Pharma Cpd March 2017

30 Questions

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Pharma Cpd March 2017


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Evidence-based lifestyle modifications for progressive myopes According to the article, which of the following is NOT a sound recommendation as a lifestyle modification to aid against progression of myopia?
    • A. 

      Children should be encouraged to increase outdoor light exposure to 120 minutes or more per day

    • B. 

      The continued use of sun protection in the form of hats and sunglasses is recommended

    • C. 

      Children should be encouraged to take part in 30 minutes per day of rigorous physical activity

    • D. 

      Frequent visual breaks (a 10-minute break after every 30 minutes of near work) are recommended when performing prolonged near work tasks

  • 2. 
    Evidence-based lifestyle modifications for progressive myopesAccording to the results of the ROAM study, which of the following statements is TRUE?
    • A. 

      There were significant differences in the daily physical activity of myopes and emmetropes

    • B. 

      Myopic children spent significantly more time each day exposed to bright outdoor light levels

    • C. 

      Children spending on average 120 minutes per day in bright outdoor light levels were found to show faster axial eye growth

    • D. 

      It is the effect of bright light itself, rather than being active outdoors per se, that appears to impart the protective effect against myopia

  • 3. 
    Atropine and myopia controlAccording to the literature, approximately what percentage of 17-year-old Australians are myopic?
    • A. 

      16 per cent

    • B. 

      31 per cent

    • C. 

      50 per cent

    • D. 

      75 per cent

  • 4. 
    Atropine and myopia controlWhich of the following is a risk factor for incident myopia?
    • A. 

      Mediterranean ethnicity

    • B. 

      Decreased near work

    • C. 

      Lower hyperopic refraction at baseline

    • D. 

      More time spent outdoors

  • 5. 
    Atropine and myopia controlAccording to the literature, what appears to be the most effective treatment in controlling myopia?
    • A. 

      Progressive addition lenses

    • B. 

      Dual focus contact lenses

    • C. 

      Topical antimuscarinic antagonist medication

    • D. 

      Orthokeratology

  • 6. 
    Atropine and myopia controlWhat percentage of atropine has been shown to be the most effective in slowing myopia progression?
    • A. 

      1%

    • B. 

      0.5%

    • C. 

      0.1%

    • D. 

      0.01%

  • 7. 
    Atropine and myopia controlAccording to the literature, animal studies suggest which muscarinic receptors are involved with myopic progression?
    • A. 

      M1 and M4

    • B. 

      M1 and M3

    • C. 

      M3 and M4

    • D. 

      M1 only

  • 8. 
    Atropine and myopia controlWhich of the following is NOT an ocular side-effect of topical atropine solution?
    • A. 

      Ocular allergy

    • B. 

      Increased intraocular pressure

    • C. 

      Increased pupil size

    • D. 

      Glare

  • 9. 
    Atropine and myopia controlWhich of the following statements regarding topical atropine solution is FALSE?
    • A. 

      Currently, 0.01% atropine solution is not commercially available in Australia

    • B. 

      Compounded 0.01% atropine is diluted from a higher concentrated stock solution of atropine sulphate and then combined with BZA 0.1 mg/mL

    • C. 

      Both compounded and non-preserved 0.01% atropine solution has a 30-day shelf-life after opening

    • D. 

      Studies have shown that there is minimal rebound effect with the use of 0.01% atropine solution

  • 10. 
    Acute anterior uveitisWhich of the following ocular tissues does NOT form part of the uveal tract?
    • A. 

      Sensory retina

    • B. 

      Iris

    • C. 

      Choroid

    • D. 

      Ciliary body

  • 11. 
    Acute anterior uveitisApproximately what percentage of anterior uveitis cases has an idiopathic mechanism?
    • A. 

      15%

    • B. 

      25%

    • C. 

      50%

    • D. 

      90%

  • 12. 
    Acute anterior uveitisWhich of the following corticosteroids is LEAST effective in decreasing corneal inflammation?
    • A. 

      1.0% prednisolone acetate

    • B. 

      1.0% prednisolone sodium phosphate

    • C. 

      0.1% fluorometholone acetate

    • D. 

      0.1% dexamethasone alcohol

  • 13. 
    Current techniques and instrumentation for the classification, diagnosis and progression assessment of AMDWhich of the following statements regarding intermediate AMD is TRUE?
    • A. 

      Patients are typically symptomatic

    • B. 

      It is normally associated with an RPE or neurosensory retinal detachment

    • C. 

      The hallmark signs are large drusen (>125 microns) in diameter or pigmentary changes within the macular area

    • D. 

      According to the AREDS simplified severity scale, patients have a 56.5 per cent risk of progression to advanced AMD in five years

  • 14. 
    Current techniques and instrumentation for the classification, diagnosis and progression assessment of AMDAccording to the research and article, late AMD has an estimated incidence of ___% over 15 years in an Australian population?
    • A. 

      3.0%

    • B. 

      6.8%

    • C. 

      28.0%

    • D. 

      53.0%

  • 15. 
    Current techniques and instrumentation for the classification, diagnosis and progression assessment of AMDWhich AMD-related phenotype does this OCT image most closely represent?
    • A. 

      Advanced AMD

    • B. 

      Intermediate AMD

    • C. 

      Early AMD

    • D. 

      Normal aging changes

  • 16. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyWhat is the peak age of incidence of temporal arteritis?
    • A. 

      < 50 years of age

    • B. 

      50-60 years of age

    • C. 

      60-75 years of age

    • D. 

      None of the above36 per cent

  • 17. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyWhat test/measurement is considered the gold standard for temporal arteritis diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

    • B. 

      Temporal artery biopsy

    • C. 

      C-Reactive protein

    • D. 

      Complete blood count

  • 18. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyWhich of the following measurements is indicative of temporal arteritis?
    • A. 

      C-Reactive protein value of 4.7 mg/L

    • B. 

      Erythrocyte sedimentation rate value of 30 mm/hr

    • C. 

      Platelet count value of 145,000

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 19. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyThe presence of which of the following is indicative of a positive temporal artery specimen?
    • A. 

      Near complete lumen occlusion

    • B. 

      ‘Giant’ multi-nucleated cells

    • C. 

      Granulomatous inflammation

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 20. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyWhich of the following statements regarding the treatment of temporal arteritis is CORRECT?
    • A. 

      Arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy associated with temporal arteritis has no standard treatment and often resolves on its own

    • B. 

      Corticosteroids are the treatment of choice

    • C. 

      Treatment should be delayed until results of a temporal artery biopsy are received

    • D. 

      Oral prednisone (about 1 mg/kg of body weight/day) should be started and increased (maximum of 200 mg/day) until symptomatic improvement is reached, continued for 4-6 weeks and then ceased immediately

  • 21. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyApproximately what percentage of bilateral temporal artery biopsies is positive on one side and negative on the other?
    • A. 

      13 per cent

    • B. 

      23 per cent

    • C. 

      40 per cent

    • D. 

      60 per cent

  • 22. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyWhat is the most common area of visual field loss in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension?
    • A. 

      Superonasal

    • B. 

      Superotemporal

    • C. 

      Inferonasal

    • D. 

      Inferotemporal

  • 23. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyIn the context of performing a lumbar puncture, which of the pressure measurement ranges below is considered to be normal for opening pressure?
    • A. 

      10-20 centimetres

    • B. 

      25-35 centimetres

    • C. 

      40-50 centimetres

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 24. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyWhich of the following is a treatment option for patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension?
    • A. 

      Weight loss

    • B. 

      Oral acetazolamide

    • C. 

      Optic nerve sheath fenestration

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 25. 
    A week of neuro-ophthalmologyBell’s Palsy involves the inflammation of which cranial nerve?
    • A. 

      CN 7

    • B. 

      CN 6

    • C. 

      CN 5

    • D. 

      CN 4

  • 26. 
    Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation for glaucomaWhich of the following statements regarding endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation is TRUE?
    • A. 

      It is a laser procedure that decreases aqueous production by causing atrophy to the ciliary processes

    • B. 

      The procedure aims to increase the outflow of aqueous

    • C. 

      The procedure selectively targets the trabecular meshwork

    • D. 

      The procedure is unable to be combined with cataract extraction

  • 27. 
    Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation for glaucomaIn which of the following conditions should endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation NOT be used?
    • A. 

      Pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    • B. 

      Uveitic glaucoma

    • C. 

      Chronic closed angle glaucoma

    • D. 

      Primary open angle glaucoma

  • 28. 
    Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation for glaucomaWhich of the following statements regarding the pars plana instrument approach is TRUE?
    • A. 

      It is best for eyes with the presence of posterior synechiae

    • B. 

      The use of a limbal incision is warranted

    • C. 

      It is commonly used for phakic or posterior chamber pseudophakic eyes

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 29. 
    Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation for glaucomaNeovascular and paediatric patients are at higher risk of which of the following complications of endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation?
    • A. 

      Endophthalmitis

    • B. 

      Hyphaema

    • C. 

      Phthisis bulbi

    • D. 

      Hypotony

  • 30. 
    Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation for glaucomaWhich of the following statements regarding endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) and trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation (TCP) is TRUE?
    • A. 

      The mechanism of action of both ECP and TCP is different

    • B. 

      TCP allows for direct visualisation of the ciliary body

    • C. 

      There is an increase in safety with ECP compared to TCP

    • D. 

      Ciliary epithelial remodelling may occur to a greater extent with TCP when compared to ECP