Archean, Proterozoic, Early Paleozoic Events, Late Paleozoic Events

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Archean, Proterozoic, Early Paleozoic Events, Late Paleozoic Events - Quiz

Exam 2 - Historical Geology. Archean, Proterozoic, Early Paleozoic Events, Late Paleozoic Events.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Walther's Law states that ________.
    • A. 

      When depositional environments mirate laterally, sediments of one environment come to lie on top of sediments of an adjacent environment.

    • B. 

      When depositional environments mirate laterally, sediments of one environment do not come to lie on top of sediments of an adjacent environment.

    • C. 

      Sediments of one depositional environment are not similar to sediments of another adjacent environment

    • D. 

      Small streams meet to form larger streams, which in turn flow into larger rivers

  • 2. 
    The Precambrian includes approximately what percentage of geologic time?
    • A. 

      87%

    • B. 

      75%

    • C. 

      50%

    • D. 

      25%

    • E. 

      Less than 25%

  • 3. 
    We know that the Earth's early atmosphere was oxygen poor because of:
    • A. 

      Unoxidized iron minerals from that time

    • B. 

      Presence of free carbon in rocks of that time

    • C. 

      Absence of limestone

    • D. 

      Absence of red beds

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 4. 
    Oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere during the Precambrian because it was produced as a waste product of what process?
    • A. 

      Respiration

    • B. 

      Fermentation

    • C. 

      Reproduction

    • D. 

      Excretion

    • E. 

      Photosynthesis

  • 5. 
    The gradual increase in oxygen in Earth's early atmosphere is inferred from the presence of:
    • A. 

      Red beds

    • B. 

      Urananite and pyrite in Archean sedimentary rocks

    • C. 

      Banded iron formations

    • D. 

      Absence of oxidized iron

    • E. 

      Dark-colored of sedimentary rocks

  • 6. 
    Which of these statements is false?
    • A. 

      Precambrian rocks contain rich deposits of iron and other metals

    • B. 

      Fossils are commonly found in Archean rocks

    • C. 

      Most Precambrian rocks are deeply buried beneath younger rocks

    • D. 

      Many Precambrian rocks are exposed in fairly inaccessible or nearly uninhabited areas

    • E. 

      Many Precambrian rocks have been eroded or metamorphosed

  • 7. 
    According to the model for the formation of the Earth, after the Earth accreted, it was essentially homogenous with a uniform composition and density.  What process had to occur after this, for the Earth to reach its present internal structure? 
    • A. 

      Heating and partial melting accompanied by planetary differentiation

    • B. 

      Continuing cratering and bombardment

    • C. 

      Iron-rich materials crystallizing before silicate materials

    • D. 

      Volcanic outgassing

    • E. 

      Condensation of steam to form oceans

  • 8. 
    Volcanic outgassing was responsible for the formation of the Earth's:
    • A. 

      Crust

    • B. 

      Lithosphere

    • C. 

      Atmosphere

    • D. 

      Hydrosphere

    • E. 

      Both atmosphere and hydrosphere

  • 9. 
    Life first appeared on Earth during this division of time:
    • A. 

      Archean

    • B. 

      Proterozoic

    • C. 

      Phanerozoic

    • D. 

      Palezoic

    • E. 

      Cenozoic

  • 10. 
    What form of life is found in Shark Bay, Australia, similar to some of the earliest organisms in the Precambrian?
    • A. 

      Stromatoporoids

    • B. 

      Trilobites

    • C. 

      Marine reptiles

    • D. 

      Stromatolites

    • E. 

      Stalactites

  • 11. 
    The Wompay orogen contains evidence for rifting, followed by the opening of an ocean basin, deposition of sediment along the edges of the ocean basin, and closure of the ocean basin through plate tectonics.  This sequence of events is called a:
    • A. 

      Rock cycle

    • B. 

      Tectonic cycle

    • C. 

      Wilson cycle

    • D. 

      Walther's Law

    • E. 

      Wopmay cycle

  • 12. 
    During the early Proterozoic, the Precambrian provinces of North America were welded together to form a large continent called:
    • A. 

      Laurentia

    • B. 

      Wopmay

    • C. 

      Archaea

    • D. 

      Keweenawan

    • E. 

      Rodinia

  • 13. 
    During the Neoproterozoic, an event occurred.  Hypothesis to explain the event include highly reflective land surfaces in equatorial regions, and a decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide.  What was the event that these hypotheses attempt to explain?
    • A. 

      Glaciation

    • B. 

      Banded iron formations

    • C. 

      Rise of eukaryotes

    • D. 

      Sea level rise

    • E. 

      Change in the length of the day

  • 14. 
    Laminated or varved mudstones and tillites with scratched cobbles are evidence of this:
    • A. 

      Buildup of oxygen

    • B. 

      Desert conditions

    • C. 

      Orogeny

    • D. 

      Glaciation

    • E. 

      Warm, humid climate

  • 15. 
    During the Proterozoic, all of the continents were joined together for a while to form a supercontinent called:
    • A. 

      Laurentia

    • B. 

      Wopmay

    • C. 

      Pangea

    • D. 

      Keweenawan

    • E. 

      Rodinia

  • 16. 
    Among some of the oldest large metazoan body fossils (multicellular animals) are which of the following?
    • A. 

      Carbon spots in Archean rocks

    • B. 

      Ediacara fauna

    • C. 

      Gunflint Formation

    • D. 

      Stromatolites

    • E. 

      Acritarchs

  • 17. 
    Not all Precambrian fossils are body fossils.  Evidence of the activity of metazoans is found in sedimentary rocks in the form of trails and burrows which are also known as:
    • A. 

      Radioactive isotopes

    • B. 

      Soft-bodied fossils

    • C. 

      Hard part fossils

    • D. 

      Trace fossils

    • E. 

      Ghost fossils

  • 18. 
    During the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, glaciations occurred when:
    • A. 

      The continents were clustered around the north pole

    • B. 

      The continents were clustered around the south pole

    • C. 

      The continents were clustered around the equator

    • D. 

      The continents were widely separated and scattered over the globe

    • E. 

      The continents were flooded by shallow seas

  • 19. 
    The Paleozoic sedimentary record across the North American craton has been divided into unconformity-bounded cratonic sequences with names such as Sauk, Tippecanoe, Kaskaskia, and Absaroka.  Each sequence documents what sort of events?
    • A. 

      Orogeny followed by deposition of a clastic wedge

    • B. 

      Evolution followed by extinction

    • C. 

      Opening and closing of an ocean basin

    • D. 

      Volcanic eruption and ash fall

    • E. 

      Transgression followed by regression

  • 20. 
    During the Early Paleozoic, the continent that corresponds most closely to North America was called:
    • A. 

      Laurentia

    • B. 

      Baltica

    • C. 

      Rodinia

    • D. 

      Gondwanaland

    • E. 

      Ouachita embayment

  • 21. 
    During the Early Paleozoic, the ocean that lay roughly in the position of the Atlantic Ocean was called:
    • A. 

      Mirovia

    • B. 

      Tethys Sea

    • C. 

      Iapetus

    • D. 

      Epicontinental sea

    • E. 

      Rodinia

  • 22. 
    A transgression is a:
    • A. 

      Sea level rise

    • B. 

      Sea level drop

    • C. 

      Time of increased orogeny

    • D. 

      Time of rapid sedimentation

    • E. 

      Time of rapid erosion

  • 23. 
    Today,  the base of the Cambrian System is placed at what sort of feature?
    • A. 

      A volcanic ash bed

    • B. 

      An unconformity

    • C. 

      Oldest occurrence of a certain trace fossil

    • D. 

      The first shell-bearing organisms

    • E. 

      Beginning of a major transgression

  • 24. 
    During the Early Paleozoic, Laurentia was located here on the globe:
    • A. 

      On the equator

    • B. 

      Near the north pole

    • C. 

      Near the south pole

    • D. 

      In the same position that North America currently occupies

    • E. 

      In the same position that South America currently occupies

  • 25. 
    The supercontinent that assembled during the Late Paleozoic was called:
    • A. 

      Rodinia

    • B. 

      Gondwanaland

    • C. 

      Laurentia

    • D. 

      Mirovia

    • E. 

      Pangea

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