    • E. 

      Some self-interest in the group e.g. money reward

  • 278. 
    Social identity theory of group conflict has fast become the dominant theory in this field and relies on ...
    • A. 

      Self-esteem

    • B. 

      Resource competition

    • C. 

      Ingroup norms

    • D. 

      Intergroup contact

  • 279. 
    Fein and Spencer (1997) conducted an experiment in which students either received intellectual praise or scorn and then had to rate either a Jewish or Non-Jewish candidates personality following their own feedback. In which situation did the students rate the personality of the candidate as the worst/lowest?
    • A. 

      When they received intellectual scorn and the candidate was Jewish

    • B. 

      When they received intellectual scorn regardless of the candidate's ethnicity

    • C. 

      When the received intellectual praise regardless of the candidate's ethnicity

    • D. 

      When they received intellectual praise and the candidate was Jewish

  • 280. 
    Terror management theory relies on what to explain intergroup conflict?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Impending mortality

    • C. 

      Cultural world views

    • D. 

      Self-esteem

  • 281. 
    McGregor et al. (1998) reminded people of their mortality and then subsequently had them evaluate like-minded or dissimilar political people, what was the experimental condition that generated the highest aggression?
    • A. 

      Mortality salience + dissimilar people

    • B. 

      Mortality salience + like-minded people

    • C. 

      Control + like-minded people

    • D. 

      Control + dissimilar people

  • 282. 
    Self-Categorisation theory of intergroup conflict is a sub-theory of ...
    • A. 

      Social identity theory

    • B. 

      Realistic Conflict theory

    • C. 

      Terror Management theory

    • D. 

      Relative Deprivation theory

  • 283. 
    The meta-contrast principle within self-categorisation theory strives to ...
    • A. 

      Maximise outgroup differences and minimise in-group differences

    • B. 

      Minimise outgroup and ingroup differences

    • C. 

      Maximise outgroup and ingroup differences

    • D. 

      Minimise outgroup differences and maximise ingroup differences

  • 284. 
    When a social category is salient it can lead to ...
    • A. 

      Depersonalisation

    • B. 

      Intergroup cooperation

    • C. 

      Prejudice

    • D. 

      High self-esteem

  • 285. 
    The tendency to see ingroup members as more differentiated and outgroup members as the same is the 
    • A. 

      Relative homogeneity effect

    • B. 

      Relative heterogeneity effect

    • C. 

      Accentuation effect

    • D. 

      Masking effect

  • 286. 
    The overestimation of similarities among people within a category and the idissimilarities between people from different categories is the ..
    • A. 

      Relative homogeneity effect

    • B. 

      Relative heterogeneity effect

    • C. 

      Accentuation effect

    • D. 

      Masking effect

  • 287. 
    Allport (1954) suggested that CONTACT was the way of reducing intergroup conflict but which of the following was NOT one of the criteria he set out for this contact to get the best results?
    • A. 

      Reward for participation

    • B. 

      Prolonged and cooperative

    • C. 

      Institutionally supported

    • D. 

      Between groups of equal social status

  • 288. 
    Pettigrew and Tropp (2006) found that which of Allport's conditions for intergroup contact to reduce conflict were necessary?
    • A. 

      None of them - pure contact was enough

    • B. 

      Institutionally supported contact

    • C. 

      Cooperative contact

    • D. 

      Prolonged contact

  • 289. 
    Wilder examined what the type/quality of contact would do to reduce conflict between groups and found that what type of contact providing the most favourable outgroup attitude?
    • A. 

      Pleasant + typical

    • B. 

      Pleasant + atypical

    • C. 

      Unpleasant + typical

    • D. 

      All of these promoted less conflict

  • 290. 
    Some groups feel they have suffered more than others and hence do not want to nullify intergroup conflict. This is known as ...
    • A. 

      Competitive victimhood

    • B. 

      Biased victimisation

    • C. 

      Group Inequality

    • D. 

      Relative deprivation

  • 291. 
    Intergroup competitive victimhood can stand in the way of reducing intergroup conflict, which of the following is NOT a way to decrease this problem as suggested by Noor et al. (2012)
    • A. 

      Focus on the future to overcome the past

    • B. 

      Address the emotional motivations

    • C. 

      Foster a common victimhood identity

    • D. 

      Increase intergroup contact and perceived similarity between groups

  • 292. 
    The collective violence observed in the 2014 Fergusson (Missouri) Riots can be explained by:
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Social facilitation

    • C. 

      Deindividuation

    • D. 

      Relative deprivation

  • 293. 
    Zimbardo's prison experiment was called of by day ...
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      5

    • D. 

      10

  • 294. 
    The guards in the prison were told by Zimbardo to ...
    • A. 

      Take away their individuality

    • B. 

      Use physical force where necessary

    • C. 

      To create a sense of fear without taking away their sense of freedom

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 295. 
    'The primary single lesson of the Stansford Prison Experiment is that ... '
    • A. 

      Situation matters

    • B. 

      Deindividuation matters

    • C. 

      Social identity matters

    • D. 

      Group context matters

  • 296. 
    Individuals in the Stansford Prison Experiment felt a reduced responsibility and a sensation that morals and ethics did not apply to them. What was the key factor in enabling this?
    • A. 

      The role

    • B. 

      The environment

    • C. 

      Their personalities

    • D. 

      The system

  • 297. 
    • A. 

      External situation of anonymity

    • B. 

      Internal situation of anonymity

    • C. 

      External situation of dehumanisation

    • D. 

      Internal situation of dehumanisation

  • 298. 
    According to Zimbardo, the situation is key for shaping behaviour, but what did he also say was key for shaping the situation?
    • A. 

      The system

    • B. 

      The environment

    • C. 

      The individual

    • D. 

      The group

  • 299. 
    Reicher and Haslam (2006) criticised Zimbardo's prison experiment, which of the following was NOT one of their criticisms?
    • A. 

      Without physical violence, it is hard to assess whether this is a true representation of tyranny

    • B. 

      Data was observation without a control measure

    • C. 

      There was evidence that some prisoners and guards did not fully adopt the roles

    • D. 

      Very few reactions were recorded or are available so its a very hard experiment to verify

    • E. 

      Zimbardo's presence in the study likely contaminated the results

  • 300. 
    • A. 

      Identity-consistent behaviour

    • B. 

      Role-consistent behaviour

    • C. 

      Group-consistent behaviour

    • D. 

      Anonymity-consistent behaviour

  • 301. 
    In which of the following ways were the Stanford and BBC experiment similar?
    • A. 

      Both used psychometric tests pre-experiment

    • B. 

      Both sets of guards had guidance on how to behave to the prisoners

    • C. 

      Both had equal sets of guards and prisoners

    • D. 

      Both recorded everything

  • 302. 
    Within the BBC prison experiment, what unique action occured on day 3?
    • A. 

      Prisoner promotion

    • B. 

      Guard demotion

    • C. 

      New prisoner arrival

    • D. 

      Role reversal

  • 303. 
    In the BBC experiment, the crucial thing that made the prisoners form a social identity and consensus and shift from compliance to conflict with the guards was ... 
    • A. 

      Realising the inequality

    • B. 

      All being labelled by numbers

    • C. 

      Sharing inferior conditions together

    • D. 

      The guards exerting their power too much

  • 304. 
    In the BBC experiment social identification with groups was highest from day ... onwards
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      5

    • D. 

      10

  • 305. 
    Within the BBC prison experiment ...
    • A. 

      Only prisoners formed an effective group

    • B. 

      Only guards formed an effective group

    • C. 

      Both guards and prisoners formed effective groups

    • D. 

      Both guards and prisoners formed ineffective groups

  • 306. 
    Within the BBC prison experiment, the awareness of cognitive alternatives did what between days 3 - 6 between prisoners and guards?
    • A. 

      Slowing increased in both guards and prisoners

    • B. 

      Slowly increased only in prisoners

    • C. 

      Slowly decreased in guards

    • D. 

      Slowly decreased in both guards and prisoners

  • 307. 
    Within the BBC prisoner experiment, compliance to the system varied by ...
    • A. 

      Decreasing in prisoners but remaining the same in guards

    • B. 

      Increasing in guards and decreasing in prisoners

    • C. 

      Decreasing in both guards and prisoners

    • D. 

      Remaining the same for both groups across the experiment

  • 308. 
    In the BBC prison experiment rates of depression ...
    • A. 

      Increased in guards, decreased in prisoners

    • B. 

      Increased in both guards and prisoners

    • C. 

      Decreased in both guards and prisoners

    • D. 

      Decreased in guards but increased in prisoners

  • 309. 
    In the BBC prison experiment, by day 6, daily cortisol had ...
    • A. 

      Increased in both guards and prisoners

    • B. 

      Decreased in both guards and prisoners

    • C. 

      Increased in prisoners only

    • D. 

      Increased in guards only

  • 310. 
    In the BBC experiment, on day 7 an authoritarian regime was proposed through the marginalised individuals who did not appreciate the new commune. What were the changes in authoritarianism that were observed?
    • A. 

      Everyone saw an increase

    • B. 

      Only prisoners saw an increase

    • C. 

      Only guards saw an increase

    • D. 

      Only the marginalised individuals saw an increase

  • 311. 
    The BBC prison experiment was terminated because the new authoritarian system could not be imposed without force, hence the experiment could not continue, on what day of the study?
    • A. 

      8

    • B. 

      6

    • C. 

      10

    • D. 

      9

  • 312. 
    The BBC experiment concluded that, according to social identity theory, what condition is necessary for people to create a system of inequality for themselves?
    • A. 

      Group failure

    • B. 

      Dehumanisation

    • C. 

      Deinidividuation

    • D. 

      Role adoption

  • 313. 
    The BBC experiment suggested that social identity and group breakdown is key to the establishment of a tyrannical regime, but what additional factor is key for extreme behaviour to occur?
    • A. 

      Where group norms permit it

    • B. 

      Situations with dehumanisation

    • C. 

      Situations with deinidividuation

    • D. 

      Where one group had more power

  • 314. 
    There are a number of potential critiques of the BBC Prison Experiment, which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      The value of self-report measures alone

    • B. 

      The role that television may have had on participants performance

    • C. 

      The role of personality and character change

    • D. 

      The reality of the inequality within the experiment

  • 315. 
    Changing one's behaviour in response to explict/implicit pressure from others is ...
    • A. 

      Compliance

    • B. 

      Conversion

    • C. 

      Obedience

    • D. 

      Conformity

  • 316. 
    Submitting to the demands of someone who is higher in the social hierarchy than oneself
    • A. 

      Compliance

    • B. 

      Conversion

    • C. 

      Obedience

    • D. 

      Conformity

  • 317. 
    Changing one's external behaviour following the explicit request of another person is
    • A. 

      Compliance

    • B. 

      Conversion

    • C. 

      Obedience

    • D. 

      Conformity

  • 318. 
    Internalising and accepting the behavioural requests of another person is
    • A. 

      Compliance

    • B. 

      Conversion

    • C. 

      Obedience

    • D. 

      Conformity

  • 319. 
    • A. 

      It is based on power

    • B. 

      It represents a true internal change

    • C. 

      It persists in the absence of surveillance

    • D. 

      It is guided by informational influence

  • 320. 
    Sherif's (1935) conclusions that people's answers converge due to conformity have been criticised because
    • A. 

      It is unclear whether participants felt any social pressure to conform

    • B. 

      The sample size was too small to draw reliable conclusions

    • C. 

      The results were observed due to demand characteristics

    • D. 

      It measured compliance rather than conformity

  • 321. 
    In Asch's (1952) unambiguous judgements task - group influence managed to create an average conformity of 
    • A. 

      33%

    • B. 

      66%

    • C. 

      25%

    • D. 

      50%

  • 322. 
    In Asch's (1952) unambiguous judgements task - group influence did not affect how many people?
    • A. 

      33%

    • B. 

      66%

    • C. 

      25%

    • D. 

      50%

  • 323. 
    Deutsch and Gerard (1955) found that what situation generated the least conformity?
    • A. 

      Low pressure, Low uncertainty

    • B. 

      Low pressure, High uncertainty

    • C. 

      Low uncertainty, High pressure

    • D. 

      High uncertainty, High pressure

  • 324. 
    The situations where social identity shapes individual behaviour to be consistent with salient group identity is
    • A. 

      Referent informational influence

    • B. 

      Social identity pressure

    • C. 

      Social normative influence

    • D. 

      Social obedience

  • 325. 
    Conformity ...
    • A. 

      Has generally declined over time

    • B. 

      Is higher in Men than women

    • C. 

      Is higher in Small groups than Large group

    • D. 

      Is higher in Individualist than collectivist countries

  • 326. 
    Individuals with more ... have larger social influence
    • A. 

      Expertise and status

    • B. 

      Expertise

    • C. 

      Status

    • D. 

      Power

  • 327. 
    Within Moscovici's (1976) genetic model of social influence says that majority and minority groups can influence eachother in three ways, which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      Persuasion

    • B. 

      Normalisation

    • C. 

      Innovation

    • D. 

      Conformity

  • 328. 
    A minority group creating and accentuating a conflict to persuade a majority group to adopt their viewpoint is ...
    • A. 

      Innovation

    • B. 

      Creation

    • C. 

      Persuasion

    • D. 

      Accentuation

  • 329. 
    In which situations would a minority group's message be difficult to dismiss or discredit?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      When the message is consistent across time and context

    • C. 

      When the individuals are acting out of principle

    • D. 

      When there is personal or material sacrifice for a cause

  • 330. 
    According to Conversion theory - Minority influence acts through
    • A. 

      Informational influence

    • B. 

      Informational dependence

    • C. 

      Normative influence

    • D. 

      Normative dependence

  • 331. 
    The sudden and dramatic change in attitude of the majority due to minority influence is the ...
    • A. 

      Conversion effect

    • B. 

      Reversal effect

    • C. 

      Compliance effect

    • D. 

      Informational influence

  • 332. 
    Milgram's (1963) classic study was aiming to understand ...
    • A. 

      Obedience

    • B. 

      Compliance

    • C. 

      Conformity

    • D. 

      Conversion

  • 333. 
    In Milgram's original experiment, what percentage of people administered the final lethal shock?
    • A. 

      63%

    • B. 

      51%

    • C. 

      20%

    • D. 

      84%

  • 334. 
    In Milgram's 1963 experiment, which of the following was unlikely to be a factor influencing obedience?
    • A. 

      Knowledge of lethality of shock equipment

    • B. 

      Closeness of authority

    • C. 

      Legitimacy of authority

    • D. 

      Proximity of shock equipment

  • 335. 
    A person who moves from a place of autonomy to viewing themselves as acting in the responsibility of others orders has ...
    • A. 

      Entered an agentic state

    • B. 

      Become fully obedient

    • C. 

      Dehumanised themselves

    • D. 

      All of these things

  • 336. 
    • A. 

      An undue focus on the processes that govern obedience rather than the behaviour

    • B. 

      The experiment contained strain-resolving mechanisms

    • C. 

      Conformity rates are likely dependent on other factors such as time, awareness and culture

    • D. 

      There is no evidence that an agentic state exists

  • 337. 
    Over time, conformity rates have ...
    • A. 

      Decreased

    • B. 

      Increased

    • C. 

      Increased but only in certain cultures

    • D. 

      Stayed the same

  • 338. 
    Haslam and Reicher (2011) provided a different account for the Milgram study than agentic obedience which was based on ...
    • A. 

      Social identity

    • B. 

      Cognitive dissonance

    • C. 

      Selective conformity

    • D. 

      Active obedience

  • 339. 
    Within a social identity account of obedience in Milgram's study, adhering to the instructions to continue the experiment are successful because
    • A. 

      They are now group norms

    • B. 

      They are issued as commands

    • C. 

      They encourage agentic shift

    • D. 

      They make disobeying more cognitively straining

  • 340. 
    Within Milgram's study (1963) compliance would be higher if ...
    • A. 

      The learner is unseen and unheard

    • B. 

      The experiment was conducted in an industrial setting

    • C. 

      The participant is issued orders by the experimenter to keep going

    • D. 

      All of these increase compliance

  • 341. 
    Burger's (2009) replication of Milgram's study had a voltage that terminated at ...
    • A. 

      150V

    • B. 

      450V

    • C. 

      300V

    • D. 

      50V

  • 342. 
    Burger's (2009) replication of Milgram's experiment 5 had what difference from the original experiment?
    • A. 

      Burger's experiment involved a heavy pre-screening process only

    • B. 

      The learner was revealed to have a heart condition only in the original

    • C. 

      The scripted 'you must continue' from the experiment was dropped for Burger's

    • D. 

      After 150V the learner begins to yell 'get me out of here' in Burger's only

  • 343. 
    Burger's (2009) replication of Milgram's experiment involved the Modeled Refusal Condition which involved ...
    • A. 

      Participants acting as the second teacher

    • B. 

      Participants acting as the first teacher

    • C. 

      After 90V the experiment ended

    • D. 

      Experimenter asking the confederate to take over the participant as the teacher

  • 344. 
    Compared to Milgram's original study, what did Burger's (2009) and Dolinski et al.'s (2017) replications find in terms of obedience rate?
    • A. 

      They were both not significantly different from the original study

    • B. 

      Only Burger's replication had significantly lower obedience

    • C. 

      Only Dolinski et al.'s replication had significantly lower obedience

    • D. 

      They were both significantly lower in obedience to the original study

  • 345. 
    In Dolinski et al.'s (2017) replication of Milgram's study he introduced a female 'learner' and found that participants were 
    • A. 

      3 x more likely to refuse

    • B. 

      2 x more likely to refuse

    • C. 

      2 x more likely to go to 150V

    • D. 

      Just as likely to go to 150V

  • 346. 
    Culture can be seen as the expression of group norms at the ...
    • A. 

      All of the above

    • B. 

      National level

    • C. 

      Racial level

    • D. 

      Ethnic level

  • 347. 
    96% of samples in psychology come from countries that represent ... of the words population
    • A. 

      30%

    • B. 

      96%

    • C. 

      12%

    • D. 

      55%

  • 348. 
    WEIRD is a categorisation of the features of Western society that is unique to the West and yet we base our generalisation about human behaviour from them, which of the following words does NOT fit in the WEIRD acronym?
    • A. 

      Institutionalised

    • B. 

      Rich

    • C. 

      Educated

    • D. 

      Democratic

  • 349. 
    Henrich et al. (2010) found that, on average, WEIRD samples in the ultimatum game were ... compared to multicultural others.
    • A. 

      More fair

    • B. 

      Less fair

    • C. 

      Just as fair

    • D. 

      Less fair but it was insignificant

  • 350. 
    Hofstede (1980) conducted a study to characterise culture by 5 different values. He conduced the study on Denmark, GB and Hong Kong. Which of the following values ONLY applied to GB?
    • A. 

      Concerned with material success

    • B. 

      Individualistic

    • C. 

      Egalitarian

    • D. 

      Collectivist

  • 351. 
    Hofstede (1980) conducted a study to characterise culture by 5 different values. He conduced the study on Denmark, GB and Hong Kong. Which of the following values ONLY applied to Denmark?
    • A. 

      Concerned with material success

    • B. 

      Individualistic

    • C. 

      Egalitarian

    • D. 

      Collectivist

  • 352. 
    Hofstede (1980) conducted a study to characterise culture by 5 different values. He conduced the study on Denmark, GB and Hong Kong. Which of the following values ONLY applied to HK?
    • A. 

      Concerned with material success

    • B. 

      Individualistic

    • C. 

      Egalitarian

    • D. 

      Collectivist

  • 353. 
    • A. 

      The boundary between self and others is permeable

    • B. 

      Strong and unique traits are internalised

    • C. 

      Your identity remains unique from others

    • D. 

      All of these are true

  • 354. 
    Women in Western societies are more likely than men to define themselves in terms of their relationships and hence rely on
    • A. 

      Relational self-construal

    • B. 

      Independent self-construal

    • C. 

      Interdependent self-construal

    • D. 

      Collectivist self-construal

  • 355. 
    Asking participants to complete 20 sentence stems that start with 'I am' is used to measure self construal and is called the
    • A. 

      Twenty statements task

    • B. 

      Priming self construal task

    • C. 

      Construal questionnaire

    • D. 

      Likert construal scale

  • 356. 
    Masuda and Nisbett (2001) presented Japanese and American participants with scenes in which novel objects and/or novel backgrounds could be presented and the participant had to decide whether they had seen the object before or not. What was the result?
    • A. 

      Japanese made more errors on previously seen objects on novel backgrounds

    • B. 

      Japanese made more errors on novel objects on previously seen backgrounds

    • C. 

      Americans made more errors on novel objects on previously seen backgrounds

    • D. 

      Americans made more errors on previously seen objects on novel backgrounds

  • 357. 
    Kitayama et al. (2003) were examining cultural differences in perception. They found that Japanese participants suffered many more errors on an absolute judgement task (is this line the same length as the original one) and American participants suffered more errors on relative judgement task (is this line in the same proportion to the previous one) - what did they find concerning Americans studying abroad in Japan?
    • A. 

      Had a higher error rate for the absolute task

    • B. 

      Had a higher error rate for the relative task

    • C. 

      Had an equally high error rate for both tasks

    • D. 

      Had an error rate equivalent to Americans living in America

  • 358. 
    East Asian participants ...
    • A. 

      Process visual information hollistically and are less likely to make the correspondence bias

    • B. 

      Process visual information hollistically and are more likely to make the correspondence bias

    • C. 

      Process visual information focally and are less likely to make the correspondence bias

    • D. 

      Process visual information focally and are more likely to make the correspondence bias

  • 359. 
    Morris and Peng (1994) found a difference between Chinese and American students in explaining social events since ...
    • A. 

      Chinese students were always more likely to attribute external factors

    • B. 

      Chinese students were always more likely to attribute internal factors

    • C. 

      Chinese students were more likely to attribute external factors only in compulsion displays

    • D. 

      Chinese students were more likely attribute external factors only in collection displays

  • 360. 
    We have found key cultural difference in ...
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Attention

    • C. 

      Perception

    • D. 

      Attribution

  • 361. 
    Oyserman et al. (2002) did NOT suggest which limitation to cross-cultural psychology methods?
    • A. 

      Over dependence on WEIRD samples

    • B. 

      Individual/collectivism is often assumed without measurement

    • C. 

      There is an over-reliance on correlational studies

    • D. 

      There are a diversity of measures used to measure the same DV

  • 362. 
    Interdependent cultures differ in how they value connectedness - respecting others by observing norms dictated by one's position in the social hierarchy is termed a ...
    • A. 

      'keeping face' culture

    • B. 

      'honour' culture

    • C. 

      'hierarchical' culture

    • D. 

      'dependent' culture

  • 363. 
    Interdependent cultures differ in how they value connectedness - pride that is based on social image, reputation and other' evaluation is termed a ...
    • A. 

      'keeping face' culture

    • B. 

      'honour' culture

    • C. 

      'hierarchical' culture

    • D. 

      'dependent' culture

  • 364. 
    The biggest criticism of defining culture by individualist/Collectivist or Independent construal vs. interdependent construal is ...
    • A. 

      There is huge variation within those categories

    • B. 

      They are Western ideas we are imposing on other nations

    • C. 

      The measurements were have for them are weak

    • D. 

      The reliance is too heavy on correlational data

  • 365. 
    An individual would be considered to have an implicit preference for white people compared to black people if they responded faster when:
    • A. 

      White people were paired with a positive category

    • B. 

      Either or both of these

    • C. 

      Only in the presence of both of these

    • D. 

      Black people were paired with a negative category

  • 366. 
    Hofstede (1980) identified a number of dimensions that he argued varied between different cultures. Which one of these was NOT identified by Hofstede?
    • A. 

      Self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence

    • B. 

      Individualism vs. Collectivism

    • C. 

      Power distance

    • D. 

      Masculinity vs. Femininity