Ps34

73 Questions | Total Attempts: 22

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The acute inflammatory process may cause:
    • A. 

      A decreased level of acute phase reactant proteins in the plasma

    • B. 

      An elevated number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood

    • C. 

      An elevated number of platelets in the peripheral blood

  • 2. 
    The mononuclear cell type with the greatest role in acute inflammation is the:
    • A. 

      Monocyte

    • B. 

      Plasma cell

    • C. 

      Macrophage

  • 3. 
    Neutrophils leave capillaries in inflammation by the process of:
    • A. 

      Diapedesis

    • B. 

      Phagocytosis

    • C. 

      Margination

  • 4. 
    A primary function of neutrophils is:
    • A. 

      Phagocytosis of microorganisms

    • B. 

      Secretion of complement components

    • C. 

      Production of endogenous pyrogen

  • 5. 
    Granulomatous inflammation is characterized by:
    • A. 

      Activated T cells and plasma cells

    • B. 

      Aggregation of activated (epithelioid) macrophages

    • C. 

      Focal tissue destruction and fibrosis

  • 6. 
    Exudation refers to:
    • A. 

      Formation of pus

    • B. 

      Increased movement of fluid and proteins out of vessels due to increased permeability

    • C. 

      Collection of fluid in body cavities

  • 7. 
    Increased vascular permeability in inflammation will allow large protein molecules to leave the vascular space. These include:
    • A. 

      Albumin

    • B. 

      Fibrinogen

    • C. 

      Urea

  • 8. 
    Caseous necrosis in granulomas caused by micro-organisms is related to:
    • A. 

      A delayed type (Type IV) hypersensitivity reaction

    • B. 

      Secretion of lysozmes by macrophages

    • C. 

      Thrombosis of local vessels

  • 9. 
    Bacteremia in young children or animals most often leads to bacterial seeding of the:
    • A. 

      Renal microcirculation

    • B. 

      Growth plates (epiphyses)

    • C. 

      Skeletal muscles

  • 10. 
    The increased blood flow into inflamed tissues is termed:
    • A. 

      Hyperemia

    • B. 

      Congestion

    • C. 

      Erythema

  • 11. 
    • A. 

      It is an insoluble polymer

    • B. 

      It is one of the constituents of scar tissue

    • C. 

      It is formed from fibrinogen, through the action of thrombin

  • 12. 
    The 'cardinal signs' of inflammation include redness, heat, pain, swelling, and:
    • A. 

      Pus

    • B. 

      Loss of function

    • C. 

      Increased white blood cell count

  • 13. 
    T cells are characterized by:
    • A. 

      Surface receptors which determine their specificity

    • B. 

      An off-center nucleus

    • C. 

      CD4 expression

  • 14. 
    The specificity of T cells is determined by:
    • A. 

      Antibodies on the T cell surface

    • B. 

      The T cell receptor

    • C. 

      Macrophage presentation of the antigen

  • 15. 
    The term serology refers to the study of:
    • A. 

      Serum chemistry

    • B. 

      The body reaction to infectious disease

    • C. 

      Antigen-antibody reactions in a laboratory setting

  • 16. 
    The lack of response to our own antigens is termed:
    • A. 

      Anergy

    • B. 

      Self tolerance

    • C. 

      Immunogenicity

  • 17. 
    Specificity and memory are characteristics of the:
    • A. 

      Inflammatory response

    • B. 

      Immune response

    • C. 

      Innate defense mechanisms

  • 18. 
    Natural killer cells are:
    • A. 

      Cells with an increased phagocytic capacity for microorganisms

    • B. 

      Immune cells with inherent ability to kill infected cells

    • C. 

      Lymphocytes able to kill a variety of cells without prior sensitization

  • 19. 
    Immune complex formation may cause:
    • A. 

      Immediate hypersensitivity

    • B. 

      Delayed type hypersensitivity

    • C. 

      Complement activation

  • 20. 
    The end result of immune-complex mediated hypersensitivity is:
    • A. 

      Fibrinoid necrosis of small vessels (necrotizing vasculitis)

    • B. 

      Complement activation

    • C. 

      Deposition of immune complexes in vessel walls

  • 21. 
    In the secondary immune response:
    • A. 

      Specific antibody production occurs more rapidly

    • B. 

      Peak antibody levels are earlier and lower

    • C. 

      Higher levels of IgM are produced

  • 22. 
    Plasma cells are derived from:
    • A. 

      T cells

    • B. 

      B cells

    • C. 

      Macrophages

  • 23. 
    The similarity between donor and recipient with regard to histocompatibility antigens is a major determinant of the success of tissue and organ transplants.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Human newborns receive passively acquired antibody from their mothers, which is primarily obtained by:
    • A. 

      In utero blood transfusion

    • B. 

      Suckling colostrum

    • C. 

      Transplacental passage

  • 25. 
    Complete the following statement correctly: Macrophages:
    • A. 

      Are found only in certain tissues of the body

    • B. 

      Secrete cytokines which can influence both T and B cell function

    • C. 

      Express immunoglobulins on their surfaces

  • 26. 
    Type IV (cell-mediated) hypersensitivity is mediated by:
    • A. 

      Macrophages

    • B. 

      Sensitized B cells

    • C. 

      Sensitized T cells

  • 27. 
    During the lag period of the primary immune response, B cells with receptors for the specific antigen:
    • A. 

      Become plasma cells and begin secreting antibody

    • B. 

      Undergo clonal expansion to produce a large number of plasma cells

    • C. 

      Produce cytokines to recruit more B cells

  • 28. 
    Complete the following statement correctly: Immune suppression can:
    • A. 

      Result from both radiation and chemotherapy, due to injury to neutrophils

    • B. 

      Result from therapy with corticosteroids

    • C. 

      Increase the risk of hypersensitivity reactions

  • 29. 
    Cell mediated immunity is an important function of:
    • A. 

      Natural killer cells

    • B. 

      Cytotoxic T cells

    • C. 

      Helper T cells

  • 30. 
    Hypersensitivity refers to a state:
    • A. 

      In which the immune response is destructive rather than neutralizing or defensive

    • B. 

      In which the immune reactions invoked are inherently different from those of the normal protective mechanisms of immunity

    • C. 

      Of allergy

  • 31. 
    • A. 

      Glomerulonephritis

    • B. 

      Protein loss in urine

    • C. 

      Glucose loss in urine

  • 32. 
    Inflammation is initiated by:
    • A. 

      Infection

    • B. 

      Trauma

    • C. 

      Tissue injury

  • 33. 
    The marked active dilation of vessels in acute inflammation is due to:
    • A. 

      Reflex neural mechanisms

    • B. 

      The effects of kinnin

    • C. 

      Release of chemical mediators by damaged cells

  • 34. 
    A surgical sponge (gauze) mistakenly left in the abdominal cavity during surgery would cause:
    • A. 

      Development of peritonitis

    • B. 

      Foreign body granuloma formation

    • C. 

      Pyogranulomatous inflammation

  • 35. 
    The inflammatory mediators having the greatest role in the early phase of the acute inflammatory response are:
    • A. 

      Arachidonic acid metabolites

    • B. 

      Vasoactive amines (histamine and serotonin)

    • C. 

      Cytokines

  • 36. 
    Following tissue injury, there is an early and transient vasoconstriction.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 37. 
    Relative to transudates, exudates are characterized by:
    • A. 

      Similar cell types

    • B. 

      Lower albumin levels

    • C. 

      Greater numbers of cells

  • 38. 
    Tuberculosis is characterized by:
    • A. 

      Pulmonary hemorrhage

    • B. 

      Pneumonia

    • C. 

      Granulomatous inflammation in lungs or other tissues

  • 39. 
    Cross-linking of numbers of antibody and antigen units leads to:
    • A. 

      Agglutination

    • B. 

      Opsonization

    • C. 

      Sedimentation

  • 40. 
    Vaccination is used to produce immunity against infectious organisms, by inducing:
    • A. 

      Passive immunity

    • B. 

      The secondary immune response

    • C. 

      The primary immune response

  • 41. 
    A primary characteristic of the immune response is its:
    • A. 

      Role as a defense mechanism

    • B. 

      Specificity

    • C. 

      Ability to fight infectious disease

  • 42. 
    A classic example of delayed type hypersensitivity is:
    • A. 

      The Arthus reaction

    • B. 

      The tuberculin reaction

    • C. 

      Transplant rejection

  • 43. 
    In Type II (antibody-dependent) hypersensitivity, antibody is:
    • A. 

      Bound to mast cell surfaces

    • B. 

      Directed against specific antigens on cell surfaces

    • C. 

      Bound to antigen to form free immune complexes

  • 44. 
    With passive immunization:
    • A. 

      Immunity is relatively short-term

    • B. 

      A long period is required for an adequate immune response to develop

    • C. 

      A single immunization is sufficient to maintain immunity

  • 45. 
    Plasma cells secrete:
    • A. 

      Albumin

    • B. 

      Plasma proteins

    • C. 

      Antibody

  • 46. 
    The fever associated with acute inflammation is a result of:
    • A. 

      Mediators such as interleukin-1 and prostaglandins causing a 'resetting' of core temperature

    • B. 

      Increased blood flow to peripheral tissues

    • C. 

      Decreased peripheral blood flow leading to diminished heat loss

  • 47. 
    Neutrophil diapedesis is assisted by:
    • A. 

      Enlarged endothelial pores

    • B. 

      Digestive enzymes

    • C. 

      Increased phagocytic ability

  • 48. 
    The increased vascular permeability early in acute inflammation is caused by:
    • A. 

      Increased hydrostatic pressure

    • B. 

      Widening of intercellular junctions between endothelial cells

    • C. 

      Fluid leakage through damaged endothelial cells

  • 49. 
    Leucocytes have specific receptors for opsonins (such as antibody, complement factors, and collectins), which causes phagocytosis to be:
    • A. 

      Enhanced

    • B. 

      Nonspecific

    • C. 

      Decreased

  • 50. 
    Inflammatory mediators are found in plasma in their active forms.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 51. 
    The type of inflammatory cell with the greatest role in inflammation is the:
    • A. 

      Neutrophil

    • B. 

      Lymphocyte

    • C. 

      Macrophage

  • 52. 
    • A. 

      The B cell response to antigen

    • B. 

      The T cell response to antigen

    • C. 

      The B cell and the T cell response to antigen

  • 53. 
    Sites of lymphocyte priming are the:
    • A. 

      Spleen and tonsils

    • B. 

      Peripheral lymph nodes

    • C. 

      Thymus and bone marrow

  • 54. 
    The systemic reactions of anaphylaxis are caused by:
    • A. 

      Mast cell degranulation and mediator release

    • B. 

      Smooth muscle contraction

    • C. 

      The development of vasoconstriction

  • 55. 
    Inflammatory mediators which have a role in signaling pain include:
    • A. 

      Arachidonic acid metabolites

    • B. 

      Components of the complement system

    • C. 

      Bradykinin, histamine, and serotonin

  • 56. 
    Many of the chemical mediators of inflammation also act as chemotactic signals to inflammatory cells.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 57. 
    A focus of necrotic debris and dead neutrophils surrounded by a fibrous capsule is best termed:
    • A. 

      An abscess

    • B. 

      Caseation necrossi

    • C. 

      A granuloma

  • 58. 
    In acute inflammation, leucocytes tend to 'stick' more to endothelial cells of the microvasculature.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 59. 
    Major sites of HIV infection and persistence are:
    • A. 

      CD4+ cells, macrophages and dendritic cells in lymph nodes

    • B. 

      Both helper and cytotoxic T cells

    • C. 

      CD8+ cells

  • 60. 
    The profound immunosuppression associated with AIDS is primarily associated with defective:
    • A. 

      Humoral immunity

    • B. 

      Cell-mediated immunity

    • C. 

      Macrophage function

  • 61. 
    • A. 

      Complement

    • B. 

      Opsonins

    • C. 

      Immune complexes

  • 62. 
    Non-granulomatous chronic inflammation is characterized by sensitized lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, together with:
    • A. 

      Epithelioid cells and neutrophils

    • B. 

      Neutrophils and foci of necrosis

    • C. 

      Areas of necrosis and fibrosis

  • 63. 
    The most common cause of osteomyelitis is:
    • A. 

      Bacterial seeding from the blood

    • B. 

      Extension from a wound

    • C. 

      Surgical fixation of fractures

  • 64. 
    The two major components of the process of acute inflammation are:
    • A. 

      Vascular changes and pus formation

    • B. 

      Vascular changes and cellular response

    • C. 

      Vasodilation and mediator release

  • 65. 
    In acute inflammation, the term 'pavementing' refers to the tendency for:
    • A. 

      Increased laminar flow in the microvasculature

    • B. 

      Leucocytes to adhere to vessel walls

    • C. 

      Fibrin to be laid down on surfaces

  • 66. 
    Non-granulomatous chronic inflammation is seen with:
    • A. 

      Chronic viral infections

    • B. 

      Foreign material in tissues

    • C. 

      Leprosy

  • 67. 
    The process by which inflammatory cells are attracted to an area of injury by directional migration along a chemical concentration gradient is termed:
    • A. 

      Emesis

    • B. 

      Diapedesis

    • C. 

      Chemotaxis

  • 68. 
    Persistence of an antigen or injurious stimulus will cause chronic inflammation to develop.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 69. 
    Chronic suppurative inflammation is characterized by:
    • A. 

      Necrosis, pus formation and drainage

    • B. 

      Necrosis, pus formation, fibrosis and mononuclear cells

    • C. 

      Extensive necrosis, pus formation and fibrosis

  • 70. 
    Cells which play a key role in the early stages of the immune response are the:
    • A. 

      Natural killer cells

    • B. 

      Dendritic cells

    • C. 

      Macrophages

  • 71. 
    Nonspecific defense mechanisms:
    • A. 

      Are physical barriers to infectious organisms

    • B. 

      Include all defense mechanisms other than the immune response

    • C. 

      Refer to acute and chronic inflammatory responses

  • 72. 
    Macrophages and monocytes act as important reservoirs and producers of HIV.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 73. 
    Molecules which evoke an immune response when introduced into a host are termed:
    • A. 

      Antigens

    • B. 

      Haptens