SOC 376 Midterm Reading Questions

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Reading Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    As discussed in Gorski’s article Historicizing the Secularization Debate: Emile Durkheim theorized that…
    • A. 

      Religion was declining but society cannot function without it, therefore new religions would eventually replace old ones

    • B. 

      Religion was declining because society could easily function without it, therefore religion would be eradicated entirely

    • C. 

      Religion was increasing because society cannot function without it, therefore traditional religions will become more influential than ever

    • D. 

      Religion was stable because society is apathetic to it, therefore the future of religion and its influence are unknown

  • 2. 
    According to chapter 4 (Zuckerman et al), secularism has directly benefited many societies through the abolishment of divine-right monarchy governments and the subsequent introduction of modern-day democratic governments. Which historical-political event and ideology/philosophy initiated this movement?
    • A. 

      The Enlightenment & secular humanism

    • B. 

      Confederation & colonialism

    • C. 

      Women’s suffrage & intersectional feminism

    • D. 

      The Industrial revolution & utilitarianism

  • 3. 
    According to Wellman and Kyoko’s article Is Religious Violence Inevitable, why do nation states and modern secular elites fear, and seek to marginalize religion?
    • A. 

      Because religion does not submit to any external authority, nor can it be undercut by rational deconstruction since its source rests outside rational/ empirical modes of discourse

    • B. 

      Because many people are willing to do extraordinary things and give up normal preferences for universal social norms, in order to attain religious rewards

    • C. 

      Because as history shows us, there are patterns within religion that tend toward conflict and even violence

    • D. 

      Because new religious community tend to push their varied agendas in order to promote social and political transformation

  • 4. 
    In Berger’s article, Reflections on the Sociology of Religion Today, he references an example of the Gare du Nord in Paris, as having a “magical piece of pavement,” for what purpose?
    • A. 

      To support the view that secularization is a direct result of modernization, in expressing that when migrants came to Paris they ceased to be Catholic

    • B. 

      To support the view that modernization shifted people away from traditional churches, in expressing that when migrants came to Paris, they started practising their religions in more individualized, institutionally loose ways

    • C. 

      To support the view that secularization was most pronounced in bigger cities, in expressing that Catholic migrants who came to Paris, quickly converted to a Protestant theology

    • D. 

      To prove that modernization does not cause secularization, because when migrants came to Paris they began to identify as Catholics

  • 5. 
    “Based on national and international surveys with random samples and acceptable response rates, we can readily identify some of the most secular societies on earth today, because these societies share the following characteristics or traits…” What are some of the following characteristics or traits?
    • A. 

      Separation of Church and State, Secular Self-Identification, Weak Theism, Low levels of Religious Belief

    • B. 

      Weak Theism, High levels of Religious Belief, High rates of Religious Participation, Low rates of Religious Ritual Observance

    • C. 

      High levels of Religious Belief, High rates of Religious Participation, High rates of Religious Ritual Observance

    • D. 

      Animism, Belief in an Afterlife, Shamanism, Ancestor worship

  • 6. 
    David Chidester identifies four main religious uses of suicide.  Which one is found in Jonestown?
    • A. 

      To exact revenge against a government, news media, and traitors to the movement who have provoked the final suicidal act

    • B. 

      Devoted decision that it is better to die than to be constantly harassed from one continent to the next

    • C. 

      Severe crisis within Jonestown and the possibility of mass death during, or as a result of, an invasion

    • D. 

      Jonestown was martyrized as a community of God-fearing if unconventional Christians whose freedoms should have been guaranteed by the US Constitution, but who were instead killed by an ever more controlling government

  • 7. 
    According to Peter L. Berger (2001), what does the term “bricolage” refer to?
    • A. 

      People putting together a religion of their own like children tinkering with a lego-set, picking and choosing from the available religious “material”

    • B. 

      People advocating for an already established religion

    • C. 

      A process which religion diminishes in importance both in society and in the consciousness of individuals

    • D. 

      A cultural factor characterized by an ethic of hard work, discipline, frugality, strong family ties and great respect for education

  • 8. 
    In Thomas A. Idinopulos’ (1998) point of view, why is it not possible to understand the essential meaning of religion through studying “cumulative tradition” alone?
    • A. 

      Because in addition to “cumulative tradition,” the non-observable reality of faith and transcendence needs to be studied for an insightful meaning of religion

    • B. 

      “Cumulative tradition” includes faith and transcendence which is unnecessary for understanding the meaning of religion

    • C. 

      Idinopulos did in fact agree with the fact that “cumulative tradition” give a religion scholar ample data for study

    • D. 

      “Cumulative tradition” includes the non-observable facts reality of faith; however, the observable facts of religion should also be studied for understanding the meaning of religion

  • 9. 
    According to Urban, The People’s Temple is a good example of how labelling alternative religious movements as “cults” might be a problem. What is the main reason given that this poses an issue?
    • A. 

      The term “cult” is biased and carries negative connotations, as well as implicit criticisms

    • B. 

      It legitimizes alternative religious movements

    • C. 

      It is used for groups that challenge or reject mainstream social norms and live alternative lifestyles

    • D. 

      The term “cult” disguises the negative, darker or destructive aspects of alternative religious movements

  • 10. 
    According to Inglehart’s Theory of Human and Societal Development, why does religion not disappear despite increased individualization in the post-materialist/post-modern/post-industrial phase of societal development?
    • A. 

      Because religious function instead transforms, and provides absolute codes of conduct in an unsecure world to individualized spiritual concerns

    • B. 

      Because humans have little control over nature, they need religion to compensate for their lack of physical control by appealing to metaphysical powers

    • C. 

      The distribution of wealth is unequal therefore, citizens are not as existentially secure without religion

    • D. 

      Because the demand for religion remains roughly constant

  • 11. 
    How does Lois Lee define secularisation?
    • A. 

      Secularisation involves the marginalisation of religion

    • B. 

      Secularisation is defined by a relationship of difference to religion

    • C. 

      Secularisation is the rejection of religion

    • D. 

      Secularisation is ontologically autonomous from religion

  • 12. 
    What is unique about the secularization in the West?
    • A. 

      It has conceptual distinction between religious and secular, believer and nonbeliever, theist and atheist

    • B. 

      It is more focused on ritual than belief

    • C. 

      Atheism and nonreligion are highly scandalized and often criminalized

    • D. 

      88% of the population engages in worship of ancestors and local deities, and 85% adhere to magical beliefs and practices

  • 13. 
    According to Zuckerman et al. (2016), which of the following are shared characteristics of the most secular societies on earth?
    • A. 

      The separation of church and state, secular self-identification, weak theism, low levels of religious beliefs, low rates of religious participation, and low rate of religious ritual observance

    • B. 

      High levels of religious participation and several religious ritual observances

    • C. 

      The separation of the church and state, higher rates of religious participation, and the emergence of new religious movements

    • D. 

      Increased rates of murder, lower levels of peace, and less overall life satisfaction

  • 14. 
    Which of the following situations triggered Jim Jones to order the members of his Peoples Temple to commit the act of "Revolutionary Suicide", causing the death of over 900 people?
    • A. 

      In November 1978, with the murder of congressman Leo Ryan, who was attempting to bring willing members of the Peoples Temple back to their families

    • B. 

      In the early 1970s, when the movement came under attack by former members who spoke out publicly against Jim Jones

    • C. 

      In 1972, after the San Francisco Examiner published a series of articles attacking Jones

    • D. 

      In September 1977, after Jones transferred nearly 1000 members to Jonestown in Guyana

  • 15. 
    What extreme example does Idinopulos in “What Is Religion?” use to explain the differences that are crucial in shaping and understanding a religion?
    • A. 

      Theravada Buddhism

    • B. 

      Christianity

    • C. 

      Buddhism

    • D. 

      Judaism

  • 16. 
    In “Is Religious Violence Inevitable?”, what does Wellman Jr. and Tokuno argue?
    • A. 

      The symbolic and social boundaries of religion mobilize individual and group identity in conflict, and sometimes violence, within and between groups

    • B. 

      Patterns within religion leads to conflict and violence

    • C. 

      No definitions have put violence at the heart of religion

    • D. 

      Religious violence depends on cultural and political agendas

  • 17. 
    Define "secular studies” in the broadest sense?
    • A. 

      The interdisciplinary study of secular people, groups, thought and cultural expression in societies, culture, past and present

    • B. 

      The process whereby religious beliefs and practices weaken, diminish, or disappear over time in a given society

    • C. 

      The shifting of society towards modernity

    • D. 

      Concerned with affairs of this worlds

  • 18. 
    What are the general approaches taken up in the social sciences when it comes to grappling with the many meaning of "religion”?
    • A. 

      Functional, Subtractive, Constructionist

    • B. 

      Ideological, Economical, Political

    • C. 

      Religious Affiliation, Spiritual, Universal

    • D. 

      Charisma, Symbolic expression, Patterned behaviour

  • 19. 
    According to Zuckerman et al. there are 3 general approaches to religion; someone with a/an ________________ approach would argue that the essential feature of religion is its ability to provide an overarching structure of meaning for self.
    • A. 

      Inclusive

    • B. 

      Exclusive

    • C. 

      Relational

    • D. 

      Constructionist

  • 20. 
    Wellman & Tokuno’s “Is Religious Violence Inevitable?” suggests that as awareness of religious diversity _____________, the need to defend one’s religious symbol systems ____________.
    • A. 

      Increases; Increases

    • B. 

      Increases; Decreases

    • C. 

      Decreases; Decreases

    • D. 

      Decreases; Increases

  • 21. 
    Liebman (1983) argues which of the following about religious extremists?
    • A. 

      Religious extremists do not require explanation because extremism is consistent with basic religious tenets

    • B. 

      Extremists are entirely accounted for by developments extrinsic to the religion

    • C. 

      Religious extremists seek to keep their traditions private and separate from the public realm in order to maintain purity

    • D. 

      Extremists will often develop values non-indigenous to the religious tradition

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is one of Voas’ (2016) main arguments about Secularization Theory and the United States?
    • A. 

      United States is a not counterexample of Secularization Theory because there continues to be steady decline in American Religiosity

    • B. 

      United States is a counterexample of Secularization Theory because American Religiosity has been stable for decades

    • C. 

      United States is a counterexample of Secularization Theory because each successive cohort is more religious than the last

    • D. 

      United States is not a counterexample of Secularization Theory because there is increased public distrust in religious institutions

  • 23. 
    Which of the following is not a global trend favoring religiopolitics mentioned in the article “The New Religious Politics” by Nikki Keddie?
    • A. 

      Economic prosperity

    • B. 

      Increasing migration

    • C. 

      Growth in secular state power

    • D. 

      Global cultural homogenization

  • 24. 
    According to Mark Chaves in “Secularization as Declining Religious Authority,” what does the term “laicization” refer to?
    • A. 

      The process of differentiation whereby political, educational, scientific, and other institutions gain autonomy from the religious institutions of a society

    • B. 

      The process by which religious organizations undergo internal development towards conformity with the secular world

    • C. 

      Decline of religious beliefs and practices among individuals

    • D. 

      The transformation from a traditional, rural society to an industrial, urban society

  • 25. 
    According to Urban (2015), which of the following phenomenon directly refers to Neopagan group
    • A. 

      Looking back to an older past that has been forgotten but now being rediscovered or revived

    • B. 

      Decentralized beliefs and practices includes diverse array of spiritual practices such as astrology and aromatherapy

    • C. 

      Clear boundaries between insiders and outsiders; usually organized around a charismatic central figure

    • D. 

      Classifying small religious community that differs in significant ways from large organized religious institutions

  • 26. 
    According to Urban (2015), most of the esoteric traditions share at least four features and themes. Which of the following features state “the entire universe from the planets and stars in the heavens down to plants, animals and stones on the earth and every aspect of the human body is believed to be connected through a complex network”?
    • A. 

      The idea of correspondence

    • B. 

      The idea of living nature

    • C. 

      Multiple, vividly imagined intermediary entities between the human and the divine

    • D. 

      The experiences of transmutation

  • 27. 
    According to Thomas Idinopulos in the article “What Is Religion?”, which is a big part of the difficulty in understanding religion?
    • A. 

      We don't know how to use the word or what constitutes a misuse of the word

    • B. 

      A single definition of religion seems possible

    • C. 

      It is well known that religious people do not think of themselves as religious, because they cannot imagine themselves as other than religious

    • D. 

      It is the observable facts of religion, not the non observable reality of faith that should keep the scholar from presuming that through study alone the essential meaning of religion can be understood

  • 28. 
    What do the symbolic boundaries of religion provide?
    • A. 

      A powerful engine for individual and group identity formation

    • B. 

      The terms of exchange with the god or gods

    • C. 

      The power of religion to thrive in places of political and cultural oppression

    • D. 

      Their identity and mobilize their groups to action

  • 29. 
    According to Mark Juergensmeyer’s article, “Thinking Sociologically about Religion and Violence: The Case of ISIS.” Which of the following commonalities does ISIS members share?
    • A. 

      They all share a religious-based hope that with God’s help they will succeed

    • B. 

      They all believe in Islam

    • C. 

      Members in ISIS are all from Syria and Iraq

    • D. 

      Every member in ISIS communities supported ISIS for religious reasons

  • 30. 
    According to Thomas A. Idinopulos article, “What is religion?” Which of the following does Thomas’s believes in about faith?
    • A. 

      Faith is not only personal but also social

    • B. 

      Thomas seems to regard human beings as having a propensity for faith, so that one speaks of their faith as “innate”

    • C. 

      Religion is all about faith

    • D. 

      Social aspect of faith is not an inheritance, and religion can not be cumulative

  • 31. 
    Which of following best describes spiritualism during the nineteenth century?
    • A. 

      Offered direct contact with the spiritual realm and departed loved ones, without the need for scripture, clergy, or other institutional intermediaries

    • B. 

      Claimed to embody the ancient spiritual truth that lay at the heart of all the world’s religious and philosophical traditions

    • C. 

      Claimed to be rooted in the restoration of primitive Christianity, which were lost or misinterpreted

    • D. 

      Searched to explain an understanding of the human mind and the cause of suffering in this lifetime

  • 32. 
    Jones, of the Peoples Temple, used the term “White Nights” to describe which of the following?
    • A. 

      Mass death, potentially due to an invasion

    • B. 

      Practice suicide in the expectation of an imminent end to the world

    • C. 

      Revolutionary suicides

    • D. 

      Socialist paradise

  • 33. 
    According to Zuckerman (2016), secular studies often distinguish between “secularism” and “secularity” by dividing the subject matter into different levels/forms. Which of the following is not one of those levels?
    • A. 

      Historical

    • B. 

      Individual

    • C. 

      Popular

    • D. 

      Public

  • 34. 
    Which of the following statements most closely aligns with that of a seeker agnostic?
    • A. 

      I am open minded to some religious or spiritual claims and am aware of the limitations of the scientific approach

    • B. 

      I am a bit skeptical of religion but enjoy participating in some religious practices

    • C. 

      I do not care or pay attention to matters relating to religion or irreligion

    • D. 

      I openly criticize religion and engage in protests to express my opposition

  • 35. 
    According to Urban (2015), what does the term “Western esotericism” refer to?
    • A. 

      A long current of alternative religious ideas including (but not limited to) astrology, alchemy, various forms of magic, and secret societies

    • B. 

      A term with derogatory connotations applied in specific and negative ways to refer to groups that fall outside the dominant American traditions of “Protestant/Catholic/Jew”

    • C. 

      A religious movement founded by Marshall Applewhite that employed a rich mixture of Christian apocalyptic ideas, UFO beliefs, and other elements drawn from science fiction and popular culture

    • D. 

      A methodology that uses an ethnographic approach to study religious groups based on detailed interviews and long-term study of a particular community

  • 36. 
    Which of the following describes Norris and Ingleheart’s Economic and Existential Security Theory, according to Zuckerman et al. (2016)?
    • A. 

      As countries become wealthier and life becomes less precarious, demand for both substantive and metaphysical forms of support or protection supplied by religion declines

    • B. 

      Constant demand for the unique rewards of religion is met with a constantly shifting range of “religious products” that cater to this consistent demand amid shifting tastes

    • C. 

      Modern societies undergo a process involving rationalization, societalization, privatization, individualization, pluralism, and relativism where “the religious” is separated into a delimited domain

    • D. 

      People living in open, democratic societies stop finding belief in religion compelling; they lose interest in participating in religious congregations or rituals; and they maintain values, exhibit virtues, find meaning, and develop a sense of identity outside the sacred canopy of religion

  • 37. 
    According to Zuckerman, Galen, and Pasquale (2016), is the strong correlation between societies with high rates of secularity and societal success found internationally equally strong within the US?
    • A. 

      Yes, when comparing secular states with the most religious states, the secular states tend to fare better

    • B. 

      No, when comparing secular states with the most religious states, the religious states tend to fare better

    • C. 

      Yes, when comparing secular states with the most religious states, they tend to fare the same

    • D. 

      There is no evidence of strong correlations of secular states and societal success found in the US

  • 38. 
    Which of the following theories presented by Zuckerman, Galen, and Pasquale (2016) dubbed “rational choice” or “religious economies,” states that there holds the demand for religion which remains relatively constant in humanity, and religious vitality is the supply of religious products among markets?
    • A. 

      Supply-Side Theory

    • B. 

      Economic and Existential Security Theory

    • C. 

      “Classical” Modernization-Secularization Theory (CMS)

    • D. 

      Inglehart’s Theory of Human and Societal Development

  • 39. 
    According to the group of analysts (Daniele, Grace, and Paul) who dispute the description of the European case, how did they define secularization?
    • A. 

      They viewed secularization as the shift away from traditional churches

    • B. 

      Secularization is the process by which the religion increases in importance both in society and in the moral sense of an individual

    • C. 

      Secularization is a social organization in which the diversity of racial or religious or ethnic or cultural groups is tolerated

    • D. 

      Secularization is the study and the classification of human societies and diversities in the world

  • 40. 
    Why is religion ideally suited to survive and thrive under difficult circumstances?
    • A. 

      Religion has greater vitality when it is under tension with the immediate culture

    • B. 

      Religion has lower energy when the immediate culture is not accepted in the society

    • C. 

      Religion has always functioned to shape individuals and social identities, and on the other hand demoralize group formation

    • D. 

      Religion provides a point of social, moral and political legitimization that is dependent on typical norms

  • 41. 
    Which statement would James K. Wellman and Jr. Kyoko Tokuno, the authors of “Is Religious Violence Inevitable?” most agree with?
    • A. 

      Religious conflict is predictable and to be expected due, in part, to a religion’s need to gain their identity through conflict and tension with out-group cultures

    • B. 

      Religious conflict is inevitable as is the case of the Aum Shinrikyo, who utilized violence as a means to realize their religious goals within Japan

    • C. 

      Religiosity is on the rise from the Cold War era due to an end of systemic religious and cultural oppression by the Soviet Union

    • D. 

      Violence through religion is often the end result or unstated goal of any religious organization that proposes a lifestyle that differs from the conventional norm. It is merely the next logical conclusion of the group

  • 42. 
    Referring to the text “Extremism as a Religious Norm” by Charles S. Liebman, what are some of the key limiting factors of religious extremism identified by the author?
    • A. 

      Religious extremism is limited when religious tenets are diffused through various institutions and when each institution is in need of approval from other institutions

    • B. 

      Religious extremism is limited when there is a system of rigid religious law that persons are obliged to obey and is strongly upheld by the community. This law then prevents followers of the religion from committing unholy actions.

    • C. 

      Religious extremism is limited when members of a religion are allowed to practice their faith alone and away from less tolerant society

    • D. 

      Religious extremism is limited when a dominating culture creates a new system of cultural norms and traditions within a society. This disrupts an extremist group from gaining attention within mainstream culture.

  • 43. 
    According to Vaos and Chaves (2016), the United States cannot serve as a counterexample to the secularization thesis – the trend of religious decline in more modernized countries. One of the main findings supporting this position is that
    • A. 

      The US has experienced similar declining trends in religion as its Western counterparts through cohort replacement

    • B. 

      The US was the first country in the West to enact separation of Church and State

    • C. 

      The majority of Americans identify as a nonreligious other

    • D. 

      The Democratic Party has been successful in gaining popular vote many times

  • 44. 
    According to Zuckerman (2016), which of the following is a quality characteristic of a secular society?
    • A. 

      Low rates of religious ritual observance

    • B. 

      Higher rates of supernatural beliefs

    • C. 

      Lower participation rates in Christmas festivities

    • D. 

      A politically democratic state

  • 45. 
    In Peter Berger’s Reflections on the Sociology of Religion Today, a term is defined by Robert Wuthnow as “[putting] together an individualized religion [by] taking bits and pieces from different traditions, and coming up with a religious profile that does not fit easily into any of the organized denominations”. Which term best fits this definition?
    • A. 

      Patchwork religion

    • B. 

      Secularization

    • C. 

      Entkirchlichtung

    • D. 

      Bricolage

  • 46. 
    In Is the United States a Counterexample of the Secularization Thesis, what is the author’s main reasoning behind the decline of religion in developed countries?
    • A. 

      Modernization

    • B. 

      Influx of immigrants

    • C. 

      Religious ideals not being passed down

    • D. 

      Decline of churches

  • 47. 
    Through the study of Peoples Temple, Rebecca Moore defines cults as
    • A. 

      Only religions of which we disapprove of

    • B. 

      Destructive groups corrupting minds and leading them to commit heinous acts

    • C. 

      A value-neutral word used for groups that challenge or reject mainstream social norms

    • D. 

      A small group that is often lead by a charismatic leader, loosely organized and short-lived

  • 48. 
    After examining a variety of different traditions, David Chidester identified four main religious uses of suicide. Which of the following is one of the religious uses?
    • A. 

      To enact revolution in the face of what members regard as a dehumanizing and intolerant larger society

    • B. 

      To find the sacred afterlife that the leader promised they will all achieve through suicide

    • C. 

      To exact revenge against the different religions

    • D. 

      To evade capture where members will potentially be a slave to a society perceived as defiled and corrupted

  • 49. 
    In the article Is the United States a Counterexample to the Secularization Thesis?, Voas and Chaves concluded that;
    • A. 

      The United States is not a counterexample because religiosity has been declining for decades, following the same generational pattern as countries in Europe

    • B. 

      The United states is a counterexample because of the relatively high rates of religious participations within the country

    • C. 

      The United States is not a counterexample because American’s tend to underreport their religious service attendance

    • D. 

      The United States is a counterexample because of the slowness in decline of religiosity in the country when compared to that of countries in Europe

  • 50. 
    In the article Is Religious Violence Inevitable?, Wellman and Tokuno argue that conflict in religion is:
    • A. 

      Socially functioning because it allows a group to gain their identity through tensions with an outgroup

    • B. 

      Socially functioning because it sometimes engenders violence against other religious groups

    • C. 

      Not socially functioning because it will inevitably lead to violence and endanger the outgroup

    • D. 

      Not socially functioning because religion creates rewards that motivates individuals to do extraordinary thing

  • 51. 
    According to Zuckerman (2016), what does Lee define irreligion as in chapter 1?
    • A. 

      The rejection of religion

    • B. 

      Anything which is primarily defined by or in relation to religion

    • C. 

      The service and worship of God or the supernatural

    • D. 

      The absence or rejection of belief in God or gods

  • 52. 
    What are the three dimensions of religious extremism proposed by Liebman in Extremism as a Religious Norm?
    • A. 

      Expansion of religious law, social isolation, cultural rejection

    • B. 

      Social isolation, denouncement of other religions, conversion campaigns

    • C. 

      Cultural rejection, expansion of religious law, denouncement of other religions

    • D. 

      Abolishment of religious law, separation of church and state, social isolation

  • 53. 
    According to Zuckerman, what is the basis of economic and existential security theory
    • A. 

      As countries become wealthier, citizens do not have the need for support or protection from religion

    • B. 

      Religion was forced to retreat from social life and becomes individualized, as a consequence individual are free to choose and practice their own religious convictions

    • C. 

      Religious Markets are “free” or unconstrained range of products to meet consumer interest and demand

    • D. 

      The shift toward economic growth and material well being as societies grow larger and more complex

  • 54. 
    According to Zuckerman, which statement is FALSE about religiosity throughout time
    • A. 

      Religion becomes stronger as countries become more individualized, economically developed and institutionally complex

    • B. 

      It interacts with heritage, history, polity and culture to produce local distinct outcome

    • C. 

      Religion weakens and becomes more individualized as countries become more economically developed and institutionally complex

    • D. 

      Religion weakens as people become more psychologically secured

  • 55. 
    According to Urban, why do some scholars now prefer to use the term “new religious movements” rather than the term “cults”?
    • A. 

      Because it highlights the newness and reminds us to take them seriously as religions with complex system of beliefs and practices that are meaningful

    • B. 

      Because it is a simple means to classify a small religious community that differs from large religious intuitions

    • C. 

      Because the term “new religious movements” suggest that we do not need to study them as we do with “great” religions (ex. Christianity)

    • D. 

      Because using the term “new religious movement” is not neutral as the term “cults”

  • 56. 
    What does the characteristic “Weak Theism” (of secular societies) refer to?
    • A. 

      A belief in God that is lower or weaker than in most other countries in the world with great swaths of the population that is being atheistic or agnostic in orientation

    • B. 

      A belief in a God that is higher that it is in other countries in the world with a great percent of the population being religious

    • C. 

      Only a minority of people engage in religious rites and rituals

    • D. 

      Only a minority of people that attend religious worship services on a regular basis or that are active in religious activities

  • 57. 
    “The soul has its own brain or hard drive that accumulated on information of the Next Level”, which religious group has this belief?
    • A. 

      Heaven’s Gate

    • B. 

      Jediism

    • C. 

      New Age

    • D. 

      Scientology

  • 58. 
    What is the world’s first cyber-religion?
    • A. 

      Heaven's Gate

    • B. 

      Scientology

    • C. 

      Wicca

    • D. 

      Branch Davidian

  • 59. 
    According to Mark Juergensmeyer’s article, “Thinking Sociologically about Religion and Violence: The Case of ISIS.” Which of the following commonalities does ISIS members share?  
    • A. 

      They all share a religious-based hope that with God’s help they will succeed

    • B. 

      They all believe in Islam

    • C. 

      Members in ISIS are all from Syria and Iraq

    • D. 

      Every member in ISIS communities supported ISIS for religious reasons

  • 60. 
    According to Thomas A. Idinopulos article, “What is religion?” Which of the following does Thomas’s believes in about faith?
    • A. 

      Faith is not only personal but also social

    • B. 

      Thomas seems to regard human beings as having a propensity for faith, so that one speaks of their faith as “innate”

    • C. 

      Religion is all about faith

    • D. 

      Social aspect of faith is not an inheritance, and religion can not be cumulative

  • 61. 
    What theory describes the process of differentiation and separation of religion from social institutions such as government, the justice system, hospitals, and schools?
    • A. 

      Classical Modernization-Secularization Theory

    • B. 

      Inglehart’s Theory of Human and Societal Development

    • C. 

      Supply Side Theory

    • D. 

      Pluralism

  • 62. 
    Wellman and Tokuno (2016) state that religion has such a strong power over people because it  _______
    • A. 

      Can “motivate” and “manipulate”

    • B. 

      Has strong historical and cultural roots

    • C. 

      Has mind control powers

    • D. 

      Offers a haven for people to act out control and feel included in something bigger

  • 63. 
    From Zuckerman’s text, “The nonreligious: Understanding secular people and societies.” Which position would likely support a definition of religion describing it as an overarching structure for meaning or for grounding an individual?
    • A. 

      Functional

    • B. 

      Substantive

    • C. 

      Relational

    • D. 

      Exclusive

  • 64. 
    According to Idinopulos in the article, “What is Religion?”, which aspect in terms of diversities is NOT included as a result for different understandings of religion?
    • A. 

      Gender

    • B. 

      Social

    • C. 

      Geographic

    • D. 

      Linguistic