The Washington,D.C. Municipal Court
The Territorial Court of the Virgin Islands
The U.S District Courts
The Police Court of New York City
The Court of Military Appeals
Conduct foreign relations
Establish post offices
I, II, III, IV
II, I, III, IV
III, I, II, IV
IV, I, III, II
I, IV, III, II
Article One, Section 5
Article One, Section 10
Bill of Rights
Trial by jury
Dual branch committees
Limiting themselves to being only grass-roots organizations
Being dominated by foreign interests
Never supporting incumbent candidates
Encouraging strict campaign finance regulations
Making politicians dependent on their financial support
He or she is the leader of the Senate majority party.
He or she is recognized first in debate.
He or she controls the scheduling of bills for floor consideration.
He or she has more power than Senate whips.
He or she is always selected from a different party than the vice president.
Checks and balances
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
The Pendleton Act of 1883
The Hatch Act of 1939
The Garfield Amendment of 1902
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1946
Close banks which lend excessively to foreign countries and seldom to U.S. citizens
Take large amounts of money out of circulation in order to curb inflation
Raise or lower interests in order to influence interest rates of private banks
Levy taxes on luxury items in order to create more revenue for the government
Create new business by selling parts of federal agencies to the private sector
Literacy requirements for voters
Cumbersome registration requirements
Weakening power of political parties
Apathy on the part of the electorate
Disiliusionment with politics in general
Many labor unions were suspected of having communists or socialists among their membership who might advocate the violent overthrow of the government
The Smith Act forbade practices that might impede the profitable functioning of a business
The Smith Act forbade strikes in areas that were crucial to the functioning of the economy
Wages set by the Smith Act were often lower than the wages which many workers were currently receiving
Many labor union members expected consultation by the staff members of legislators before they made a law which would so profoundly affect union membership
Voters feel a stronger affiliation to their political parties when they are voting for president than when voting for a congressional representative.
The Democratic and Republican parties hold conventions to nominate their presidential candidates in order to discourage participation by low-ranking members.
In major elections, there is usually a third major party that emerges to challenge the Republicans and Democrats.
The stronger the grass-roots support for a party, the more divisive the nominating conventions are likely to be.
The trend over the last 50 years has been a lessening of party loyalty, especially in national elections.
There were more undeclared candidates than Democratic candidates.
Republican membership contains a majority of people in the top 1/3 in income status.
Republicans and Democrats have an equal number of people in the middle 1/3 income status.
Republicans and Independents have an equal proportion of the members in the middle income status.
Democrats, Republicans, Independents, and Undeclareds have an equal number of members.
Many voters are single-issue voters.
Party affiliation is no longer a strong influence on voting patterns.
Party platforms are formed with the purpose of bringing in a diverse group of supporters.
The amount of voters gained and lost by the abortion stance almost equalled out.
Abortion is a key issue for a candidate.
Herbert Hoover's economic policies
Richard Nixon's treatment of college students protesters
Abraham Lincoln's election platform
Teddy Roosevelt's African safaris
George Bush's stance on haitian refugees
Keeping the children of illiterates from voting
Weeding out people who would not vote wisely
Preventing women from voting
Discrminating against the elderly
Keeping African-Americans from voting
It strengthened the power of states to interpret the Constitution
It affirmed the power of the Supreme Court to have the final say in interpreting the Bill of Rights
It led to the eventual overturning of the Fourteenth Amendment
It placed more stringent limits on freedom of speech
It weakened federalism in favor of a system that more equitably balanced state versus federal powers
A person accused of sedition by the Congress
A person found guilty of slander against a mayor and jailed by local authorities
A union organizer accused of murder
A Senator accused of perjury by a political opponent
A doctor being sued for malpractice in two different states
Committee on Committees
Foreign Relations Committee
Ways and Means Committee
Release prisoners he feels were falsely incarcerated
Take property from people who did not pay taxes
Control illegal narcotics imports
Strip errant legislators of their powers
Control the Congress's spending through the refusal to use funds
Creating and implementing the national budget
Negotiating and signing treaties with foreign nations
Creating and passing legislation
Repelling sudden attacks on the U.S.
Formally declaring war
To be elected, politicians must earn the support of a large cross section of the electorate.
Policial action committees often support candidates of meager financial means.
In the last two decades, almost every mainstream candidate for the presidency has been a millionaire.
Business leaders are often in desagreement over policy and political candidates.
There are more registered Democrats than Republicans.
The longer and more protracted a war is, the higher and stronger the current president's approval rating will be.
Short successful military engagements are followed by a sharp rise in the president's approval.
Every president tries to have at least one military action during his/her presidency, in order to solidify public approval
Presidents are always blamed when wars are lost and lauded when wars are won.
The higher the casualty rate of the enemy during a war, the higher the president's approval rating will be.
The government depends on bureaucrats' expertise in different areas that makes them hard to replace
Bureaucrats leaving office often blow the whistle on wasteful government practices
Government agencies are required by law to be free of political considerations
It is hard to fill agency positions since the hour are long and the pay is low
It will prevent assassinations like President Garfield's
Establishing new schools where they are needed
Setting conditions for the distribution of financial aid
Hiring and firing teachers
Dictating standards to be used in certifying teachers
Closing schools that do not meet basic federal standards
An unemployed factory worker who needs part-time work while he goes back to school
An ex-government official who had a high position in the defense department
An antiwar protestor who has often lobied in Washington
An enlisted soldier stationed near Washington, D.C.
A high -level official in the current administration
The electoral collge
The increasing importance of door-to-door campaigning
The decreasing size of campaign budgets
The waning popularity of daily newspapers
The increasing need for candidates to be well-versed in the technical aspects of TV camera work
The importance of creating the desired television image and being able to create a negative television image for the opponent
Introduction into both the Senate and the House
Referral to committees for recommendations
Presidential approval of committee recommendations
House and Senate debate
House and Senate compromise
Apply judicial review whenever possible
Place the wishes of elected representatives as a high priority
Apply liberal philosophy to Supreme Court decisions
Hear large numbers of cases
Block many executive initiatives
Pay back a foreign loan
Give an alternative to the cash tax refund
Raise money for a war in progress
Finance budget deficits
Increase the circulation of hard currency
I and II
I, II, and III
II, III, and IV
I, II, IV
An executive agreement avoids political wrangling with the Senate since it does not need to be ratified.
An executive agreement has more legal validity than a treaty.
A president can easily back down from an executive agreement with no recourse for the foreign country.
The Case Act of 1972 encouraged executive agreements.
An executive agreement requires prior Senate approval, making resulting negotiations easier for the president.
Environmentalists who feel that policies go too far and sacrifice the economy because of the environmental concerns
Farmers who want more protection for their livestock
Busieness interests that resent the high cost of environmental protection measures
Doctors who have fewer patients as the environment becomes cleaner
Universities that resent having to do environmental research for the government
Vetoes are used on over 50 precent of the bills that pass through the White House.
Republicans have been more likely to veto bills than have Democrats.
It is the most effective way for a president to influence the legislative process.
A veto is final and the Congress has no method of undoing it.
The use of the veto has declined in the last 30 years.
The Congressional Research Service
The General Accounting Office
The Office of Automation
The Congressional Budget Office
The Office of Technology Assessment
It limited the president's power to use military force
It was result of the War Powers Resolution
It gave the president more flexibility regarding when and how to use military force
It showed how the Congress was opposed to giving more power to the president
It led to the end of the Vietnam War
Smaller and less involved in people's daily welfare
Having more services for the needy
More socialistic in terms of public assistance programs
Having larger budgets and more expenses
Having more control over people's lives than many of the founders of the Constitution envisioned
Demonstrable grass-roots support for his.her stand on an issue
Connections with important decision makers
Large financial resources to spend on politicians
Familiarity with the political process
Good communications ability
Plessy v. Ferguson
McCulloch v. Maryland
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Zorach v. Clauson
Near v. Minnesota
States should decide what the definition of liberty is.
The definition of liberty is clearly set out in the Constitution.
Liberty must be redefined with every Court decision.
Segregation denies black people their liberty.
Liberty simply means freedom from being physically enslaved.
The corrupt state governments would lose power.
Federalism had already worked in several other countries.
States would hold the majority of governmental power.
A unified group of states could better protect the people.
Having several levels of government would be unwieldy.
Chair of a Select Committee on Ethics
Chair of the Joint Library Committee
Senior member of the Rules Committee
Chair of the Appropriations Commitee
Minority chair of the Foreign Relations Committee
A Senator's legislative assistant
A commissioner of an independent regulatory agency
A House member's case worker
The secretary of state
The president's press secretary
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Deregulation of many industries in the 1980s
The New Deal reforms of the 1930s
Lyndon Johnson's Great Society
The Populist party convention of 1892
Abscam of 1980
Frequent use of franking privileges
The hours currently spent on the job as compared to 100 years ago
Historically, the Supreme Court has had little influence on the economy.
Judicial restraintists believe that the Court has a responsibility to influence economic policy.
There has been a clear increase in the extent to which the Supreme Court has involved itself in the economy.
In the decades after the Civil War, the Supreme Court played a major role in economic policy.
Most historians have applauded the role that the Supreme Court played durin and after the Great Depression.
Prolonged economic recession
Wide-ranged dissatisfaction with "politics as usual"
Foreign crises in Asia
Preceived integrity of the candidates
I, IV only
I, II, III, IV
I, II, IV
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
The New Jersey Plan
The Great Compromise
The three-fifths compromise
The Virginia Plan
Women have always had the same rights as men
It would increase expenses and make U.S. business less competitive
Women already earn as much as men
Women are physically unable to do many of the higher paying jobs
It would take away from needed government involvement in business
Take the accused party to court
Refer the case to Congress for action
Refer the case to the local authorities when possible
Investigate and then fine the accused parties
Fine the state where the infraction took place
It was designed to encourage illegal immigration
It favored Hispanic immigrants
It forced minority immigrants to leave
It gave many illegal aliens, who were minorities, a chance for citizen ship
It finally opened the U.S/Mexican border