pH 338 Test 1

47 Questions | Total Attempts: 36

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PH Scale Quizzes & Trivia

You may use any of your notes for this test. You may not use the help of another person. This test must be completed by Tuesday, September 20, 2011 at 5:00 PM. Good Luck


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    According to Martha Nussbaum and Wayne Booth, literary experiences, such as poetry, novels, short stories, dramas, and film enable  
    • A. 

      Us to pass over into others who live in different parts of the world of which we are citizens, others who are on the margins, for example, "...the invisible people of the world."

    • B. 

      Us to realize that we never should make personal decisions about the rightness or wrongness of others' acts; real enagement with literary experience teaches us to follow a path of relativism.

    • C. 

      Us to cultivate a capacity for sympathetic imagination that enables us to comprehend the motives and choices of people different from ourselves, seeing them not as forbiddingly alien or other, but as sharing many problems and possibilities with us.

    • D. 

      Us to sense our own vulnerability to misfortune as characters are some times exposed to severe outcomes not because they are particularly bad but because of things that happen to them over which they have little or no choice.

    • E. 

      A, B, C

    • F. 

      A, C, D

    • G. 

      All of the Above

  • 2. 
    Martha Nussbaum claims that we cannot make an informed, responsible judgment unless we can understand the meaning of a person's act, what the person intends (aims at) by the act. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    A question that the film Snow Falling on Cedars poses is how much of our identity is based on blood and geography. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    The film Snow Falling on Cedars poses a number of conflicts that involve questions of right and wrong, justice and injustice.  Which of the following statements pertain to this assertion or statement. 
    • A. 

      The film points out how people often make judgments about other based simply on appearances, facial expressions, body language. Thereby, they often make faulty judgments because they read these signs in terms of their own cultural experience, not recognizing that they may signal something quite different in another culture.

    • B. 

      The film offers an example of how individuals have to undergo interior struggles with themselves in order to make just choices.

    • C. 

      Though often social forces act as strong determinants of what happens, the film suggests that one can never under estimate an individual's personal decision in the midst of these forces.

    • D. 

      The film suggets that influence of an another can have a powerful impact on the choice an individual makes.

    • E. 

      A and D

    • F. 

      A, B, D

    • G. 

      All of the Above

  • 5. 
      The film Snow Falling on Cedars poses a number of conflicts that involve questions of right and wrong, justice and injustice.  Which of the following statements pertain to this assertion or statement. 
    • A. 

      The film indicates how chance happening like the outbreak of war or weather conditions can impact the future of persons' lives and involve them in making decision they would never had to face had the chance happenings not occurred.

    • B. 

      The fact that Hatsue married Kuzo shows how personal desire is not always followed because some other value supersedes it; negotiating these values involves an individual in a conflict.

    • C. 

      The film suggests in the very way it is told that one cannot understand or make judgments in the present without knowing the past.

    • D. 

      The very way the story is told suggests that relationships are complex, that often one cannot understand the whole situation without hearing and understanding the many people involved in it. Therefore, making decisions in the midst of a complex of relationships takes patience and a willingness to sort all those things out.

    • E. 

      A and B

    • F. 

      A, C, D

    • G. 

      All of the Above

  • 6. 
    It is possible to make a  parallel between the kind of prejudice to which Japanese immigrants and citizens were subjected because of the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the war with Japan and the growing anti-Muslim feeling, especially toward those of the Middle East, because of random terrorists and 9/11.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    The conflict between Hatsue and Ishmael's mother indicates how thinking and speaking is impacted by different backgrounds and can lead to significant misunderstanding. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    According to Richard Rorty, we are clever animals who talk about things, who tell stories (create narratives) about how we are to navigate our surroundings and live together.  Though Aristotle and Plato thought (in different ways) that one could speak of a metaphysical reality called human nature.  According to Rorty, the metaphysical (the beyond the physical) does not exist -- we are our socialization and our history. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    According to Richard Rorty, the way we use our words to come to grip with our ever-changing environment is what is important, not some certainty about the truth or the correct path to follow.  The question is, does this narrative we are a part of best enable us to navigate the environment in which we find ourselves.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    Though Richard Rorty agrees that there is a transcendent reality (a reality beyond space and time or an intellectual/spiritual reality like the Forms or Ideas of Plato), he is convinced that the clever animals called humans will never be able to understand or attain it. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Since Richard Rorty is a pragmatist, what is important to him is what works, what is successful.  If one chooses to use words like right and truth, which he does not choose to use, the test of the truth or right is if it works, if it is successful. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    For Paul Tillich, a well-known liberal Lutheran theologian, whatever is a person's ultimate concern -- that which is most important to the person, that which outlasts all other concerns, that which is the deepest concern -- is their god.  Tillich and others hold that everyone, either consciously or unconsciously, gives themselves to something they consider ultimate. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Rorty speaks approvingly of a conversation leading to a global community that embraces such things as the United Nations Declaration of Rights.  He also indicates that in his story the worst thing we can do to others is to be cruel.  The story embraces the goal of decreasing suffering and the humiliation of others.  It seems, therefore, that living in this kind of narrative, Rorty would oppose any cultural practice that increases suffering, humiliation, or cruelty.  Therefore, it seems he would disapprove of female circumcision of the pain and suffering it inflicts. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    As Richard Rorty first begins to develop his understanding of the philosophical task, it seems that he falls into the camp of cultural relativists but as he continues it seems that his outlook is very ethnocentric.  It becomes clear that he wishes to champion his story or narrative as the most successful and persuade others to it.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    Which of the following statements about Richard Rorty true? 
    • A. 

      From the age of twelve he believed that his mission in life was to fostering solidarity among human beings.

    • B. 

      Rorty considered himself as having been lucky to be born in a Western liberal democracy, though he does not believe that those who live in such a democracy should try to persuade other groups in the world to become a part of this story.

    • C. 

      Until toward the end of his life he had looked down on religions as not worthy of entering into conversation. But he eventually held that those using a religious vocabulary had a right to enter the conversation and try to persuade others with their narrative. At the same time, he hoped that those religious narratives would lose in face of his own.

    • D. 

      Toward the end of his life he came to call the narrative of the philosophy he wrote a kind of religion, a worldview -- something that fills the void that God or Truth once filled. He spoke of a religion of democracy or a romantic polytheism.

    • E. 

      In order that the particular narrative of Western Liberalism that he proposed would succeed, he called for an education of the sentiments, a sentimental education, which would be aided by the sacred books of his religion, literature and poetry.

    • F. 

      A, C, D, E

    • G. 

      A, B, C

    • H. 

      All of the Above

  • 16. 
    Socrates/Plato 
    • A. 

      Engages in a dialectical method, a back and forth questioning, because he believes we already know the answers to the questions. We just have to be reminded of what we know. The questions are a catalyst to remembering.

    • B. 

      Believes that there are divisions in our apprehension, from the lowest where we are under the sway (power) of prejudice to the highest where we can see, know the Forms, realities that are beyond the senses.

    • C. 

      Represented the Idea/Form of the Good, the highest Form, “the universal cause of all things right and beautiful," the source of truth and reason, as the Sun in the Allegory of the Cave.

    • D. 

      Pictured the escaped prisoner who goes out of the cave into the sunlight and sees things as they are to the one who is able to contemplate, to know the Forms.

    • E. 

      A, C, D

    • F. 

      All of the Above

  • 17. 
    Socrates/Plato thought that the majority of humankind was like the people chained to the bench in the cave, those whose view of the world is distorted by their passions and prejudices or the passions and prejudices of others.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Socrates/Plato thought that because human beings are made for the sun, for true knowledge, the journey out of the cave to true knowledge is not very difficult.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    According to the classical interpretation and that of Aristotle, Socrates/Plato taught that the Forms are transhistorical, transcendent realities, they are what is most real but beyond the senses.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    According to Socrates/Plato, education is the craft of turning the sight of the soul toward what is (being) from simply being concerned with that which is becoming, the shadows and the earthly things, the particulars.    
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    According to Socrates/Plato, the journey from the cave is a difficult but worthwhile journey to come into the light.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    Socrates/Plato holds that education consists in putting knowledge into souls that lack it, like putting sight into blind eyes.    
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    According to Socrates/Plato, the power to learn, as the escaped prisoner did, is found in everyone's soul. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    The Allegory of the Cave indicates that the education process involves a number of conversions, turning from less adequate to more adequate cognitive states or apprehension.  Socrates/Plato imagines education as the soul turning more toward the truth (eventually the Forms), just as the eye must turn to the light to see.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    Which of the following statements are true? 
    • A. 

      David Hume held that humans could correctly gauge the morality of a particular act by the feelings the act aroused in them.

    • B. 

      Hume believed that morality was relative because the feelings of human beings are necessarily different from one person to the next; therefore, individuals necessarily respond differently to the same sight or act.

    • C. 

      Hume held that as long as humans were not defective (not properly functioning) they would experience the same basic feelings when they thought about the same acts; therefore, morality was not relative.

    • D. 

      Kant basically agreed with Hume because Kant based his thinking about morality on practical reason.

    • E. 

      A and B

    • F. 

      A and C

    • G. 

      A, C, D

    • H. 

      All of the Above

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