Principles Of Drug Use In PEDS, Pregnancy, And Lactation

23 Questions | Total Attempts: 144

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Drug Quizzes & Trivia

Because children are not "little adults". . . .


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Gastric pH is increased in neonates, infants, and young children (until age 2).  The bioavailability of weak acids is reduced, thus infants may require higher by mouth doses of some drugs than adults.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    Infants have an increased TBW:body fat ratio; therefore, hydrophilic drugs will have a higher Vd.  Should we give premature infants and neonates higher or lower does of hydrophilic drugs?
    • A. 

      Give a higher dose

    • B. 

      Give a lower dose

  • 3. 
    Metabolism is __________ in infants than in older children and adults.
    • A. 

      About the same

    • B. 

      Slower

    • C. 

      Faster

  • 4. 
    As a result of low initial GFR, renally excreted drugs are dosed less frequently.  Renal function fully matures by about what age?
    • A. 

      1 month

    • B. 

      5 months

    • C. 

      1 year

    • D. 

      5 years

  • 5. 
    The Schwartz equation is a  useful tool for estimating renal function in children.CrCl = k x L/SCr     The value of k depends on age and sex.Premature infants:                0.33Full-term infants to 1 year:    0.45 Boys 2-12:      0.55      Girls 2-12:       0.55Boys 13-21:    0.70      Girls 13-21:     ???
    • A. 

      0.55

    • B. 

      0.70

  • 6. 
    In this equation:  CrCl= k x L/SCr    L stands for?
  • 7. 
    Which dosing method increases the risk for overdose in adolescent and overweight children?
    • A. 

      Age-based method

    • B. 

      Bodyweight-based method

    • C. 

      Body surface area-based method

    • D. 

      Allometric scaling method

  • 8. 
    Which dosing method limits the risk of overdosing older children but can increase the risk for overdosing infants and neonates with certain drugs. Hint: There are various formulas used.
    • A. 

      Age-based method

    • B. 

      Bodyweight-based method

    • C. 

      Body surface area-based method

    • D. 

      Allometric scaling method

  • 9. 
    Clark's, Fried's, Young's Rule should be routinely used to calculate pediatric doses.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    To reduce an infant's fever, parents should be instructed to perform tepid sponging and alternate ibuprofen and acetaminophen.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    If a woman's 1st day of her last menstrual period was on 11/9/09 when is her approximate due date?
  • 12. 
    The critical time for organogenesis is during the first eight weeks of pregnancyl thus, the risk for birth defects is highest during the first trimester.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    This pregnancy category shows that animal studies have revelead no evidence of harm to the fetus, however, there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, or animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus.
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      X

  • 14. 
    This pregnancy category shows that studies, adequate well-controlled or observational, in animals or pregnant women have demonstrated a risk to the fetus.  However, the benefits of therapy may outweigh the potential risk.
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      X

  • 15. 
    This pregnancy category shows that animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, or no animals studies have been conducted and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      X

  • 16. 
    Cleft lip defects are likely to occur within the first ______ of pregnancy while cleft palate defects are likely to occur within the first _____ of pregnancy.
    • A. 

      63 days, 10 weeks

    • B. 

      6 weeks, 10 days

    • C. 

      4 weeks, 6 weeks

    • D. 

      36 days, 10 weeks

    • E. 

      4 weeks, 63 days

  • 17. 
    Only small water-soluble drugs pass into milk by simple diffusion.  Large molecules cannot pass into milk.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Highly protein bound drugs usually do not pass into milk in high concentrations.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Advantages of breastfeeding for the mother include: more rapid uterine involution, decreased postpartum blood loss, fertility reduction, decreased risk of breast/ovarian cancer, and decreased risk of DM 1 and 2.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    A study on the excretion of a new drug into breast milk in 40 nursing mothers found that the average milk/plasma ratio of the drug was 2.5.  In the package insert, you find that with a dosage of 750mg every 8 hours, the average steady-state peak serum concentration is 2mcg/mL.  If an infant's 75kg mother were taking this dosage, what would be the approximate dose taht an exclusively breastfed infant would receive?Daily dosage in breastmilk can be calculated using the standard value of 150mL/kg/day.
    • A. 

      750 mcg/kg/d

    • B. 

      600 mcg/kg/d

    • C. 

      450 mcg/kg/d

    • D. 

      300 mcg/kg/d

  • 21. 
    Delaying therapy, choosing an alternative drug/route of administration, and administering the drug as a single dose before the infant's longest sleep period are ways to minimize infant exposure to drugs in breast milk.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    Drugs of high concern to lactating mothers include which of the following:(check all that apply)
    • A. 

      Narcotics

    • B. 

      Water-soluble beta-blockers

    • C. 

      Tylenol

    • D. 

      Iodine-containing drugs

    • E. 

      Lithium

  • 23. 
    Pregnant women are advised to take a multivitamin containing 400mcg of folic acid.  Folic acid deficiency is a cause of ______________ because dietary intake alone is sledom sufficient to prevent the occurence.
    • A. 

      Renal damage and growth restriction

    • B. 

      Tooth and bone malformations

    • C. 

      Fetal hemorrhage

    • D. 

      Facial malformations

    • E. 

      Neural tube defects

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