The source of nearly all the axons that project to the cerebral cortex.
Concerned mainly with vision.
Concerned manly with hearing.
Concerned with autonomic regulation.
Understanding and formulating coherent speech.
Initiating the muscular movements of speech.
Processing visual images.
Primary visual cortex
Voluntary motor impulses.
All of these
Are silenced when a muscle is stretched.
Inhibit the discharge of muscle spindles.
Produce inhibition of the motor neurons of their own muscle when they are activated.
Behave as receptors in parallel with contracting muscle fibres
Sense organs are stimulated
Sensory neurones are stimulated
Commissural interneurones are stimulated
Motor neurones are stimulated
Neither a or b
Somatic nervous system
They are usually activated as a single unit (mass activation).
They emerge from the brain and sacral regions.
They form white and grey rami communicantes fibres.
They may have ganglia located along the spinal cord.
All of these are part of the fight-or-flight response
Increased blood pressure
Increased motility of the digestive tract
Increased metabolism in skeletal muscle
Increased heart rate
Temperature change and pain
Pressure and vibration
Light touch and two-point discrimination
Temperature change and pressure
Olfactory receptors can be classified as chemoreceptors and exteroceptors.
Olfactory receptors are bipolar neurons that are unique, dividing by mitosis to replace themselves every month or two.
Olfactory information (smell) is perceived in the limbic system region of the cerebral cortex.
Smells can affect both memory and emotion.
All of these are characteristic of olfactory sensation.
Utricle and saccule
Amplitude of action potentials formed by sensory hair cells
Frequency of action potentials formed by sensory hair cells
Displacement of the basilar membrane
Both a and c are correct.
Both b and c are correct.
Fibres in each optic nerve cross to the opposite sides of the brain at the optic chiasm
Fibres of the optic nerve synapse at the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
The image that is formed on the retina is inverted
Depth perception is improved when one eye is closed
Ganglion cell layer
Releases neurotransmitters into ducts.
Secretes chemicals that reach their targets through the bloodstream.
Communicates via frequency-modulated signals.
Contains organs called exocrine glands.
Pancreas – glucagon
Neurohypophysis – growth hormone
Anterior pituitary – corticotrophin releasing hormone
Adrenal medulla – cortisol
Binding of hormone to it’s receptor
Dimerisation with a receptor of the same type
Binding of receptor to a hormone response element
Binding of the hormone to a cytoplasmic carrier protein
Extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP.
A hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cells DNA.
Second messenger systems.
Plasma membrane bound hormone receptors.
Are ligand activated transcription factors
Directly control membrane channels
May involve activation of phospholipase C
Become activated kinases upon receptor binding
Increases amino acid uptake in cells.
Decreases the use of fat as an energy source.
Decreases the synthesis and storage of glycogen.
Increases the use of glucose for energy.
Preventing release of insulin from the pancreas.
Preventing the formation of goitres.
Causing contractions of uterine smooth muscle during labour.
Regulating blood calcium levels.
The diet is deficient in iodine
Secretion of ACTH is minimal
The adrenal glands are removed
Thyroxine is injected
Removal of the kidneys
Removal of the parathyroid glands
Injection of parathyroid hormone
Injection of calcitonin
During a fast
When pancreatic β cells are congenitally absent
When glucose is injected intravenously
When there is a need to mobilise energy reserves into the blood
Prolactin and oxytocin.
Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone.
Oestrogen and testosterone.
Progesterone and prolactin.
Caused by the oversecretion of thyroxine
Caused by abnormally high levels of TSH secretion
Successfully treated with radioactively labelled iodine
Caused by abnormally low levels of TRH secretion
Single-unit smooth muscle.
Multi-unit smooth muscle.
Both b and d.
Is greatest when the muscle is between 100 and 120% of its optimal resting length.
Is increased by recruiting more motor units.
Is increased by summation.
All of the above.
Plasma fatty acids.
Necessity of numerous myofibers to contract if the muscle is to shorten
Connection between electrical excitation of a myofiber and its contraction
Sliding filament interaction between thick and thin filaments
Ability of tendons to stretch and absorb some of the force of contraction
Protein molecules get shorter
Thick filaments get shorter
Thin filaments slide between the thick filaments
Tendons pull on it from opposite ends
Before the cross bridges of myosin can attach to actin
During the power stroke when the myosin cross bridge flexes
At the end of the power stroke before myosin lets go of the actin filament
At the end of the power stroke after myosin lets go
all the neurotransmitter is used up.
all the calcium ion is used up.
thick filaments cannot let go of the thin filaments without ATP.
motor neurons can no longer function.
Binding of acetylcholine to the motor end plate.
Release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Movement of the troponin-tropomyosin complex.
Reuptake of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.