4 Questions

Psychology AS Level

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Milgram's Agency Theory Milgram's theory suggests that we have two states: The ______ state; we act for others and surrender our free will The ______ state; we act of our own free will are aware/ responsible of the consequences Evaluation: STRENGTHS
    • lots of ______ to support the theory; Milgram, Hofling, _____ & Raajmakers
    • explains why people in the ______ treat others inhumanely
    • ignores personal reasons, such as _______ - certain people may be more obedient
  • 2. 
    Study of Obedience to Malevolent Authority (Milgram, 1963) ___ male volunteers, volunteer sampling method Aim: to find out how many naive participants would administer increasingly intense ______ _____ to an innocent victim by an authority figure Findings:
    • 100% giving at least ___V
    • __% giving max. shock 450V
    Conclusion: the social relationship with an ______ figure was very powerful and people do something they were uncomfortable with Evaluation: STRENGTHS
    • helps us better understand ______ treatment of others by organisations like the military 
    • easy to replicate because standardised procedures were used; highly ______
    • rich _____; quantitative and __________
    • lacked ______ validity; nothing like real-life and was taken place in a ______
    • ________; no informed consent and protection from _____, no effective right to withdraw and deception
    • unrepresentative; gender ____ and volunteer sampling method used
    Milgram Variation; proximity: Presence of confederate and authority figure results in more guilt and greater ________ of suffering. Obedience drops; ___% giving max. shock 450V
  • 3. 
    Study of Obedience in Nurses (Hofling, 1966) 22 female nurses, opportunity sampling method Aim: to investigate aspects of the nurse-_______ relationship, specifically what happens when a nurse is ordered to carry out a procedure which goes against her professional standards Findings
    • Experimental group; ___ of 22 nurses gave the overdose, they complied
    • ______ group; 31 of the ___ said they wouldn't give the overdose
    Conclusion: nurses will knowingly break hospital rules in a situation where a doctor tells them to, even if it could endanger a patient's ____ Evaluation: STRENGTHS
    • high ______ validity because the nurses were unaware
    • naivety of nurses meant there were no ______ characteristics
    • unethical; no informed _____, no _______ from harm, no right to _______
    • sample was unrepresentative because it was _____ bias
  • 4. 
    Delivering Insults in a Job Interview (Meeus & ________, 1985) 24 male & female participants, _____ sampling method Aim: to test ________ where harm would be done in a more 'up to date' way Findings
    • _________ condition; ___% of participants delivered all 15 insults
    • Control condition; no insults given
    Conclusion: a high percentage of people will inflict ________ harm on others when instructed Evaluation: STRENGTHS
    • sample is _________ because both men and women were involved
    • good use of _____ situation
    • unethical; deception, they told participants it was a study about levels of _____
    • task is not typical of real-life; poor ecological ______
    • paid _______ may be more willing to obey than other members of the public