Executive advisory committee
Member of the House of Representatives
Wealthy businessmen, southerners, and Midwesterners
Rural voters, African Americans, and women
Jewish voters, urban voters, wealthy businessmen
Women, Hispanic Americans, and people in the highest income bracket
African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and urban voters
In the past 40 years, at least half of incumbents consistently have won reelection.
Senate incumbents are reelected at a greater rate than House incumbents.
The most congressional incumbents were reelected in 1960.
Almost no senatorial incumbents won reelection in 1980.
House incumbents tend to win elections often than senatorial incumbents because their elections are less publicized.
Amend the preident's budget proposal as it sees fit
Make any laws that it to carry its assigned responsibilities.
Create any number of legislative committees and sub committees.
Reapportion seats based on the nation's changing population.
Partixipating in political protests when they disagree with the government's decisions.
Writing letters to the editor of a local newspaper.
Voting for candidates who seem to share their political ideology.
Writing letters or trying to contact their representative in person.
Joining an interest group and lobbying members of Congress.
To shield judges from political influence and pressure
To rewared judges for their distinuished careers
To create a strong relationship between court and conress
To allow politicians to use the patronage system
To limit the power of presidents to appoint judges too frewuently
Its bias in favor of outsiders and third parties.
Its focus on the Supreme Court to the exclusion of the other branches.
Its live and uncensored coverage of committee hearings.
Its exploitation of political scandals to earn ratings.
Its failure to shape the public agenda through its news coverage.
High school graduates
The president submits a budget proposal to Congress, which ultimately decides how to allocate money.
The president assigns a spending minimum and maximum to each agency in the executive branch.
Interest groups have little influence over this aspect of policy making
The Office of Management and budget handles the entire budgetary process
Committees submit their internal budget requests to the Congressional Budget Office
The government cannot interfere with the ways peopple practice their religious beliefs.
State governments may base their politics on religion, but the federal government cant.
Officially sponsored prayer in public schools violates the separation of the church and state.
The Establishment Clause applies only to non-Christian relgions.
Religious schools are not allowed to recieve any funding.
I and IV only
II and III only
III and V only
I,II, and V
III. IV and V only
Voting rights act
Motor voter act
Civil rights act
If he or she has a good television presence
When a state has just gained seats due to reapportionment
If he or she is new to politics
After a critical election for the presidency
If he or she is an incumbent
An iron triangle is composed of the president, the speaker of the House and the chief justice.
Iron triangles inhibit the policy process by interfering with the debate of a piece of legislation.
Iron triangles help unify the three branches of government in pursuit of a single, clear policy agenda.
Iron triangles help advance legislation and implementation in a particular policy area.
Iron traingles rarely form in government at the federal level because they lack sufficient resources for sustainability
Federal judge hearing a case on the constutionality of an environmental regulation
Member of the house committee that authorizes money for the building power plants
Staff member of the Environment Protection agency.
Newspaper in the town where environmental laws were being violated.
Staff member of the White House who is known to be sympathetic to environmental converns.
State attorney general
Constitutional powers of the president.
Rights of the accused
Campaign finance reform
Ask the president to appoint new justices.
Try to amend the Constitution to override the Supreme Court's interpretation.
Appeal the Court's decision to the Senate Judiciary Committee.
Issue a referendum to allow the public to vote on the Supreme Court's decision.
Vote to override the Supreme Court's decision.
I and III only
II and IV only
I,II, and IV only
II,IV, and V only
The Senate version has seniority and is sent to the president.
The Supreme Court chooses the better version.
The two versions are sent to a conference committee to work out a compromise bill.
The president has the authority to choose which version he will sign into law.
Each house must amend its bill and take another vote.
Power to negotiate treaties.
Authority to enter into executive agreements.
Ability to send troops into war.
Freedom to appoint ambassadors.
Privilege of receiving foreign diplomats.
Only a small portion of cases seeking review are heard by the Supreme Court.
The Senate Judiciary Committee selects which cases will be placed on the docket.
Most cases that reach the Supreme Court are appealed from state courts.
The solicitor general is responsible for assigning cases to the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court attempts to hear every case appealed to it.
Eminent Domain Clause.
Automatic endorsement from the president
A clean political record
General political experience
More campaign resources and funding
A large number of undecided voters in the constituency
It has helped lower the cost of campaigning, thereby saving the parties money.
It has forced candidates to rely more heavily on their parties.
It has caused a decrease in party identification among the electorate.
It has led to the declining importance of national conventions.
It has caused party realignement because parties can appeal to new groups in the electorate.
Spending on congressional campaigns has stabilized.
There was a particularly high number of open Senate seats in the 2000 election.
Democrats consistently outspend Republicans in congressional elections.
Challengers for House seats are at a greater financial advantage than are challengers in senatorial campaigns.
PACs made the largest contributions to congressional campaigns.
Receipts exceeded disbursements in 1998 but not in 2000.
Races between Democrats and Republicans in both houses were much closer in 1998 than they were in 2000.
Challengers were more successful in 1998 than they were in 2000.
Candidates for both houses spent more of their own money in 1998 campaigns than they did in 2000 campaigns.
House elections in 1998 cost less than did the prior elections, but the 2000 election did not cost less than the campaign before it.
More people than ever before are turning out to vote.
More voters are claiming to be conservatives.
Voters are increasingly deciding who to vote for based on a single issue.
Voter turnout is increasing among younger Americans.
More voters are identifying themselves as Independents.
Authorize troop movements during war
Appropriate funds for agencies
Veto proposed legislation
Appeal to Congress and make legislative requests in a state of the union adress
Establish or discontinue relations with foreign governments
The requirement that all public schools desegregate
A prohibition on states' instituting poll taxes or literacy tests when administering elections
The illegality of discrimination in employment and public
The creation of the Justice Department to investigate civil rights violations
The right of all Americans, regardless of race or gender, to vote in federal elections
The Rules Committee determines the order in which bills will be heard and the length of debate for each one.
Representatives who are intoducing a bill are allowed the privilege of unlimited debate.
The speaker and other party leaders together determine the schedule of debate.
The minority party is allowed an automatic 10 minutes of debate time to refute legislation introduced by the majority party.
Only members of the party whose representative introduced the bill are allowed time on the floor to discuss it.