Social Psychology Final

64 Questions

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Social Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz will help you study for Ms. Bells Social Psychology Final Fall 2008.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What is the focus of social psychology?
    • A. 

      How groups define and shape society.

    • B. 

      The actions of small groups of individuals.

    • C. 

      The behavior and thoughts of individuals.

    • D. 

      The effects that society has on group behaviors.

  • 2. 
    Kim knows she needs to go away to take summer courses, but she worries about leaving her new boy friend for 3 months. She wonders, will "absence make the heart grow stronger" be true, or is "out of sight, out of mind" more applicable. What concept is illustrated by this example?
    • A. 

      The accuracy of common sayings.

    • B. 

      The complexity of jealousy.

    • C. 

      The need to rely on experience to determine action.

    • D. 

      The unscientific nature of conventional wisdom.

  • 3. 
    What does the evolutionary perspective on social psychology suggest?
    • A. 

      Much of our behavior is biologically determined and can not be consciously known.

    • B. 

      We cannot act counter to the drives established by our genetic inheritance.

    • C. 

      We are driven by our genes to act in specific ways in every social situation.

    • D. 

      We inherit tendencies or predispositions to behavior in certain ways.

  • 4. 
    What is the ideal self?
    • A. 

      A mental representation of the kind of person we actually are.

    • B. 

      A mental representation of the kind of person we would like to meet.

    • C. 

      A mental representation of the kind of person we would like to be.

    • D. 

      A mental representation of the kind of person we would like for our partner.

  • 5. 
    What does a negative correlations indicate?
    • A. 

      One variable increases as the other decreases

    • B. 

      The relationship between two variables is very weak

    • C. 

      There is no meaningful relationship between two variables

    • D. 

      Two variables tend to decrease at the same time

  • 6. 
    Which of the following values would indicate the “strongest” correlation?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      .66

    • C. 

      + or - .33

    • D. 

      - .72

  • 7. 
    Research has shown a positive correlation between 1) socio-economic status of the family of origin and 2) college graduation rates.  Based on this information, what can we conclude?
    • A. 

      Having adequate financial resources from one’s family will cause a student to finish college

    • B. 

      Financial aid and student loans do not take the place of having strong financial backing from your family

    • C. 

      Students from wealthier families are more likely to complete college than students form to poorer families

    • D. 

      Students from poorer families have a more difficult time adjusting to college life and are not prepared academically

  • 8. 
    An experimenter exposes participants to different room temperature levels to determine the effect of temperature on aggression. Aggression is what type of variable?               
    • A. 

      A confounding variable

    • B. 

      The control variable.

    • C. 

      The dependent variable.

    • D. 

      An independent variable

  • 9. 
    An experimenter has students work in a hot room or a cold room to determine the effect of temperature on test performance.   The different room temperature levels are what type of variable?
    • A. 

      A confounding variable

    • B. 

      The control variable.

    • C. 

      The dependent variable

    • D. 

      An independent variable

  • 10. 
    What is the process during which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world known as?
    • A. 

      Automatic processing

    • B. 

      Encoding information

    • C. 

      Heuristic thinking

    • D. 

      Social cognition

  • 11. 
    In a now-famous study, Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that randomly selected elementary school students experienced a spurt in IQ score.  What was this largely as a result of?
    • A. 

      Educational strategies that raised the students’ self-esteem.

    • B. 

      Increased parental involvement and support.

    • C. 

      Intensified academic training.

    • D. 

      The teachers' elevated expectations.

  • 12. 
    What is belief that leads to the belief coming true called?
    • A. 

      Behavioral perseverance.

    • B. 

      Belief confirmation

    • C. 

      Self-confirming validity.

    • D. 

      Self-fulfilling prophecy.

  • 13. 
    What is the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if that person resembles a typical group member? 
    • A. 

      Availability heuristic

    • B. 

      Matching heuristic

    • C. 

      Representativeness heuristic

    • D. 

      Vividness heuristic

  • 14. 
    What is assuming most crimes involve violence because the news seems to always report on rapes, robberies, and beatings an example of?
    • A. 

      Availability heuristic

    • B. 

      Matching heuristic

    • C. 

      Representativeness heuristic

    • D. 

      Vividness heuristic

  • 15. 
    You get an 89 on your social psychology examination and you think of all the possible things you could have done to get an A.  What is this example of?
    • A. 

      Counterfactual thinking.

    • B. 

      Explicit thinking.

    • C. 

      Implicit thinking.

    • D. 

      Fundamental attribution

  • 16. 
    What is the act of increasing the availability of particular associations in memory  by exposure to specific stimuli called?
    • A. 

      Galvanization

    • B. 

      Initiation

    • C. 

      Priming

    • D. 

      Triggering

  • 17. 
    Having watched a particularly scary movie while she was home alone, Martha finds herself jumping at every sound her old house makes. What is this due to?     
    • A. 

      Her mood at the time

    • B. 

      Her schema of the house

    • C. 

      Being primed by the movie

    • D. 

      Anchoring and adjustment

  • 18. 
    Why are we more likely to remember positive information when we are in a positive mood? 
    • A. 

      Two-factor theory of emotion

    • B. 

      Mood congruence effects

    • C. 

      Affective state regulation

    • D. 

      The optimism bias

  • 19. 
    What are emblems?
    • A. 

      Misleading gestures in all cultures

    • B. 

      Macroexpressions of deception

    • C. 

      Cross-cultural signals

    • D. 

      Gestures with culture specific meanings

  • 20. 
    A fellow student is consistently late to class. You assume this is because he or she is lazy and unorganized. What type of attribution are you making for the other student's behavior?
    • A. 

      Dispositional

    • B. 

      External

    • C. 

      Motivational

    • D. 

      Situational

  • 21. 
    According to the attribution theorist Kelley (1973), what three types of information do we use when we make attributions for other people's behavior?
    • A. 

      Conformity, differentiation, and character

    • B. 

      Conformity, distinctiveness, and consensus

    • C. 

      Consistency, differentiation, and character

    • D. 

      Consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus

  • 22. 
    What is the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other people's behavior called?
    • A. 

      The dispositional assignment.

    • B. 

      The false consensus bias.

    • C. 

      . The fundamental attribution error.

    • D. 

      The misinformation effect

  • 23. 
    When Susan saw James slip and fall on a patch of ice, she assumed it was because James is clumsy, even though she had also just slipped on a patch of ice. What is this example of?
    • A. 

      Fundamental attribution error

    • B. 

      An implicit personality theory

    • C. 

      Augmenting principle

    • D. 

      A noncommon effect

  • 24. 
    Jones and Harris had students read debaters' speeches either supporting or attacking Cuban leader Fidel Castro. When the students were later told that the debater's position had been assigned, what did they do?
    • A. 

      They assumed the debater's position merely reflected the demands of the assignment.

    • B. 

      They concluded that the debate coach was an effective persuader.

    • C. 

      They concluded that to some extent the speech reflected the speaker's true beliefs.

    • D. 

      They described the speaker's position as poorly developed.

  • 25. 
    .   _____ is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a reaction originally evoked by a different stimulus.
    • A. 

      Observational learning

    • B. 

      Operant conditioning

    • C. 

      Social learning

    • D. 

      Classical conditioning

  • 26. 
    _____ is the classical conditioning of attitudes by exposure to stimuli that are below an individual's threshold of awareness.
    • A. 

      . Social conditioning

    • B. 

      Awareness conditioning

    • C. 

      Subliminal conditioning

    • D. 

      Operant conditioning

  • 27. 
    According to the theory of planned behavior, what is the first step we take in making a decision about pursuing a particular behavior?
    • A. 

      Considering the subjective norms

    • B. 

      Considering attitude toward the behavior

    • C. 

      Considering various conflicting attitudes

    • D. 

      Considering if we can do the behavior

  • 28. 
    Suppose a breaking news story has occurred involving an incident of terrorism.  A news station invites a well-respected terrorism scholar to discuss the issue.  Why will this person’s view likely be persuasive?
    • A. 

      Not trying to change attitudes

    • B. 

      Credible because of credentials

    • C. 

      Attractive looks

    • D. 

      Pluralistic ignorance

  • 29. 
    Persuasion is more effective when _____.
    • A. 

      The communicator is attractive

    • B. 

      The spokesperson speaks slowly

    • C. 

      Distractions are kept to a minimum

    • D. 

      . The spokesperson appears somewhat nervous

  • 30. 
    What is selective avoidance?
    • A. 

      Our tendency to direct our attention to information that challenges our attitudes

    • B. 

      Our tendency to direct our attention away from information that requires effortful processing

    • C. 

      Our tendency to direct our attention away from information that challenges our attitudes.

    • D. 

      Our tendency to direct our attention away to information that requires effortful processing

  • 31. 
    What is the internal state that results when individuals become aware of inconsistencies among two or more attitudes or behaviors?
    • A. 

      Selective avoidance

    • B. 

      Attitude accessibility

    • C. 

      Cognitive dissonance

    • D. 

      Ego-defensive function

  • 32. 
    What is the strategy of minimizing the importance of inconsistent attitudes or behavior to reduce cognitive dissonance called? 
    • A. 

      Self-affirmation

    • B. 

      Trivialization

    • C. 

      Forewarning

    • D. 

      . Induced compliance

  • 33. 
    .  _____ involves comparisons between individuals who are members of the same group.
    • A. 

      An upward social comparison

    • B. 

      . Intragroup comparisons

    • C. 

      . Intergroup comparisons

    • D. 

      The self reference effect.

  • 34. 
    What is a conception of an individual that may become self-descriptive of that individual some time in the future?
    • A. 

      An anticipatory self

    • B. 

      An “ought” self

    • C. 

      A possible self

    • D. 

      A refracted self

  • 35. 
    What are cultures that emphasize loyalty to the family, adherence to group norms, and the preservation of harmony in social relations with members of one’s own group called?
    • A. 

      Acculturated

    • B. 

      Collectivist

    • C. 

      Communalities

    • D. 

      Individualist

  • 36. 
    What is self-esteem?
    • A. 

      Desire to be esteemed by others

    • B. 

      Evaluations of others about the self.

    • C. 

      Positive or negative evaluation of the self by oneself.

    • D. 

      Positive emotion that one is experiencing at the moment.

  • 37. 
    In what group in the United States are gender differences in self-esteem most pronounced?
    • A. 

      African Americans.

    • B. 

      Prison Populations of all races.

    • C. 

      White lower class.

    • D. 

      College educated professionals.

  • 38. 
    Recent research on the effects of gender stereotypes in the workplace (Jackson, Esses, and Burris, 2001) has demonstrated that men are given _____ than women, which results in _____.
    • A. 

      More respect; higher hiring recommendations for men

    • B. 

      . less respect; lower hiring recommendations for men

    • C. 

      Less respect; neutral hiring recommendations for men

    • D. 

      More respect; lower hiring recommendations for men

  • 39. 
    Five-year old Jess’ parents feel threatened by then number of immigrant workers they see as competing for jobs they want and so prejudice toward Hispanics.  How are they most likely teaching Jess prejudice?
    • A. 

      Attachment reinforcement

    • B. 

      By direct instruction

    • C. 

      Emotional contagion

    • D. 

      . social learning

  • 40. 
    _____ is a conceptual framework in which interpersonal attraction is assumed to be based on both positive and negative emotions.
    • A. 

      The repulsion hypothesis

    • B. 

      Theproportion of similarity

    • C. 

      The affect-centered model of attraction

    • D. 

      An adaptive response

  • 41. 
    _______ represents the physical distance between two individuals.
    • A. 

      Proportion of distance

    • B. 

      Similarity

    • C. 

      Repeated exposure

    • D. 

      Proximity

    • E. 

      Repulsion

  • 42. 
    Composite photographs of faces are usually rated as _________ attractive than photos of individual faces.
    • A. 

      Equally

    • B. 

      More

    • C. 

      Less

    • D. 

      Not being different from

  • 43. 
    The proportion of similarity is _____________ .
    • A. 

      The finding that people respond favorably to those who are similar to them and negatively to those who are dissimilar

    • B. 

      The discredited idea that opposites attract each other

    • C. 

      The extent to which two individuals share the same attitudes

    • D. 

      The ratio of similarity indicators to dissimilarity indicators for two people

  • 44. 
    Suppose that during a conversation with one of your best friends, you discover that she dislikes social psychology.  You, on the other hand, like this subject a lot.  How would you describe the relationship under these conditions?
    • A. 

      Balanced

    • B. 

      Vacillating

    • C. 

      Imbalanced

    • D. 

      Threatened

  • 45. 
    Which of the following shows interdependence in a relationship?
    • A. 

      Alice buys groceries at a local grocer because she feels it is important to support the local economy.

    • B. 

      Bob sees his girlfriend several times a week, texts her frequently and has been influenced by her political attitudes

    • C. 

      Carla was persuaded to vote against gun control by an attractive man she met at a social function.

    • D. 

      David frequently goes to the cafeteria at the same time and he finds the cashier there to be attractive

  • 46. 
    What is the process an infant is experiencing when he or she responds positively to a specific person, feels better when that person is close, and when the infant seeks out this person when he or she is frightened?
    • A. 

      Attachment

    • B. 

      Convergence

    • C. 

      Social referencing

    • D. 

      Reactance

  • 47. 
    What is the adult attachment style that characterizes a person who feels somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others or trusting a romantic partner completely but has a relatively high level of self-worth?
    • A. 

      Dismissing

    • B. 

      Fearful-avoidance

    • C. 

      Preoccupied

    • D. 

      Secure

  • 48. 
    Paul is not concerned about Rachel losing interest in him and he believes that he is worthy and well liked. What tyoe of attachement style is Paul likely to have?
    • A. 

      Dismissing

    • B. 

      Fearful-avoidant

    • C. 

      Preoccupied

    • D. 

      Secure

  • 49. 
    When Katelyn graduated high school she had planned to go away to college like all of her close friends, however, her father lost his job and Katelyn had to stay at home.  She is working at a job where she doesn’t know anyone and because her friends have left the area she has no one with whom to socialize.  What is Katelyn experiencing?
    • A. 

      Interdependence

    • B. 

      Jealousy

    • C. 

      Lack of interpersonal trust

    • D. 

      Social exclusion

  • 50. 
    What does evolutionary theory suggest about mate selection?
    • A. 

      Men should be attracted to younger, more financially stable women.

    • B. 

      Men should be attracted to older, more physically attractive women.

    • C. 

      Women should be attracted to younger, more physically attracted men.

    • D. 

      Women should be attracted to older, more financially stable men.

  • 51. 
    What apsect of facial symmetry do men look for more than women?
    • A. 

      Bilatateral

    • B. 

      Horizontal

    • C. 

      Visual

    • D. 

      Unilateral

  • 52. 
    What type of love is characterized by friendship, attraction, shared interest, and mutual respect?
    • A. 

      Companionate

    • B. 

      Intimate

    • C. 

      Passionate

    • D. 

      Sexual

  • 53. 
    Lance has an intense emotional reaction to Ali and is sure he is in love with her. His friends think he is just infatuated with Ali. What type of love is it likely that Lance is experiencing?
    • A. 

      Consummate love

    • B. 

      Ludic love

    • C. 

      Passionate love

    • D. 

      Unrequited love

  • 54. 
    _____ is a form of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behavior in order to adhere to existing social norms.
    • A. 

      Obedience

    • B. 

      Social influence

    • C. 

      Ingratiation

    • D. 

      Individuation

    • E. 

      Conformity

  • 55. 
    _____ includes all efforts to change the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, or behaviors of others.
    • A. 

      Ingratiation

    • B. 

      Conformity

    • C. 

      Obedience

    • D. 

      Social influence

    • E. 

      Compliance

  • 56. 
    Behavioral rules that indicate how people are expected to act in particular situations are _____.
    • A. 

      Cohesiveness regulations

    • B. 

      Descriptive norms

    • C. 

      Social norms

    • D. 

      Normative focus

    • E. 

      Compliance mores

  • 57. 
    Public conformity involves _____; private acceptance involves _____.
    • A. 

      Coming to feel or think as others do; doing or saying what others around us say or do

    • B. 

      Doing what others think we should do; accepting as our own the beliefs that others provide for us

    • C. 

      Doing or saying what others around us say or do; coming to feel or think as others do

    • D. 

      Wanting to act as others think we should; wanting to act as others act

    • E. 

      Behaving as others tell us we should behave; behaving as we wish to behave

  • 58. 
    _____ specify which behaviors are approved or disapproved in a particular situation.
    • A. 

      Conformity norms

    • B. 

      Injunctive norms

    • C. 

      Focus norms

    • D. 

      Descriptive norms

    • E. 

      Obedience norms

  • 59. 
    _____ guide our behavior in particular situations or environment, sometimes without our awareness.
    • A. 

      Descriptive norms

    • B. 

      Situational norms

    • C. 

      Individual norms

    • D. 

      Focus norms

    • E. 

      Injunctive norms

  • 60. 
    Greater conformity occurs _____, while greater individuation occurs _____.
    • A. 

      In individuals with greater needs for personal control; in individuals with greater needs for acceptance

    • B. 

      When the deadline technique is used; when other persuasive techniques are used

    • C. 

      When individuation pressures are great; when deindividuation pressures are great

    • D. 

      In collectivist societies; in individualistic societies

    • E. 

      In individualistic societies; in collectivist societies

  • 61. 
    Karen and Josh are planning to have dinner at an upscale restaurant near where Josh works. They have both eaten at this restaurant before, but this will be the first time they have been to the restaurant together. Research on gender differences in conformity suggest that _____.
    • A. 

      Josh will be more conscious of and obedient to social norms governing dining at fancy restaurants

    • B. 

      Karen will be more conscious of and obedient to social norms governing dining at fancy restaurants

    • C. 

      They will both be aware of the appropriate social norms, but Josh will be more likely to violate these norms

    • D. 

      They will both be aware of the appropriate social norms, but Karen will be more likely to violate these norms

    • E. 

      They will both conform to the social norms that govern dining at such places

  • 62. 
    One principle for gaining someone's compliance with a request is _____.
    • A. 

      Scarcity

    • B. 

      Individuation

    • C. 

      Resistance to authority

    • D. 

      Disjunctive norms

    • E. 

      Injunctive norms

  • 63. 
    _____ is a procedure for gaining compliance by first securing compliance with a small request, then escalating to a larger one.
    • A. 

      The compliance technique

    • B. 

      The low-ball technique

    • C. 

      The conformity technique

    • D. 

      The door-in-the-face technique allows an individual to gain compliance by first securing compliance with a small request, then escalating to a larger one.

    • E. 

      The foot-in-the-door technique

  • 64. 
    One reason for Milgram's (1965) surprising findings of very high levels of obedience to an authority figure is that _____.
    • A. 

      Many situations requiring obedience to authorities are dangerous for the person taking action

    • B. 

      Authority figures either explicitly or implicitly relieve individuals of responsibility for their own actions

    • C. 

      Authority figures appear to control information about the situation or circumstances and people are willing to comply with authorities in order to gain additional information

    • D. 

      Authority figures frequently threaten to harm individuals who do not comply with requests or instructions

    • E. 

      Persons in authority frequently use the door-in-the-face technique to gain compliance