Psyc290

145 Questions | Total Attempts: 219

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

To review before the final exam


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Indicate whether each of the following illustrations represents an experiment. If it is an experiment, specify the independent variable, the dependent variable, at least one controlled variable. Explain whether it is a between-subjects design or a within-subjects design, or both. Justify each of your answers. 1. Suppose you were testing the effectiveness of mnemonic devices (memory aids) in helping students memorize difficult information (e.g., molecular formulas for important chemical compounds). One group was told to memorize the information any way they can, while the other group was given specific mnemonic devices.
  • 2. 
    Three attributes of the scientific method are curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness. Write the skepticism and open-mindedness attributes in a statement or in question form. For example, the curiosity attribute might be written as: "Why did it happen?"
  • 3. 
    Weiten and McCann (2007) note that people's experiences of the world are highly subjective (Theme 7). For example, some studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see (Kelley, 1950). As our experiences are highly subjective, what can the psychology researcher do (i.e., what approach can he or she take) to ensure that personal subjectivity does not bias the research findings?
  • 4. 
    In the following example, describe which of the four common flaws in research is in operation: sampling bias, distortions in self-report data, experimenter bias, and placebo effect. More than one flaw may apply. Justify your answer. 1. Mr. Fairweather was convinced that memory-enhancing games were needed to improve poor concentration in his Grade 10 math class. He asked 20 of his lowest-scoring students to be involved in his experiment. Ten students agreed to volunteer after he told them what he was trying to prove. Mr. Fairweather personally supervised the use of the memory-enhancing games with these students for two weeks. He then asked each student to rate his or her own improvement in concentration and in math memory. Mr. Fairweather's results showed that memory-enhancing games were an effective way of improving math skills.
  • 5. 
    Dr. Smythe believes that in order to understand completely such complex processes as taste, for example, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe's views are most consistent with the __________ approach.
    • A. 

      Behaviourist

    • B. 

      Functionalist

    • C. 

      Structuralist

    • D. 

      Psychoanalytic

  • 6. 
    Dr. Vasquez has found that many Asians feel uncomfortable with the expression of emotions and the disclosure of personal information. As a consequence, Dr. Vasquez has made several suggestions for ways in which psychological counselling might be modified to benefit people from Asian backgrounds. Based on this information, you could infer that Dr. Vasquez investigates:
    • A. 

      The biological determinants of behaviour

    • B. 

      The impact of evolutionary factors in psychological functioning.

    • C. 

      The role of cultural factors in psychological processes

    • D. 

      Psychometrics and cognitive psychology

  • 7. 
    Currently, a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks this may be partly due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure sufficient calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker's views are most consistent with those of the __________ perspective.
    • A. 

      Cultural

    • B. 

      Cognitive

    • C. 

      Behavioural

    • D. 

      Evolutionary

  • 8. 
    In conducting a research study, psychologists need to define all the variables clearly and unambiguously so that other researchers can objectively evaluate the results of the research. This aspect of psychology illustrates the underlying theme that:
    • A. 

      Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

    • B. 

      Our experience of the world is highly subjective.

    • C. 

      Psychology is empirical.

    • D. 

      Behaviour is determined by multiple causes.

  • 9. 
    The case of Reena Virk, described in Chapter 1 of Weiten and McCann (2007), and information about bullying by females, as presented in the Featured Study (p. 15) on bullying behaviour, are recent pieces of evidence that suggest that:
    • A. 

      Bullying is mainly a female behaviour, but males tend to get caught more often.

    • B. 

      Violent bullying is only done by males and non-violent bullying is only done by females.

    • C. 

      Although the rate of bullying by females is lower, it is increasing at a faster rate for girls than for boys, and females may use different "styles" of bullying.

    • D. 

      Bullying only refers to minor, non-violent behaviours, and the case of Reena Virk is simply about murder rather than bullying.

  • 10. 
    Which of the following do psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism theory have in common?
    • A. 

      An emphasis on the role of sexuality in behaviour

    • B. 

      A resistance to the use of animal subjects in psychological research

    • C. 

      The notion that unconscious motives have a major influence on behaviour

    • D. 

      The implication that people are not masters of their own destinies

  • 11. 
    Much like Freud, Skinner's views on human behaviour were controversial and often criticized. In Freud's case, a major controversy was about __________, while in Skinner's case, a major controversy was related to __________.
    • A. 

      Freud's focus on conscious processes; Skinner's focus on unconscious processes

    • B. 

      Freud's focus on sexual motivation; Skinner's suggestion that free will was an illusion

    • C. 

      Freud's focus on sexual motivation; Skinner's belief that maladaptive behaviour was biological in origin

    • D. 

      Freud's insensitive treatment of patients; Skinner's violation of existing animal ethics rules

  • 12. 
    Dr. Marqueta believes that "misery loves company." Based on this belief, she predicts that people who have received bad news will seek out other people. Dr. Marqueta's belief is an example of a __________, and her prediction is an example of __________.
    • A. 

      Hypothesis; a theory

    • B. 

      Theory; a hypothesis

    • C. 

      Variable; an application

    • D. 

      Hypothesis; a variable

  • 13. 
    Two data collection techniques that are most likely to involve direct contact between the researcher and the research participant are:
    • A. 

      Participatory observation and interviews.

    • B. 

      Archival research and psychological testing

    • C. 

      Questionnaires and interviews.

    • D. 

      Archival research and questionnaires.

  • 14. 
    A group of researchers is investigating the effects of gingko biloba on memory. During the first part of the study, the animals learn to run a maze while they are not receiving the supplement. In the second part of the study, the animals learn to run a different maze while they are receiving the supplement. In each case, the researchers count how many trials it takes before the animals can run the maze pattern without making any errors. In this study, the dependent variable is the:
    • A. 

      Type of animal the researchers select for the study.

    • B. 

      Presence or absence of the food supplement in the animal's diet.

    • C. 

      Number of trials it takes to run the maze without making any errors.

    • D. 

      Age of the animals in the study.

  • 15. 
    Fran applied for admission to a computer science program. One requirement for admission is the completion of a test that measures sequencing skills and abstract reasoning skills. Fran's score on this test will be a major factor in the decision as to whether to admit her to the program. In this case, the test that Fran is scheduled to take would be classified as __________ test.
    • A. 

      An achievement

    • B. 

      A projective

    • C. 

      A normative

    • D. 

      An aptitude

  • 16. 
    Dr. Iverson has had 25 students who have repeated her Advanced Economics class over the past five years. Each time, the students' grades for the second attempt in her course were nearly identical to the grades received on the first attempt. This leads Dr. Iverson to conclude that her testing procedures:
    • A. 

      Provide valid measures of student ability

    • B. 

      Are well standardized.

    • C. 

      Provide reliable measures of student ability.

    • D. 

      Successfully measure abstract reasoning skills

  • 17. 
    Since IQ scores are assumed to be normally distributed, an IQ score of 100 would put you:
    • A. 

      To the left of the centre of the normal curve.

    • B. 

      At the centre of the normal curve.

    • C. 

      To the right of the centre of the normal curve.

    • D. 

      Somewhere on the curve, with your exact location depending on the performance of others taking the test with you.

  • 18. 
    Which of the following statements about the influence of culture on the use of IQ tests is most accurate?
    • A. 

      IQ tests are widely used in virtually all cultures.

    • B. 

      Different cultures have different conceptions of what intelligence is.

    • C. 

      It is generally accepted across all cultures that it is possible to measure and quantify intellectual ability.

    • D. 

      Western IQ tests generally translate well into the language and cognitive framework of non-Western cultures.

  • 19. 
    Everyone likes to have Sheri working on their committees because she seems to have the unique ability to consider a variety of options and quickly narrow the list of options down to the one or two best alternatives. In other words, Sheri is skilled in:
    • A. 

      Divergent thinking.

    • B. 

      Transformational logic.

    • C. 

      Convergent thinking.

    • D. 

      Field dependence.

  • 20. 
    When Harvey was a child, the only time he ate turnips was when he was at his grandmother's house for Christmas dinner. Now, as an adult, Harvey loves the taste of turnips because he associates them with Christmas at his grandmother's house. In this example, Harvey's preference for the taste of turnips could best be explained using principles of:
    • A. 

      Observational learning.

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning.

    • C. 

      Homeostatic conditioning.

    • D. 

      Genetic predispositions.

  • 21. 
    Which of the following effects has not been supported by research?
    • A. 

      Viewing erotic materials tends to cause sex crimes.

    • B. 

      Viewing erotic materials changes one's attitudes to become more liberal about sexual practices.

    • C. 

      Viewing erotic materials may make some people dissatisfied with their own sexual interactions.

    • D. 

      Viewing erotic materials elevates the likelihood of overt sexual activity for a few hours immediately after the exposure.

  • 22. 
    Lauren and Tran both spend six hours per week studying for their botany course. Lauren is concerned that if she does not study, she will fail the course; Tran is concerned that if he does not study, he will not earn the highest grade in the class. In this example:
    • A. 

      Lauren is motivated by a fear of failure, and Tran is motivated by a need for achievement.

    • B. 

      Both students are motivated by a fear of failure.

    • C. 

      Tran is motivated by a fear of failure, and Lauren is motivated by a need for achievement.

    • D. 

      Both students are motivated by a need for achievement.

  • 23. 
    Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents the James-Lange theory?
    • A. 

      "I'm shaking because I'm afraid."

    • B. 

      "I'm afraid because I'm shaking."

    • C. 

      "My shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire."

    • D. 

      "My fear is a built-in, primary reaction to a dangerous situation."

  • 24. 
    As Erica watched the televised drawing of lottery numbers, she realized she had the winning combination. If her heart starts to race at the same instant that she feels euphoria over winning the lottery, Erica's response pattern would lend support to __________ theory of emotion.
    • A. 

      The Cannon-Bard

    • B. 

      The James-Lange

    • C. 

      Izard's evolutionary

    • D. 

      Schachter's two-factor

  • 25. 
    The full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome is produced by:
    • A. 

      Heavy drinking during the first three months of pregnancy.

    • B. 

      Heavy drinking during the final three months of pregnancy.

    • C. 

      One drunken binge at any time during pregnancy.

    • D. 

      Heavy drinking throughout pregnancy.

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