The study of human problems.
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
The scientific investigation of unconscious mental processes.
The treatment of mental illness.
Mind and body are separate entities that interact to produce conscious experiences.
People with very diverse qualities and beliefs are most likely to be attracted to each other.
Most severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, involve a splitting of the mind.
All living organisms must interact and perform dual functions to survive.
At the International Physiology Convention in 1868, leading physiologists signed the document “Separation of Physiology and Psychology.”
The famous Bonn University Physiology Department voted to split into two departments--physiology and psychology.
In defining the boundaries of their science, physiologists rejected the study of mental processes and behavior.
Physiologists demonstrated that scientific methods could be applied to understanding human behavior and mental processes.
Carl Jung; 1922
Wilhelm Wundt; 1879
Margaret Floy Washburn; Washington, D.C.
Sigmund Freud; Vienna
Taught at Cornell University after Edward Titchener died.
Founded humanistic psychology.
Successfully treated William James for major depression.
Believed that experiences in early childhood were critical in the formation of adult personality.
G. Stanley Hall
Unconscious determinants of personality and behavior.
Free will, self-determination, psychological growth, and human potential.
The experimental study of overt, observable behaviors.
The active role played by mental processes in organizing sensations into meaningful perceptions.
Be less susceptible to cultural influences.
Downplay individual abilities and achievements.
Stress the interdependence of all people.
Value the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group.
Analyzes behavior in terms of its adaptive function, such as how it increases a species' chances to survive and reproduce.
Analyzes how the key ideas of psychology have evolved since it was founded as an experimental science in the mid-1800s.
Has had next to no influence in psychology after it was flatly rejected by William James in the late 1800s.
Is now regarded as nothing more than pseudoscience
How people are affected by their social environments.
Psychological disorders and their treatment.
Children with special needs.
Intuition, logic, and critical thinking.
Experience, philosophy, and opinion.
Experience, logic, and statistics
Observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Deduce valid operational definitions and generate new experiments.
Investigate and refute “common sense” notions about human behavior.
Observe and describe behavior.
Manipulate variables in a meaningful way.
Beyond the researcher's control, as it independently varies or changes over time.
Deliberately manipulated by the researcher.
Affected by changes in the dependent variable.
Highly specialized cells that receive and transmit information from one area of the body to another.
Found only in the spinal cord and bone marrow.
Highly specialized cells that produce myelin.
Found in primates and humans, but not in other animals
Can communicate up to 20 times faster.
Do not have an axon.
Are unable to communicate with other neurons.
Use much more energy.
Node of Ranvier