pH 105 Test 1

50 Questions | Total Attempts: 59

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PH Scale Quizzes & Trivia

You may use any notes that you have to answer this question. You must answer the test before 5:00 PM on Tuesday, September 20, 2011. This test includes material from the beginning of the semester to the last class on September 15, 2011. Good Luck


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    In answer to the question, "why be moral," some would claim that it is a question of character.  What kind of character one has is determined by the choices one makes. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    It is obvious what character means.  No one disputes what it means to have a good character or a bad character. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    An important way that children first learn behavior is by watching others, particularly significant others like parents.  Sometimes they learn what some might call good or right behavior and sometimes wrong or bad behavior from these significant others.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    One reason people do what is judged to be right is to follow the law of a community and because of fear of punishment. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    One reason some people behave in certain ways is because of religious rules.  Such people believe that they are acting morally if they follow the rules, laws, or norms of their religion which they trace back to a divine source such as Allah or Adonai, the God of Judaism, or the Christian God. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    In every society it is clear that the laws that religions determine should be followed coincide with (match) the rules or laws of the secular (civil) society. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    If one held a strict, unfettered market approach to reality or a strict market philosophy, she would hold that there is no "just price" for goods and services.  Prices are determined by what the market can bear -- supply and demand.  Talk about just price makes no sense.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    Some argue that there are some important values to people and society that the market cannot guarantee.  Therefore, there should be some controls on the market to preserve these values. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    Some argue that a crisis situation is an exceptional situation; it is not the normal situation in which markets opperate ordinarily.  In such a situation, some argue, people are not really free in choosing whether or not to purchase goods or services because the crisis (like a hurricane) forces them to buy certain goods and services to survive.  To some extent, their freedom is coerced.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    Some argue that even in a crisis situation, the market should be given free reign (demand and supply should determine price) because in the long run that will be to the benefit of most people. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Whether a person recognizes it or not, questions 9 and 10 pose two different ways of looking at a problem.  One emphasizes the importance of real choice for individuals.  The other one emphasizes the over all good to be achieved by the free play of the market.  In trying to decide what is just, one must ask whether those in a crisis are really unfree, coerced by circumstances, and what reasons one has to believe that in a crisis situation an unhampered market will produce the overall good.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    Some times principles are in conflict with one another.  A person who held that the principle of freedom or rights of each individual is what is most important in deciding an issue would be in conflict with a person who held that what is right is achieving the greatest amount of happiness (utility, pleasure, good) for the greatest number of people   
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Some hold that greed is a vice and that excessive raising of prices in a crisis is a sign of greed in those who provide the goods or services.  As with other ethical issues there is disagreement about such an argument.  What of the following options are factors in considering the  question of greed, a crisis, and civil society?
    • A. 

      It is important to define what greed is and to be sure that all parties discussing the matter use the same definition, i.e., talk about the same thing.

    • B. 

      In a pluralist society where there are many different ideas about the good life, some would argue that it is not the role of civil society to judge what is a vice or a virtue.

    • C. 

      In following a principle of rights or the principle of the maximizing of welfare or utility,those arguing make no judgement about whether the sellers are greedy or not.

    • D. 

      Some would claim that there is such a thing as civic virtue which obligates citizens to pull together in crises and not use them as opportunities to profit for themselves.

    • E. 

      A, B, D

    • F. 

      All of the Above

  • 14. 
    Philosophers through the centuries debated about whether there was such a thing as a "just price."  At no time did philosophers believe that the exchange of goods should be governed by a "just price," determined by tradition and the instrinic (internal) value of things.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    Throughout history there have been two approach regarding virtue and the role of the state.  One approach holds that a just society should seek to promote the virtue of its citizens.  The second approach holds that laws should be neutral about competing conceptions (ideas) of virtue so that citizens can be free to choose for themselves what they think is the best way to live.    
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    In ancient and medieval times philosophers such as Aristotle claimed that the principles of justice that define our rights should not rest on any conception [idea or description] of virtue, or of the best way to live.  Instead, a just society respects each person’s freedom to choose his or her own conception of the good life.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Philosophers from the 18th century to the present have maintained that we cannot figure out what a just society is without reflecting on the most desirable way to live.  That means deciding what the virtues are that should characterize persons. Therefore, law cannot be neutral on questions of the good life.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Some claim that the right thing, the just thing to do, is to maximize utility which involves an overall balance of pleasure over pain, happiness over suffering.  Which of the following statements are true about the ethical principle, this theory of trying to decide what is right and wrong.  
    • A. 

      The author of the principle is Jeremy Bentham.

    • B. 

      This principle is the basic principle of what is called utilitarianism.

    • C. 

      An application of this principle in a real life situation was seen in the YouTube clip where a present day philosopher justified torture on the basis of maximizing the good to be gained (saving an innocent boy) over the pain of the guilty one who was tortured.

    • D. 

      In applying this principle in a group that disagrees about what to do, the minority in the group has to suffer for the greater happiness of the majority.

    • E. 

      A, B, D

    • F. 

      B, D, C

    • G. 

      All of the Above

  • 19. 
    A utilitarian would argue that the innocent son of a torturer should be tortured if that seems to be the only way to get information to save several innocent children from death. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    The founder of utilitarianism 
    • A. 

      Claimed that there were two sovereign masters of human life, pleasure and pain.

    • B. 

      Claimed the utilitarian principle should be followed not only in one's private life but also as a way of making laws of society and other group decisions.

    • C. 

      Held that pleasure is pleasure -- the pleasure that comes from reading poetry is not better or worse than pleasure that comes from a child's game.

    • D. 

      Agreed with Aristotle's position: that the practice of virtues fitting to the human being as a rational being is what brought about happiness.

    • E. 

      A, C, D

    • F. 

      A, B, C

    • G. 

      All of the Above

  • 21. 
    A problem that utilitarianism faces is how to calculate the long term consequences of an action.  It is necessary for them to look not only at the immediate (right away) consequences but the long term (future) consequences of an act.  They have to give probable reasons for why the action will produce the most utility in the future.   
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    John Kavanaugh quotes the following comments from a columnist, Charles Krauthammer, who says that torture is "is as morally corrupting to those who practice it as any conceivable human activity."  Which of the following statements are correct about this statement, the complete article that Kavanaugh wrote, Krauthammer's position, and the movie, Unthinkable.
    • A. 

      According to Krauthammer, a person who commits torture becomes morally corrupt himself in the process. Either knowingly or unknowingly, Krauthammer seems to agree with Aristotle's position that we become to some extent what we do.

    • B. 

      Krauthammer claims it necessary that one torture a suspect to get necessary information even though the process is morally corrupting of the torturer.

    • C. 

      There is some indications in the movie that H has become morally corrupted or physically and psychological affected through his role in torture.

    • D. 

      When Brody asks does it [torture] work, she indicates that she is beginning to accept a utilitarian way of answering the question.

    • E. 

      A, B, C

    • F. 

      All of the Above

  • 23. 
    Which of the following statements are correct about the content of Kavanaugh's article and the issue of torture. 
    • A. 

      Kavanuagh holds that the most common worldview of Americans is utilitarianism.

    • B. 

      Kavanaugh agrees that the best way to decide what is right and wrong, including torture, is on the basis of the utilitarian principle.

    • C. 

      The utilitarian principle respects the rights of each human being only in so far as that recognition proves most beneficial to all. It does not recognize the rights of individuals independent of whether or not the recognition promotes the greatest amount of utility for the greatest number of people.

    • D. 

      To refuse to torture an innocent child to obtain information from a torturer is to claim that there is at least one thing that should not be done even if the greatest number of people would benefit from it.

    • E. 

      A,C,D

    • F. 

      All of the Above

  • 24. 
    Sir Thomas More trusted that the law would protect him.  It is true that law often functions as a protection.  But law itself can not guarantee that those who keep the law will be safe because to function that way, those who enforce the law must be honest and abide by the law themselves. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    Sir Thomas More believed that when statesmen forsake their own private conscience for the sake of their public duties…they lead their country by a short route to chaos.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

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