1.
Which is the most fundamental of the physical sciences?
Correct Answer
C. Physics
Explanation
Physics is considered the most fundamental of the physical sciences because it deals with the fundamental principles that govern the behavior of matter and energy in the universe. It encompasses the study of motion, forces, energy, and the interactions between particles and fields. Physics provides the foundation for understanding other branches of science, such as chemistry and astronomy, and is essential for advancements in technology and engineering.
2.
Which one of the following is a concise statement about a fundamental relationship in nature?
Correct Answer
B. Law
Explanation
A law is a concise statement about a fundamental relationship in nature. Laws are based on repeated observations and experiments, and they describe a predictable pattern or behavior in the natural world. Unlike theories or hypotheses, laws are well-established and widely accepted within the scientific community. They provide a framework for understanding and predicting natural phenomena and are often expressed in mathematical equations.
3.
Which human sense is second in supplying the most information about the external world?
Correct Answer
D. Hearing
Explanation
Hearing is the sense that provides the second most information about the external world. While sight is often considered the primary sense, hearing plays a crucial role in our perception of the world around us. Through hearing, we can gather information about our environment, such as detecting sounds, identifying their sources, and even understanding speech. This sense allows us to be aware of our surroundings, communicate with others, and navigate our surroundings effectively.
4.
Which is the standard unit of mass in the metric system?
Correct Answer
B. Kilogram
Explanation
The standard unit of mass in the metric system is the kilogram. The kilogram is defined as the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France. It is widely used in scientific and everyday measurements around the world. The gram is a smaller unit of mass, and the slug is a unit of mass used in the English system of measurement. "Weight" is not a unit of mass, but a measure of the force exerted on an object due to gravity.
5.
Which metric prefix means "one-thousandth"?
Correct Answer
B. Milli-
Explanation
The metric prefix "milli-" means "one-thousandth." It is derived from the Latin word "mille," meaning thousand. When added to a base unit of measurement, such as meter or gram, it indicates that the value is divided by 1000. For example, a millimeter is one-thousandth of a meter, and a milligram is one-thousandth of a gram. Therefore, "milli-" is the correct answer to the question.
6.
Which metric prefix means "thousand"?
Correct Answer
D. Kilo-
Explanation
The metric prefix "kilo-" means "thousand". It is commonly used to denote a factor of 1000, such as in kilogram, kilometer, or kilowatt. This prefix is derived from the Greek word "khilioi" meaning "thousand".
7.
How many base units are there in the SI?
Correct Answer
D. Seven
Explanation
The correct answer is seven because the International System of Units (SI) has seven base units that are used to measure different physical quantities. These base units are the meter (length), kilogram (mass), second (time), ampere (electric current), kelvin (temperature), mole (amount of substance), and candela (luminous intensity). Each of these base units is defined independently and all other units in the SI system are derived from these base units.
8.
To which of thse is a volume of 1000 cm3 equal?
Correct Answer
D. 1 L
Explanation
A volume of 1000 cm3 is equal to 1 L. This is because 1 L is equivalent to 1000 mL, and since 1 mL is equal to 1 cm3, 1000 cm3 is equal to 1000 mL, which is equal to 1 L.
9.
Which combination of units expresses density?
Correct Answer
C. Mass/(length)3
Explanation
The combination of units that expresses density is mass/(length)3. Density is defined as mass per unit volume, and volume is calculated by dividing mass by length cubed. Therefore, the correct answer is mass/(length)3.
10.
What is the expression 1 in. = 2.54cm properly called?
Correct Answer
D. Equivalence statement
Explanation
The expression "1 in. = 2.54cm" is properly called an equivalence statement because it shows the equal relationship between 1 inch and 2.54 centimeters. It states that these two measurements are equivalent and can be used interchangeably.
11.
A student measures the length and width of a rectangle to be 49.4 cm and 59 cm, respectively. Wanting to find the area (in cm2) of this rectangle, the student multiplies on a calcuator and obtains a result of 2914.6. The area should be reported as...
Correct Answer
C. 2.9 x 10^3 cm2
Explanation
The given answer, 2.9 x 10^3 cm2, is the correct way to express the area of the rectangle. This answer is in scientific notation, where 2.9 x 10^3 means 2.9 multiplied by 10 raised to the power of 3. In this case, 10^3 represents 1,000. Therefore, the area of the rectangle is 2.9 multiplied by 1,000, which equals 2,900 cm2.
12.
The natural sciences, in which scientists study the natural universe, are divided into physical and __________ sciences.
Correct Answer
biological
Explanation
The natural sciences are divided into physical and biological sciences. Physical sciences study non-living systems and phenomena, such as physics and chemistry. Biological sciences, on the other hand, focus on living organisms and their interactions, including fields like biology and ecology. This division allows scientists to specialize in different aspects of the natural world and apply different methodologies and approaches to their research.
13.
A(n) __________ is used to test a hypothesis.
Correct Answer
experiment
Explanation
An experiment is used to test a hypothesis. In an experiment, a researcher manipulates variables and measures their effects to determine if the hypothesis is supported or not. It involves the systematic collection of data and the use of controls to ensure that the results are reliable and valid. By conducting an experiment, researchers can gather evidence to either support or refute their hypothesis, helping to advance scientific knowledge and understanding.
14.
According to the _________, no hypothesis or theory of nature is valid unless its predictions are in agreement with experimental results.
Correct Answer
scientific method
Explanation
The scientific method is a systematic approach used by scientists to investigate and understand natural phenomena. It involves making observations, formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments, and analyzing data to draw conclusions. In order for a hypothesis or theory to be considered valid, it must be supported by experimental results that are consistent with its predictions. This ensures that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence and can be tested and verified by others.
15.
Most information about our environment reaches us through the sense of _______.
Correct Answer
sight
Explanation
The question asks about the sense through which most information about our environment reaches us. The answer is "sight" because our eyes allow us to perceive and interpret visual stimuli, such as colors, shapes, and movements. Sight is a dominant sense that provides us with a wealth of information about our surroundings, allowing us to navigate, recognize objects, and interact with the world.
16.
All human sense have _______.
Correct Answer
limitations
Explanation
Human senses, such as sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell, have limitations. These limitations can include a limited range or sensitivity, susceptibility to illusions or misinterpretations, and the inability to perceive certain stimuli. These limitations vary from person to person and can be influenced by factors such as age, health conditions, and individual differences. Therefore, it is important to recognize that our senses are not infallible and may not provide a complete or accurate representation of the world around us.
17.
A(n) ________ has a fixed and reproducible value.
Correct Answer
standard unit
Explanation
A standard unit is a measurement that has a fixed and reproducible value. It is used as a reference point for measuring other quantities. This means that whenever the standard unit is used to measure something, the result will always be the same and can be replicated by others. Standard units are important in various fields such as science, mathematics, and engineering, as they provide a consistent and reliable way to quantify and compare different quantities.
18.
A yard is slightly _______ than a meter.
Correct Answer
shorter
Explanation
A yard is slightly shorter than a meter. The yard is a unit of length commonly used in the United States, while the meter is the standard unit of length in most other countries. The meter is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second, while the yard is defined as 0.9144 meters. Therefore, it can be concluded that a yard is indeed shorter than a meter.
19.
Unlike mass, weight is not a(n) ________ property.
Correct Answer
fundamental
Explanation
Weight is not a fundamental property because it depends on the gravitational force acting on an object. It is a measure of the force exerted on an object due to gravity and can vary depending on the location in the universe. In contrast, fundamental properties are intrinsic to an object and do not depend on external factors. Mass, on the other hand, is a fundamental property as it represents the amount of matter in an object and is constant regardless of the location.
20.
The standard unit of ____ is the same in all measurement systems.
Correct Answer
time
second
Explanation
The standard unit of time is the same in all measurement systems, and that unit is the second. Regardless of whether you are using the metric system, the imperial system, or any other measurement system, the second remains consistent as the standard unit for measuring time.
21.
The metric prefix mega- means ______.
Correct Answer
10^6
1,000,000
million
Explanation
The metric prefix mega- is used to represent a factor of 10^6 or 1,000,000. It is commonly used in scientific and engineering fields to denote a large quantity or scale. In this context, "million" is also a valid interpretation of mega- as it represents a quantity of 1,000,000.
22.
A common nonstandard metric unit of fluid volume or capacity is the ______.
Correct Answer
liter
Explanation
A liter is a common nonstandard metric unit of fluid volume or capacity. It is widely used to measure the volume of liquids and is equivalent to 1,000 milliliters or 0.001 cubic meters. The liter is a practical unit for everyday use, as it is easy to visualize and work with. It is commonly used in many countries around the world, including those that have adopted the metric system.
23.
If A is denser than B, then A contains more _______ per unit volume.
Correct Answer
mass
Explanation
If A is denser than B, it means that A has more mass per unit volume compared to B. Density is defined as mass divided by volume, so if A has a higher density, it implies that A contains more mass in the same volume. Therefore, the correct answer is mass.
24.
______ : The most widely used system of units.
Correct Answer
metric system
Explanation
The metric system is the most widely used system of units because it is a decimal-based system that is easy to use and understand. It provides a consistent and standardized way of measuring length, weight, volume, and other quantities. The metric system is used by the majority of countries around the world, making it the most commonly used system globally. It is also the system used in scientific research and international trade, further solidifying its status as the most widely used system of units.
25.
______ : One-hundreth
Correct Answer
centi-
Explanation
The prefix "centi-" in this context refers to one-hundredth. It is a metric prefix used to indicate a factor of 1/100. For example, a centimeter is one-hundredth of a meter. Therefore, the correct answer is centi-.
26.
______ : Method of properly expressing measured numbers
Correct Answer
significant figures
Explanation
Significant figures refer to the method of properly expressing measured numbers. They are the digits in a number that carry meaning in terms of precision and accuracy. Significant figures include all the certain digits in a measurement plus one estimated digit. They help to indicate the precision of a measurement and ensure that calculations involving these numbers are done correctly. By using significant figures, scientists and mathematicians can communicate the level of uncertainty in their measurements and calculations.
27.
______ : The measurement of space in any direction
Correct Answer
length
Explanation
Length is the measurement of space in any direction. It refers to the distance between two points or the extent of something from end to end. It is a fundamental dimension in geometry and is often used to describe the size or dimensions of objects or distances between them.
28.
______ : The relationship of one unit to another
Correct Answer
conversion factor
Explanation
A conversion factor is a term used to describe the relationship between two different units of measurement. It is a ratio that allows for the conversion of one unit to another. For example, if we want to convert inches to centimeters, the conversion factor would be the ratio of 2.54 centimeters to 1 inch. By multiplying the value in inches by this conversion factor, we can obtain the equivalent measurement in centimeters. Therefore, the term "conversion factor" accurately describes the relationship of one unit to another.
29.
______ : Thousand
Correct Answer
kilo-
Explanation
The prefix "kilo-" is used to indicate a quantity that is equal to one thousand of a base unit. In this case, the word "Thousand" is the base unit, and the prefix "kilo-" is added to indicate that the quantity is equal to one thousand of that base unit.
30.
______ : Standard unit of mass
Correct Answer
kilogram
Explanation
The kilogram is the standard unit of mass. It is a metric unit of measurement used to quantify the amount of matter in an object. The kilogram is defined as the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. It is widely used in scientific and everyday applications for measuring the mass of objects.
31.
______ : A valid theory of nature must be in agreement with experimental results
Correct Answer
scientific method
Explanation
The scientific method is a systematic approach used by scientists to investigate and understand the natural world. It involves making observations, formulating a hypothesis, conducting experiments, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. The given statement suggests that for a theory of nature to be considered valid, it must align with experimental results obtained through the scientific method. This means that any theory proposed should be tested and supported by empirical evidence, ensuring that it is reliable and accurate.
32.
______ : Defined in terms of the radiation frequency of a cesium atom.
Correct Answer
second
Explanation
The second is a unit of time that is defined in terms of the radiation frequency of a cesium atom. This means that the duration of one second is determined by the oscillations of the radiation emitted by a cesium atom. This definition ensures that the measurement of time is accurate and consistent across different systems and locations.
33.
______ : An organized body of knowledge about the natural universe
Correct Answer
science
Explanation
Science is an organized body of knowledge about the natural universe. It involves the systematic study of the physical and natural world through observation, experimentation, and analysis. Scientists use empirical evidence and logical reasoning to understand and explain various phenomena in the universe. By following a structured and methodical approach, science aims to uncover the laws and principles that govern the natural world and contribute to our understanding of it.
34.
______ : The amount of matter an object contains
Correct Answer
mass
Explanation
Mass is the measure of the amount of matter an object contains. It is a fundamental property of an object and is independent of its location. Mass can be thought of as the measure of the inertia of an object, or its resistance to changes in motion. The more mass an object has, the more force is required to accelerate it. Mass is commonly measured in units such as kilograms or pounds.
35.
______ : A group of standard units and their combinations
Correct Answer
system of units
Explanation
The term "system of units" refers to a collection or group of standard units and their combinations. It implies a standardized and consistent set of measurements used to quantify various physical quantities. In such a system, each unit is defined in relation to other units, ensuring uniformity and facilitating accurate measurements across different fields of science and engineering.
36.
______ : One-thousandth
Correct Answer
milli-
Explanation
The prefix "milli-" is used to indicate one-thousandth of a unit. It is commonly used in the metric system to denote small measurements. For example, a millimeter is one-thousandth of a meter, and a milligram is one-thousandth of a gram. Therefore, the correct answer is "milli-" as it accurately represents the concept of one-thousandth.
37.
______ : A system of units that is slowly being phased out
Correct Answer
British system
Explanation
The British system refers to a system of units that is gradually being replaced by the metric system in many countries. This system includes units such as the inch, foot, yard, and mile for measuring length, and the pound for measuring weight. The metric system, on the other hand, is a more standardized system used worldwide, which uses units such as meters and kilograms. Therefore, the British system is considered to be slowly phased out as the metric system becomes more prevalent.
38.
______ : The continuous forward flowing of events
Correct Answer
time
Explanation
Time can be defined as the continuous forward flowing of events. It is a fundamental concept that allows us to measure and perceive the sequence of events and their duration. Time is often considered as a linear progression from past to present to future, and it plays a crucial role in our understanding of cause and effect relationships. Without time, events would not have a sense of order or progression, and our perception of reality would be fundamentally different.
39.
______ : A fixed and reproducible value for making measurements
Correct Answer
standard unit
standard units
Explanation
A standard unit or standard units refer to a fixed and reproducible value that is used for making measurements. It is a universally accepted and agreed upon measurement that provides consistency and accuracy in various fields such as science, mathematics, and engineering. By using standard units, different measurements can be compared and communicated effectively, ensuring that everyone understands and interprets the measurements in the same way.
40.
______ : Multiples and combinations of standard units
Correct Answer
derived units
Explanation
The term "derived units" refers to units that are obtained by combining or multiplying standard units. These units are derived from the base units of measurement and are used to measure quantities that are not directly measurable using the base units alone. Therefore, the given answer "derived units" accurately describes the concept of measuring multiples and combinations of standard units to obtain derived units.
41.
______ : Defined in terms of speed of light.
Correct Answer
meter
Explanation
The meter is defined in terms of the speed of light. This means that the length of a meter is determined by the distance that light travels in a specific amount of time. By using the speed of light as a reference point, the meter can be accurately measured and standardized. This definition allows for consistency and precision in measuring distances, making the meter a fundamental unit of length in the metric system.
42.
______ : Million
Correct Answer
mega-
Explanation
The prefix "mega-" denotes a factor of one million. It is commonly used to describe something of a very large size or quantity. For example, a megabyte is equal to one million bytes. Therefore, the correct answer is "mega-" as it is a prefix that represents a million.
43.
______ : Modernized version of the metric system
Correct Answer
SI
Explanation
SI stands for the International System of Units, which is a modernized version of the metric system. It is an internationally recognized system of measurement that is used in science, industry, and everyday life. The SI system is based on seven base units, including the meter for length, kilogram for mass, second for time, ampere for electric current, kelvin for temperature, mole for amount of substance, and candela for luminous intensity. It provides a standardized and consistent way of measuring and communicating physical quantities across different countries and disciplines.
44.
______ : Compactness of matter
Correct Answer
density
Explanation
Density is a measure of how much mass is contained within a given volume. It is a property that describes the compactness of matter. The higher the density, the more compact the matter is, as more mass is packed into a smaller volume. Therefore, density is directly related to the compactness of matter.
45.
______ : Acronym for metric standard units
Correct Answer
mks
Explanation
The acronym "mks" stands for the metric standard units. This acronym is commonly used to refer to the system of measurement that uses meters for length, kilograms for mass, and seconds for time. The mks system is widely used and recognized internationally as the standard for scientific and everyday measurements.