Reading In Political Science 2

20 Questions | Total Attempts: 19

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Reading In Political Science 2

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A Marxist sociologist has argued that racism stems from the class struggle that is unique to the capitalist system - that racial prejudice is generated by capitalists as a means of controlling workers. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the US, but his definition of racial prejudice as "racially-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition", can be interpreted as also including hostility towards such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe. However, since prejudice against these latter people was not inspired by capitalists, he has to reason that such antagonisms were not really based on race. He disposes thusly (albeit unconvincingly) of both the intolerance faced by Jews before the rise of capitalism and the early 20th century discrimination against Oriental people in California, which, inconveniently, was instigated by workers.  The passage supplied information that would answer which of the following questions, EXCEPT (Choose all the answers that are applicable)
    • A. 

      A. What conditions caused the discrimination against Oriental people in California in the early 20th century? 

    • B. 

      B. What evidence did the Marxist sociologist provide to support his thesis?

    • C. 

      C. What explanation did the Marxist sociologist give for the existence of racial prejudice?

  • 2. 
    A Marxist sociologist has argued that racism stems from the class struggle that is unique to the capitalist system - that racial prejudice is generated by capitalists as a means of controlling workers. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the US, but his definition of racial prejudice as "racially-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition", can be interpreted as also including hostility towards such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe. However, since prejudice against these latter people was not inspired by capitalists, he has to reason that such antagonisms were not really based on race. He disposes thusly (albeit unconvincingly) of both the intolerance faced by Jews before the rise of capitalism and the early 20th century discrimination against Oriental people in California, which, inconveniently, was instigated by workers.  According to the passage, the Marxists sociologist's chain of reasoning required him to assert that prejudice toward Oriental people in California was:
    • A. 

      A. directed primarily against the Chinese

    • B. 

      B. similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews

    • C. 

      C. understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition

    • D. 

      D. provoked by workers

    • E. 

      E. nonracial in character

  • 3. 
    A society can achieve a fair distribution of resources only under conditions of economic growth. There can be no economic growth unless the society guarantees equality of economic opportunity to all its citizens. Equality of economic opportunity cannot be guaranteed unless a society's government actively works to being it about. If the statements given are true, it can be properly concluded from them that:
    • A. 

      A. no government can achieve a fair distribution of resources under conditions of economic growth.

    • B. 

      B. all societies that guarantee equality of economic opportunity to all of their members are societies that distribute resources fairly.

    • C. 

      C. a society can achieve a fair distribution of resources only if its government actively works to bring about equality of economic opportunity.

    • D. 

      D. There can be no economic growth in a society unless that society guarantees a fair distribution of resources.

  • 4. 
    Influenced by the view of some 20th century feminists that women's position within the family is one of the central factors determining women's social position, some historians have underestimated the significance of the woman suffrage movement. These historians contend that 19th century suffragism was less radical and, hence, less important than, for example, the moral reform movement or domestic feminism - two 19th century movements in which women struggled for more power and autonomy within the family. True, by emphasizing these struggles, such historians have broadens the conventional view of 19th century feminism, but they do a historical disservice to suffragism. 19th century feminists and anti-feminist alike perceived the suffragists' demand for enfranchisement as the most radical element in women's protest, in part because suffragists were demanding power that was not based on the institution of the family, women's traditional sphere. The passage provides information to support which of the following statements about the historian discussed in the passage, EXCEPT (Choose all answers that are applicable)
    • A. 

       A. They rely too greatly on the perceptions of the actual participants in the events they study.

    • B. 

      B. Their assessment of the significance of 19th century suffragism differs considerably from that of 19th century feminists.

    • C. 

      C. They devote too much attention to 19th century suffragism at the expense of more radical movements that emerged shortly after the turn of the century.

  • 5. 
     National character is not formally considered by social scientists in discussing economic and social development today. They believe that people differ and that these differences should be taken into account somehow, but they have as yet discovered no way to include such variables in their formal models of economic and social development. The difficulty lies in the nature of data that supposedly define different national characters. Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to describe the cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation-state composed of many disparate groups. The situation is further complicated by the nature of judgments about character; since such judgements are overly dependent on impressions and since, furthermore, impressions are usually stated in qualitative terms, it is impossible to make a reliable comparison between the national character of two countries.  It can be inferred from the passage that the social scientists mentioned in the first two sentences would agree with which of the following statements? (choose all answers that are applicable)
    • A. 

      A. It is extremely difficult to create models that account for both economic and social development. 

    • B. 

      B. Models of economic and social development would be improved by the inclusion of adequate descriptions of national character. 

    • C. 

      C. It is important to supplement formal models of economic and social development with qualitative impressions of national character. 

  • 6. 
     National character is not formally considered by social scientists in discussing economic and social development today. They believe that people differ and that these differences should be taken into account somehow, but they have as yet discovered no way to include such variables in their formal models of economic and social development. The difficulty lies in the nature of data that supposedly define different national characters. Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to describe the cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation-state composed of many disparate groups. The situation is further complicated by the nature of judgments about character; since such judgements are overly dependent on impressions and since, furthermore, impressions are usually stated in qualitative terms, it is impossible to make a reliable comparison between the national character of two countries.  Which of the following best describe the organization of the passage?
    • A. 

      A. A problem is presented and reasons for its existence are supplied.

    • B. 

      B. A controversial view is presented and evidence for its validity is supplied.

    • C. 

      C. A hypothesis is presented and possible means of verifying its are suggested.

    • D. 

      D. A recent development is described and then analysed. 

  • 7. 
     National character is not formally considered by social scientists in discussing economic and social development today. They believe that people differ and that these differences should be taken into account somehow, but they have as yet discovered no way to include such variables in their formal models of economic and social development. The difficulty lies in the nature of data that supposedly define different national characters. Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to describe the cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation-state composed of many disparate groups. The situation is further complicated by the nature of judgments about character; since such judgements are overly dependent on impressions and since, furthermore, impressions are usually stated in qualitative terms, it is impossible to make a reliable comparison between the national character of two countries.  The author's main point in the passage is that national character:
    • A. 

      A. is too elusive to merit attention by anthropologists and other social scientists.

    • B. 

      B. is of greater interest to social scientists today than it has been in the past

    • C. 

      C. is still too difficult to describe with the precision required by many social scientists.

    • D. 

      D. has become increasingly irrelevant because of the complexity of modern lift.

    • E. 

      E. can be described more accurately by anthropologists than by other social scientists.

  • 8. 
    To put in danger = menace 
    • A. 

      Flourish

    • B. 

       extract

    • C. 

      Imperil

    • D. 

      reiterate 

  • 9. 
     If a disagreement or negative emotion ________, it grows slowly stronger over a period of time and could become more serious at any moment
    • A. 

      Garner

    • B. 

      Dismantle

    • C. 

      Simmer

    • D. 

      enamor 

  • 10. 
     dangerous = disastrous 
    • A. 

      Dire

    • B. 

       futile 

    • C. 

      Innocuous

    • D. 

       peculiar 

  • 11. 
    Non-religious  = impious 
    • A. 

      putative

    • B. 

      elusive

    • C. 

       impecunious 

    • D. 

      Secular

  • 12. 
    Spreading out investments to reduce risk or in general the process of starting to include more different types or things
    • A. 

      secular stagnation

    • B. 

      Diversification

    • C. 

      corollary 

    • D. 

      Rhetorical

  • 13. 
    To change direction or course suddenly, turn aside, shift, swerve
    • A. 

       simmer

    • B. 

      Reiterate

    • C. 

      Debunk

    • D. 

       veer

  • 14. 
    Strategy, method, approach
    • A. 

      Ammunition

    • B. 

      Tactic

    • C. 

      Pitfall

    • D. 

       stagnation 

  • 15. 
    shapeless
    • A. 

      Peculiar

    • B. 

       autocratic

    • C. 

      Futile 

    • D. 

      Amorphous 

  • 16. 
    Fixed, not moving or changing, lacking vitality
    • A. 

      Equivalent

    • B. 

      Static

    • C. 

      Putative

    • D. 

      Futile

  • 17. 
     Support or sympathy; unity 
    • A. 

      Solidarity

    • B. 

      Corollary 

    • C. 

      Anology

    • D. 

       stagnation 

  • 18. 
     the state of being the most important thing: The government insists on the __________ of citizens' rights.
    • A. 

       leverage 

    • B. 

      primacy 

    • C. 

      Vitriol

    • D. 

      Analogy

  • 19. 
    Make something or someone more energetic = revivify, revitalise
    • A. 

      Chart a course 

    • B. 

       amalgamate 

    • C. 

      Reinvigorate 

    • D. 

      Enervate 

  • 20. 
    To calm or make less severe = palliate, mitigate, alleviate, ameliorate, assuage = appease (make someone less angry by giving advantages they demand)
    • A. 

       mollify

    • B. 

      Garner 

    • C. 

      Imperil 

    • D. 

       negate

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