Practice Final Exam

81 Questions | Total Attempts: 423

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Practice Exam Quizzes & Trivia

Use this practice test to study for the final exam. There are fewer than 90 questions and it should not take more than 2 hours.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    ________ can be defined as variant forms of an element useful for dating and paleoclimate studies.
    • A. 

      Isotopes

    • B. 

      Radiometry

    • C. 

      Half-life

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 2. 
    Chronometric dating techniques provide
    • A. 

      An age estimate in years before the present

    • B. 

      The relative age of an object

    • C. 

      Information about the magnetic polarity of strata

    • D. 

      The age of an object relative to the items found with it

  • 3. 
    Radiocarbon dating is the primary technique for dating
    • A. 

      Volcanic deposits

    • B. 

      Organic material

    • C. 

      Uranium decay

    • D. 

      Obsidian

  • 4. 
    Studying ancient ecological circumstances and vegetation includes investigating
    • A. 

      Ancient pollen

    • B. 

      Oxygen isotopes

    • C. 

      Stable carbon isotopes

    • D. 

      All of these

    • E. 

      None of these

  • 5. 
    A high 18O/16O ratio (more 18O and less 16O) in the shells of marine animals indicates
    • A. 

      Colder temperatures and higher sea levels

    • B. 

      Warmer temperatures and higher sea levels

    • C. 

      Colder temperatures and lower sea levels

    • D. 

      Higher temperatures and lower sea levels

  • 6. 
    ____________ is a common radiometric method for dating volcanic deposits
    • A. 

      Electron spin resonance

    • B. 

      Potassium-Argon dating

    • C. 

      Radiocarbon dating

    • D. 

      Stratigraphic dating

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is the principle behind a dating technique using comparison of fossils?
    • A. 

      The principle of original verticality

    • B. 

      The principle of cross-cutting relationships

    • C. 

      The principle of superposition

    • D. 

      The principle of faunal succession

  • 8. 
    The term Hominid
    • A. 

      Recently replaced hominoid. The term includes all extinct human ancestors after the split from the last common ancestor with chimps

    • B. 

      Refers to all primate ancestors of humans

    • C. 

      Originally referred to humans and all extinct ancestors after the split from the last common ancestor with chimps

    • D. 

      Is based on a phylum level distinction between humans and the great apes

  • 9. 
    The fundamental adaptation that would be expected in the first hominin ancestor is
    • A. 

      Upright posture

    • B. 

      Increased cranial capacity

    • C. 

      Complex social interaction

    • D. 

      Tool use

  • 10. 
    Compared to the pelvis of a quadruped, the pelvis of a biped is
    • A. 

      Almost the same except for the number of bones

    • B. 

      Elongated and fan-shaped

    • C. 

      Broader and bowl-shaped

    • D. 

      Extremely dense and heavy

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 11. 
    Over time, hominin legs lengthened (relative to trunk length) which
    • A. 

      Increased stride length and efficiency

    • B. 

      Made climbing more difficult

    • C. 

      Decreased the dangers presented by predators

    • D. 

      Increased the energy requirements for locomotion

  • 12. 
    The leg attained modern human proportions with the origin of
    • A. 

      Homo ergaster (Early African erectus)

    • B. 

      Anatomically modern Homo sapiens

    • C. 

      Australopithecus afarensis

    • D. 

      Ardipithecus ramidus and/or ramidus kadabba

  • 13. 
    Bipedal walking is more energy efficient
    • A. 

      Than arboreal locomotion in monkeys

    • B. 

      Than knuckle-walking in Chimps

    • C. 

      Than quadrupedalism in dogs

    • D. 

      When running on a hard surface

  • 14. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the hypotheses for bipedalism covered in class?
    • A. 

      Bipeds expose less of their bodies to the sun than quadrupeds

    • B. 

      Bipeds have an advantage over quadrupeds when it come to climbing trees to sleep at night

    • C. 

      The blood flow system bipeds have to move blood against gravity also works to cool the brain

    • D. 

      Body hair inhibits the cooling effect of transpiration from evaporation of sweat off the skin

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is NOT an aspect of (Isbell and Young's) energetic efficiency model for bipedalism?
    • A. 

      Increased efficiency of bipedal locomotion

    • B. 

      An increase in body size

    • C. 

      Fusion-fission social groups in chimps

    • D. 

      An increase in forest fragmentation

  • 16. 
    According to other models, bipedalism could have evolved because it was adaptive for hominins to
    • A. 

      Carry their infants

    • B. 

      See over tall grasses

    • C. 

      Dissipate heat

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 17. 
    Which of these statements was part of the heat stress model for bipedalism? 
    • A. 

      Humans are hairless and sweating is a good way to lose heat in hairless mammals

    • B. 

      Some primates develop more body hair to deal with life on the savanna (rather than less hair)

    • C. 

      Paleoclimate data suggests that early hominins lived in forests and woodlands, not on the savanna

    • D. 

      Many OWM who live on the savanna are quadrupeds, suggesting that the earliest hominins were not upright walkers either

  • 18. 
    The dental arcade of modern humans is ________, while that of apes' is ________.
    • A. 

      Prognathic/curved

    • B. 

      A parabola/U-shaped

    • C. 

      Larger/smaller

    • D. 

      U-shaped/a parabola

  • 19. 
    The ________ is a space in the tooth row that allows the canine to slide past the third premolar and to be sharpened each time the mouth is closed. This is a feature of apes and is lost in hominin evolution.
    • A. 

      Mandible

    • B. 

      Maxilla

    • C. 

      Double cusp

    • D. 

      Diastema

  • 20. 
    The reduction or loss of cranial crests in hominin species represents
    • A. 

      The de-emphasis on protection for the brain

    • B. 

      Increase in the size of neck muscles associated with quadrupedalism

    • C. 

      A de-emphasis on chewing as well as brain size expansion

    • D. 

      The need for greater room for muscles associated with chewing

  • 21. 
    The earliest fossil evidence for hominin ancestors has come from three sites in ________.
    • A. 

      The Congo Basin in Central Africa

    • B. 

      East Africa and Tchad

    • C. 

      South African caves

    • D. 

      Western Africa

  • 22. 
    The Great Rift Valley is the result of ________.
    • A. 

      Ancient floods

    • B. 

      Tectonic activity

    • C. 

      River erosion

    • D. 

      Volcanic eruptions

  • 23. 
    Early fossil hominins can be recognized by ________.
    • A. 

      Bipedal characteristics and greatly reduced facial prognathism

    • B. 

      Increased cranial size as well as bipedal characteristics

    • C. 

      Increases in the size of the C/P3 complex along with a U-shaped dental arcade

    • D. 

      Bipedal characteristics, reduced canine size, and loss of the honing complex

  • 24. 
    The Toumai fossil, or Sahelanthropus tchadensis was discovered in _______ and is _______ years old.
    • A. 

      Tchad; 5-8 million

    • B. 

      Tanzania; 2.5-5 million

    • C. 

      Ethiopia; 8-10 million

    • D. 

      Mali; 4.4-6 million

  • 25. 
    The site where Toumai was found was
    • A. 

      An area of rolling grassland

    • B. 

      A dry, lightly forested area near a lakeshore

    • C. 

      A desert area

    • D. 

      An open semi-arid area