Sodium ions move rapidly into the cell
Potassium ions move rapidly out of the cell
Membrane permeability to sodium ions decreases
The outside of the cell becomes positively charged relative to the inside
The kind of neuron involved
The size of the neuron involved
Whether the neuron is myelinated or non-myelinated
The number of EPSPs in relation to the number of IPSPs
All of the above
Perception of auditory and visual stimuli
Control of voluntary movements
Relay of sensory and motor information
Synthesis and release of important regulatory hormones
Axons of sensory (afferent) spinal neurons
Nuclei (cell bodies) of sensory spinal neurons
Axons of motor (efferent) spinal neurons
Nuclei (cell bodies) of motor spinal neurons
1, 3, 4, 5, 2
4, 5, 3, 1, 2
4, 1, 5, 2, 3
4, 3, 1, 5, 2
Extensor thrust reflex
Cross extensor reflex
Cerebral cortex (precentral gyrus)
Are dependent on descending activation from higher motor neurons
Involve sensory neurons, spinal cord interneurons and motor neurons only
Are not present in all skeletal muscles
Include the knee jerk reflex response to striking the patellar tendon
Optic nerve (II)
Facial nerve (VII)
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
Vagus nerve (X)
They are usually activated as a single unit (mass activation).
They emerge from the brain and sacral regions.
They form white and grey rami communicantes fibres.
They may have ganglia located along the spinal cord.
Organs and with short postganglionic fibres
Organs and with long postganglionic fibres
Spinal cord and with short postganglionic fibres
Spinal cord and with long postganglionic fibres
A two neuron efferent chain
The presence of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
The presence of nerve cell bodies in the ganglia
Innervation of skeletal muscles
Preganglionic sympathetic fibres
Postganglionic sympathetic fibres
Preganglionic parasympathetic fibres
Postganglionic parasympathetic fibres
All of these are part of the fight-or-flight response
They are not found in autonomic ganglia or at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle fibres.
They are subtypes of adrenergic receptors.
They are not affected by the drug, curare, which specifically blocks nicotinic receptors.
They can be found on the target organs of specific postganglionic parasympathetic fibres.
Vitreous humour, lens, aqueous humour, cornea
Cornea, aqueous humour, lens, vitreous humour
Cornea, vitreous humour, lens, aqueous humour
Lens, aqueous humour, cornea, vitreous humour
It is also known as nearsightedness.
It may result from an eyeball that is too short.
It is corrected by glasses with concave lenses.
The blurry image is focused in front of the retina.
Photoreceptors, ganglion cells, bipolar cells, optic nerve
Optic nerve, photoreceptors, ganglion cells, bipolar cells
Photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve
Optic nerve, ganglion cells, photoreceptors, bipolar cells
Are less sensitive in low light conditions
Provide colour vision
Provide greater visual acuity (sharpness of detail)
Are more responsive in the daylight
All of these correctly describe cones.
More rods than cones are found
The macula lutea is located
Only cones occur
The optic nerve leaves the eye