Pharmacology Chapter 36

66 Questions

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Pharmacology Quizzes & Trivia

There is a branch of biology which deals with the topic of drug action – where a drug is broadly defined as any natural, endogenous or man-made molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on an organism.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    These are a group of diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. (fasting plasma glucose >100mg.dL) and abnormalities in fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism that lead to microvascular, macrovascular and neuropathic complications.
    • A. 

      Muscle relaxants

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      Diabetes Mellitus

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 2. 
    In what organ is insulin and glucagon produced?
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Gallbladder

    • C. 

      GI

    • D. 

      Liver

  • 3. 
    True or False: When blood sugar is high the pancreas releases insulin
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    Affects carbs, fats and protein metabolism in most cell of the body with exception to the kidney, GI and liver which do not require insulin for glucose transport
    • A. 

      Characteristics of Diabetes

    • B. 

      Characteristics of insulin

    • C. 

      Characteristics of Muscles relaxants

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 5. 
    When is glucagon secreted?
    • A. 

      Throughout the day

    • B. 

      When blood sugar is low

    • C. 

      When blood sugar is high

    • D. 

      When patient goes into glycemic shock

  • 6. 
    This is one of the most common diseases of childhood. AKA juvenile diabetes. With tis there is a lack of insulin secretion by the pancreas.
    • A. 

      Type I Diabetes

    • B. 

      Type II Diabetes

    • C. 

      Adult onset diabetes

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 7. 
    It is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas.
    • A. 

      Adult onset diabetes

    • B. 

      Type II Diabetes

    • C. 

      Type I Diabetes

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 8. 
    Side effects of this type of  diabetes includes:Sustained Hyperglycemia, Polyuria,Polyphagia,Polydipsia,Glucosuria, Weight loss,Fatigue
    • A. 

      Type I Diabetes

    • B. 

      Type II Diabetes

  • 9. 
    Sustained Hyperglycemia is characterized as:
    • A. 

      Fasting blood glucose >110 on 2 separate occasions

    • B. 

      Fasting blood glucose >90 on 2 separate occasions

    • C. 

      Fasting blood glucose >100on 2 separate occasions

    • D. 

      Fasting blood glucose >126 on 2 separate occasions

  • 10. 
    Glucagon is secreted by the pancreas and it blocks insulin. It moves glucose from the cells to the blood.  Characterized by a decrease in beta cell activity (insulin deficiency), insulin resistance (reduced uptake of insulin by peripheral muscle cells) or an increase in glucose production by the liver. Related to obesity, inactivity and diet, AKA non-insulin dependent.This is a characteristics of which type of diabetes?
    • A. 

      Juvenile Diabetes

    • B. 

      Type II

  • 11. 
    Oral hypoglycemics, Diet control and exercise, May require insulin.  These are used to treat which type of insulin?
    • A. 

      Type I Diabetes

    • B. 

      Non- dependent insulin

    • C. 

      Gestational Diabetes

  • 12. 
    Women who have abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy, Does not include diabetic women who become pregnant.  This type of diabetes is known as:
    • A. 

      Type I

    • B. 

      Gestational Diabetes

    • C. 

      Type II

  • 13. 
    What are the normal ranges for diabetes?
    • A. 

      Normal FPG < 100 mg/dL,Between 100 and 126- IFG,Between 140-199- IGT.

    • B. 

      Normal FPG < 80 mg/dL,Between 80and 130- IFG,Between 100-200- IGT.

    • C. 

      Normal FPG < 60mg/dL,Between 110 and 120- IFG,Between 120-180- IGT.

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 14. 
    What is Onset?
    • A. 

      How long it will remain active in the body

    • B. 

      When the agent will have the maximum effect

    • C. 

      Time required for the medication to have an initial effect or action

  • 15. 
    What is insulin peak?
    • A. 

      When the agent will have the maximum effect

    • B. 

      Time required for the medication to have an initial effect or action

    • C. 

      Is how long it will remain active in the body

  • 16. 
    What is insulin duration?
    • A. 

      When the agent will have the maximum effect

    • B. 

      How long it will remain active in the body

    • C. 

      Time required for the medication to have an initial effect or action

  • 17. 
    Is a powder form of human insulin- onset is similar to SZ short acting insulin (lispro) and duration similar to Reg. insulin. Onset of action occurs within 10-20 min and max. effect is 2 hours after inhalation and duration is 6 hours. (Inhaled)
    • A. 

      Intermediate Insulin

    • B. 

      Short acting insulin

    • C. 

      Exubera Insulin

    • D. 

      Rapid Insulin

  • 18. 
    What are some contraindication of Exubera? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      Heart disease

    • B. 

      Smokng

    • C. 

      Lung disease

    • D. 

      Hypertension

  • 19. 
    What is the onset, peak and duration of rapid insulin?
    • A. 

      Onset less than 1 hour, peak 2-3 hours.

    • B. 

      Onset less than 10 minutes, peak 45 min-3 hours.

    • C. 

      Onset less than 30 minutes, peak 30 min-3 hours.

    • D. 

      Onset more than 30 minutes, peak 1.5-3 hours.

  • 20. 
    What are the names of the common rapid insulin? Select all that apply.
    • A. 

      Novolin L

    • B. 

      Humalog (Lispro)

    • C. 

      Humilin R

    • D. 

      Novolog (Aspart)

  • 21. 
    What is the onset, peak and duration of Intermediate insulin?
    • A. 

      Peak activity is usually between 4-12 hours, onset 1-4 hours, duration 16-28

    • B. 

      Peak activity is usually between 6-12 hours, onset 2-3 hours, duration 8-24 hours

    • C. 

      Peak activity is usually between 1-2hours, onset 5-6 hours, duration 16-30

    • D. 

      Peak activity is usually between 4-12 hours, onset 1-4 hours, duration 16-28

  • 22. 
    What are the names of the intermediate insulin? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      NPH

    • B. 

      Lente

    • C. 

      Humilin N

    • D. 

      Novolin R

    • E. 

      Novolin L

  • 23. 
    What is the onset, peak and duration of Long insulin?
    • A. 

      Peak activity is usually 6-20 hours, onset 1 hour, duration about 24 hours

    • B. 

      Peak activity is usually 7-30 hours, onset 1 hour, duration about 24 hours

    • C. 

      Peak activity is usually 6-20 hours, onset 1 hour, duration about 28 hours

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 24. 
    How many minutes before a meal is Short, intermediate and long acting are usually given?
    • A. 

      1 hour before meals

    • B. 

      10 minutes before meals

    • C. 

      30 minutes before meals

    • D. 

      2 hours before meals

  • 25. 
    How long before meals is Insulin aspart (Novolog) given?
    • A. 

      30 minutes before meal

    • B. 

      5-10 minutes before meal

    • C. 

      1 hour before meal

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 26. 
    How long before Insulin glargine (Lantus) given?
    • A. 

      1 hour before meals

    • B. 

      30 minutes before meals

    • C. 

      Given at the same time every day

    • D. 

      30 minutes after meals

  • 27. 
    How long before Insulin Lispro (Humalog) given?
    • A. 

      Given 0-15 minutes after meals

    • B. 

      Given 30 minutes before meals

    • C. 

      Given 0-15 minutes before meals

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 28. 
    How long does it takes for Novolog to begin to drop glucose?
    • A. 

      15 minutes

    • B. 

      30 minutes

    • C. 

      45 minutes

    • D. 

      1 hour

  • 29. 
    When is lantus given
    • A. 

      At nights

    • B. 

      At daytime

    • C. 

      In the afternoon

  • 30. 
    This medication works really fast need to assess for hypoglycemia 1-3 hours after administration.
    • A. 

      Novolin R

    • B. 

      Aspart

    • C. 

      Lispro

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 31. 
    What are some side effects of Insulin? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      Allergic reaction to cow or pig insulin

    • B. 

      Hyper or hypo glycemia

    • C. 

      Hypertension

    • D. 

      Epixstasis

  • 32. 
    How do you store insulin?
    • A. 

      Heated

    • B. 

      Refridgerated or store at room temperature for 30 days

    • C. 

      Frozen

    • D. 

      Can used all of the above processes

  • 33. 
    What is the correct way to mix insulin?
    • A. 

      Cloudy then clear

    • B. 

      Clear then cloudy

  • 34. 
    True or False: Most insulins can be mixed.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 35. 
    What is the mixture for Humulin Insulin?
    • A. 

      Humulin 50/50, Novolin 70/30

    • B. 

      Humulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30 (NPH 70% and Regular 30%)

    • C. 

      None of the above

  • 36. 
    What is the mixture for NPH Insulin?
    • A. 

      NPH 50% and Regular 50%

    • B. 

      NPH 70%, NPH 30%

  • 37. 
    What are Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors?
    • A. 

      Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, reduces absorption of glucose from the small intestine and increases insulin sensitivity improving glucose uptake in peripheral muscle and adipose cells.

    • B. 

      These inhibitors are enzyme inhibitors that inhibits pancreatic alpha amylase and GI alpha glucoside hydrolas enzymes used in the digestion of sugars.

    • C. 

      Are non-sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agents that lower blood glucose by stimulating the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas.

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 38. 
    These are characteristics of which drug class: In pts with diabetes this enzyme inhibition results in delayed glucose absorption and lowering of postprandial hyperglycemiaShould be used with diet and can be used in combo with other meds.
    • A. 

      Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

    • B. 

      Biguanides

    • C. 

      Meglitinides

    • D. 

      Sulfonylureas

  • 39. 
    What are the side effects of Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      Hypertension

    • B. 

      Diarrhea

    • C. 

      Gas

    • D. 

      Abdominal cramps

    • E. 

      Bleeding

  • 40. 
    What are the Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors medications? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      Repaglinide (Prandin)

    • B. 

      Acarbose (Precose)

    • C. 

      Metformin HCL (Glucophage)

    • D. 

      Miglitol (Glyset)

  • 41. 
    Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, reduces absorption of glucose from the small intestine and increases insulin sensitivity improving glucose uptake in peripheral muscle and adipose cells.
    • A. 

      Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

    • B. 

      Meglitinides

    • C. 

      Biguanides

    • D. 

      Sulfonylureas

  • 42. 
    Insulin must be present for metformin to be active so it doesn’t work in DM I. These are characteristics of which meds.
    • A. 

      Meglitinides

    • B. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • C. 

      Biguanides

    • D. 

      Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

  • 43. 
    What are the side effects of Biguanides? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      Nausea

    • B. 

      Vomitting

    • C. 

      Anorexia

    • D. 

      Epixstasis

    • E. 

      Gas

  • 44. 
    What are Biguanides Mendications?
    • A. 

      Lispro

    • B. 

      Repaglinide (Prandin)

    • C. 

      Acarbose (Precose)

    • D. 

      Metformin HCL (Glucophage)

  • 45. 
    These are non-sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic agents that lower blood glucose by stimulating the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas.
    • A. 

      Biguanides

    • B. 

      Meglitinides

    • C. 

      Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 46. 
    These don’t work in DM I- these have a short duration of action which helps to stop hypoglycemic problems in pts. This is a characteristic of which drug class?
    • A. 

      Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

    • B. 

      Meglitinides

    • C. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • D. 

      Biguanides

  • 47. 
    Most common side effect of Meglitinides includes:
    • A. 

      Hyperglycemia

    • B. 

      Hypoglycemia

    • C. 

      Hypertension

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 48. 
    Meglitinides medications includes: (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Metformin HCL (Glucophage)

    • B. 

      Repaglinide (Prandin)

    • C. 

      Nateglinide (Starlix)

    • D. 

      Acetohexamide (Dimelor)

    • E. 

      Glimepiride (Amaryl),

  • 49. 
    These lower blood glucose by stimulating the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas. They also diminish glucose production and metabolism of insulin by the liver.
    • A. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • B. 

      Thiazolidinediones

    • C. 

      Biguanides

    • D. 

      Meglitinides

  • 50. 
    Side effects of Sulfonylureas, first generation? (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Nausea

    • B. 

      Vomitting

    • C. 

      Abdominal cramps

    • D. 

      Anorexia

    • E. 

      Diarrhea

  • 51. 
    Sulfonylureas, first generation medications includes: (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Nateglinide (Starlix)

    • B. 

      Repaglinide (Prandin)

    • C. 

      Acetohexamide (Dimelor)

    • D. 

      Tolbutamide (Orinase)

  • 52. 
    Sulfonylureas, second generation medications includes: (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Glimepiride (Amaryl)

    • B. 

      Glipizide (Glucotrol)

    • C. 

      Glyburide(DiaBeta)

    • D. 

      Rosiglitazone (Avandia)

    • E. 

      Pioglitazone (Actos),

  • 53. 
    These lower blood glucose by increasing the sensitivity of muscle and fat tissue to insulin allowing more glucose to enter the cells in the presence of insulin for metabolism
    • A. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • B. 

      Meglitinides

    • C. 

      TZD

    • D. 

      Biguanides

  • 54. 
    They don’t stimulate the release of insulin from the beta cells but insulin must be present for these agents to work.It may take 4-6weeks for notable effect and several months for full therapeutic effect. These are characteristics of which drug class?
    • A. 

      TZD

    • B. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • C. 

      Meglitinides

    • D. 

      Biguanides

  • 55. 
    Side effects of Thiazolidinediones (TZD)includes: (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Nausea

    • B. 

      Vomitting

    • C. 

      Anorexia

    • D. 

      Abdominal cramps

  • 56. 
    Thiazolidinediones (TZD)  medications includes: (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Pioglitazone (Actos)

    • B. 

      Rosiglitazone (Avandia)

    • C. 

      Glipizide (Glucotrol)

    • D. 

      Glimepiride (Amaryl)

  • 57. 
    What are the different types of combination drugs? (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Glipizide/metformin (Metaglip)

    • B. 

      Glyburide/metformin (Glucovance)

    • C. 

      Mimetic/metformin (Metadine)

    • D. 

      Rosiglitazone/metformin (Avandamet)

  • 58. 
    Side effects of combination drugs includes: (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      N/V

    • B. 

      Hypoglycemia

    • C. 

      Weight loss

    • D. 

      Fatigue

    • E. 

      Hypertension

  • 59. 
    It is used as additional therapy for DM2 pts. It enhances insulin secretion only in the presence of hyperglycemia and insulin secretion decreases as blood glucose gets near normal levels.Byetta is an injection given SQ. These are characteristics which drug class?
    • A. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • B. 

      Thiazolidinediones

    • C. 

      Incretin-mimetic agent

    • D. 

      Meglitinides

  • 60. 
    What are the side effects of Incretin-mimetic agent? (Select all that applies)
    • A. 

      Nausea

    • B. 

      Diarrhea

    • C. 

      Constipation

    • D. 

      Vomitting

  • 61. 
    Incretin-mimetic agent medications includes:
    • A. 

      Rosiglitazone (Avandia)

    • B. 

      Byetta

    • C. 

      Pioglitazone (Actos)

    • D. 

      Glipizide/metformin (Metaglip)

  • 62. 
    Synthetic analog of amylin which is a protein that is screted from pancreatic beta cells with insulin in response to food intake. Pts who have a deficiency in insulin also have deficiency in amylin.  These are characteristics of which drug class?
    • A. 

      Thiazolidinediones

    • B. 

      Incretin-mimetic agent

    • C. 

      Amylinomimetic Agent

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 63. 
    What are the Amylinomimetic Agent?
    • A. 

      Pramlintide (Symlin)

    • B. 

      Rosiglitazone (Avandia)

    • C. 

      Glipizide (Glucotrol)

    • D. 

      Tolbutamide (Orinase)

  • 64. 
    What cautions are to be taken when taking Insulins? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      Not to be taken along with Warfarins

    • B. 

      Not to be taken along with Albuterol

    • C. 

      Not to be taken along with Diuretics

    • D. 

      Not to be taken along with morphine

  • 65. 
    What cautions are to be taken when taking Biguanine oral antidiabetics? Select all that applies.
    • A. 

      Not to be used with patients with heart failure

    • B. 

      Not to be used with patients with septicemia

    • C. 

      Not to be used with patients with shock

    • D. 

      Not to be used with patients with nicotine oral

  • 66. 
    What cautions are to be taken when taking Antihypoglycemic agents?
    • A. 

      Not to be used with patients with heart failure

    • B. 

      Not to be taken with Warfins.

    • C. 

      Not to be taken along with Albuterol

    • D. 

      None of the above