Pharmacology IV

63 Questions

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Pharmacology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Adrenal cortex is derived from ......
    • A. 

      Neural crest

    • B. 

      Mesoderm

    • C. 

      Lisoderm

  • 2. 
    Adrenal medulla is derived from ....
    • A. 

      Mesoderm

    • B. 

      Neural rhodamine-lysinated dextran

    • C. 

      Neural crest

  • 3. 
    Of the following, the most potent naturally occurring mineralocorticoid is...?
    • A. 

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    • B. 

      Cortisol

    • C. 

      Aldosterone

  • 4. 
    Choose the correct statement(s) from the following:
    • A. 

      Adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH

    • B. 

      Adrenal cortex synthesizes glucocorticoid hormones

    • C. 

      The most potent natural glucocorticoid is CORTISOL.

  • 5. 
    Adrenal cortex synthesizes glucocorticoid and mineralocorticooid hormones, and which other one of the following?
    • A. 

      Adrenal norepinephrine

    • B. 

      Adrenal estogens and androgens

    • C. 

      Adrenal dopamine

  • 6. 
    Testosterone excreted by the adrenal cortex is converted in peripheral tissues into stronger androgens.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    Glucocorticoid hormones have ....
    • A. 

      Indirect effect on carbohydrates metabolism

    • B. 

      Anti-inflammatory and growth-suppressing effects

    • C. 

      They do not influence awareness and sleep habits

    • D. 

      The most potent natural glucocorticoid is cortisol

  • 8. 
    Which one of the following statements is correct?
    • A. 

      Glucocorticoid hormones have direct effects on carbohydrate metabolism

    • B. 

      Glucocrtocoid hormones do not influence awareness and sleep habits

    • C. 

      Glucocorticoid hormones affect ion transport

  • 9. 
    Which one of the following statements is correct?
    • A. 

      ACTH is a naturally occurring mineralocorticoid

    • B. 

      Estrogen and testosterone are excreted by the adrenal cortex

    • C. 

      Mineralocorticoids affect ion transport

  • 10. 
    Mineralocorticoids affect ion transport via increasing activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase in the mesenchymal cells by causing Na+ retention and loss of K+ and H+ ions.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Androgens are converted by peripheral tissues to stronger androgens such as .....
  • 12. 
    Adrenal medulla contains which type of the cells?
    • A. 

      Epinephrine

    • B. 

      Chromaffin cells

    • C. 

      Cathecolamines

  • 13. 
    Chromaffin cells secrete the following:
    • A. 

      Serotonin, epinephrine and dopamine

    • B. 

      Epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine

    • C. 

      Epinephrine and norepinephrine

  • 14. 
    The "fight or fight" response triggers the release of cathecolamines.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    The rate-determining step in the catecholamine release is L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    The enzyme responsible for formation of norepinephrine from dopamine is dopamine beta-decarboxylase.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Cortisol is synthesized in the zona glomerulosa under the control of ACTH.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Cortisol, an exogenous glucocorticoid, is synthesized from cholesterol.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    The following statement(s) is (are) correct:
    • A. 

      Metabolism of cortisol occurs in liver and kidneys.

    • B. 

      CBG (corticosteroid-binding globulin) has high affinity and low capacity

    • C. 

      CBG (corticosteroid-binding globulin) has low affinity and high capacity

    • D. 

      Albumin has high affinity and low capacity.

    • E. 

      Albumin has low affinity and high capacity.

  • 20. 
    The liver inactivates most of the cortisol in the plasma via oxidation followed by glucuronidation.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    11 beta-HSD (hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) type I converts cortisone into cortisol in the kidneys.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    11 beta-HSD (hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) type II converts cortisol into cortisone in the kidneys.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    A steroid hormone will attach to the steroid receptor:
    • A. 

      In the nucleus

    • B. 

      In the cytoplasm

    • C. 

      In the DNA

  • 24. 
    The mRNA transcription will be activated:
    • A. 

      In the DNA

    • B. 

      In the nucleus

    • C. 

      In the RNA

  • 25. 
    Ribosomes will then translate mRNA into a new protein in the (place where it happens)...
  • 26. 
    The glucocorticoid hormone will bind to its receptor in the cytoplasm; from there, it will translocate into the nucleus, where it will bind to a GRE (glucocorticoid recognition sequence).
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 27. 
    A GRE (glucocorticoid recognition sequence) can either increase transcription or decrease transcription (via an nGRE, i.e., a negative GRE):  the final result will be an increased or decreased mRNA and protein synthesis.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    Two basic types of glucocorticoid receptors are type I (MR--mineralocorticoid receptor); and type II (GR --glucocorticoid receptor).
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    Type I MR receptors have a much wider distribution than type II GR receptors.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 30. 
    Cortisol afftects metabolism and is an anti-inflammatory.  It is located in:
    • A. 

      Liver, fatty free acids, and inflammatory cytokines.

    • B. 

      Liver and muscles.

    • C. 

      Liver, adipose tissues, and muscles.

  • 31. 
    Cortisol increases glucose production in the liver (via gluconeogenesis).
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    Cortisol decreases fatty acids in the adipose tissues.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    Cortisol decreases amino acids in the muscles.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 34. 
    Cortisol is:
    • A. 

      Regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary unit.

    • B. 

      Regulated by the adrenal cortex.

    • C. 

      Regulated by the cerebral cortex.

  • 35. 
    Diseases/disorders of the adrenal cortex are:HyperaldosteronismFeminization/virilizationCrohn's diseasePheochromocytomasPrimary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    Hyperaldosteronism can be divided into:1) primary hyperaldosteronism (aka:Crohn's syndrome/disease); and 2) secondary hyperaldosteronism
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 37. 
    Which one of the following is correct?
    • A. 

      Primary hyperaldosteronism is also known as Crohn's syndrome/disease.

    • B. 

      Primary hyperaldosteronism is due to the increase in the secretion of aldosterone.

    • C. 

      P. hyperaldosteronism is due to an abnormality in the adrenal cortex.

  • 38. 
    Addison's disease is caused by the primary adrenal insufficiency.  Which of the following statements is correct?
    • A. 

      Addison's is also caused by the secondary adrenal insufficiency.

    • B. 

      Addison's is due to the auto-immune destruction of the adrenal cortex.

    • C. 

      Addison's is the result of the low/absent ACTH, which leads to the decrease of corticosteroidogenesis.

  • 39. 
    Addison's leads to the selective destruction of the adrenal cortex.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 40. 
    Secondary adrenal insufficiency (check all that apply):
    • A. 

      Leads to hypothalamic (pituitary) disorders.

    • B. 

      Might be caused by the prolonged administration of corticosteroids.

    • C. 

      Can be prevented by tapering off corticosteroids slowly.

  • 41. 
    Cushing's syndrome can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 42. 
    Primary Cushing's syndrome is due to ....
    • A. 

      Tumors secreted by the hypothalamus.

    • B. 

      Tumors secreted by the cerebral cortex.

    • C. 

      Tumors secreted by the adrenal cortex.

  • 43. 
    Both primary and secondary Cushing's syndrome are caused by the excess of glucocorticoids in the body.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 44. 
    Secondary Cushing's syndrome is primarily caused by ...
    • A. 

      Environmental toxins

    • B. 

      ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas

    • C. 

      Corticosteroids taken by the patient

  • 45. 
    Cushing's disease (unlike Cushing's syndrome) is caused primarily by ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 46. 
    For glucocorticoid analogues to work and have long duration of action, they need to....
    • A. 

      Be bound to proteins in the plasma.

    • B. 

      Be attached to plasma, otherwise the liver will destroy them.

    • C. 

      They must last a long time in the plasma, i.e., have low affinity for 11-beta HSD type II, otherwise they will be inactivated into inactive metabolites quickly.

    • D. 

      Have decreased lipophilicity.

    • E. 

      Have decreased affinity for the glucocrticoid receptor (GR).

  • 47. 
    For glucocorticoid analogues to work and have long duration of action, they also need to....
    • A. 

      High affinity for 11-beta HSD type II receptors

    • B. 

      Have a very small percentage of the drug as % free drug.

    • C. 

      Have increased lipophilicity, i.e., increased adipose tissue concentration = decreased secretion.

  • 48. 
    Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and methylprednisolone have long duration of action.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 49. 
    Dexamethasone is the least potent of all glucocorticoid analogues.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 50. 
    Hydrocortisone is cortisol.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 51. 
    Addison's disease, a primary adrenal insufficiency, is caused by:
    • A. 

      TNF-alpha-mediated auto immunity

    • B. 

      T-cell-mediated auto immunity

    • C. 

      IL-1-mediated auto immunity

  • 52. 
    The final result of Addison's is:
    • A. 

      Increase in the glucocorticoid production.

    • B. 

      Increase in the mineralocorticoid production.

    • C. 

      Decrease in the glucocorticoid production.

    • D. 

      Decrease in the mineralocorticoid production.

  • 53. 
    The drug of choice for both primary (Addison's) and secondary adrenal insufficiency is oral hydrocortisone.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 54. 
    The oral hydrocortisone prescribed for both primary (Addison's) and secondary adrenal insufficiency should be in the medium range dose.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 55. 
    Which one of the following statements about adrenal insufficiency is correct?
    • A. 

      Phospholipase A will increase arachidonic acid metabolites, which will decrease and inhibit immune function.

    • B. 

      It will decrease cytokine release, which will then decrease leukocyte activation, which will decrease and inhibit immune function.

    • C. 

      It will increase the calcium reabsorption in the body.

  • 56. 
    Cutaneous cortisol is indicated in .....
    • A. 

      Asthma

    • B. 

      Psoriasis

    • C. 

      Atopic dermatitis

  • 57. 
    Inhaled glucocorticoids (check all that apply):
    • A. 

      Increase meneralocorticoid activity.

    • B. 

      Decrease glucocorticoid activity

    • C. 

      Increase glucocorticoid activity

    • D. 

      Decrease meneralocorticoid activity.

    • E. 

      Must have low systemic effects.

    • F. 

      If swallowed, must be able to be inactivated via liver

    • G. 

      Must be non-halogenated

  • 58. 
    Cortisol and glucocorticoid analogues are used in the depot form in cases of ...
    • A. 

      Asthma

    • B. 

      Rheumatoid arthritis

    • C. 

      Lichen planus

  • 59. 
    Mititane is an analogue of DMD.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 60. 
    Inhibitors of early steps of the adrenocortical hormone synthesis are:MitotaneAminoglutethimideKetoconazoleMifepristone
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 61. 
    In higher concentrations, Mifepristone is used in the treatment of ectopic ACTH syndrome, i.e., increased glucocorticoids.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 62. 
    In pregnancy, which one of the following is used to treat the mother?
    • A. 

      Methylprednisolone

    • B. 

      Prednisolone

    • C. 

      Prednisone

  • 63. 
    In pregnancy, which one of the following will treat the fetus and will not harm the fetus's liver in the process?
    • A. 

      Prednisone

    • B. 

      Dexamethasone

    • C. 

      Cortisol