Geology Final

214 Questions

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A really cold winter is proof that global warming is a hoax?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    A release of methane hydrates or clathrates (same thing) would lower global temperatures by reflecting incoming sunlight?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by about how much in the past century?
    • A. 

      1 ppm

    • B. 

      100 ppm

    • C. 

      1 percent

    • D. 

      10 percent

  • 4. 
    Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is at an all-time high?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    During the last 800,000 years, northern hemisphere glaciations have occurred about how often?
    • A. 

      Every 23,000 years

    • B. 

      Every 41,000

    • C. 

      Every 100,000 years

    • D. 

      Just once

  • 6. 
    Earth gets more total sunlight when eccentricity is high?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    Faster plate spreading rates at mid-ocean ridges are a likely cause of higher sea level in the past?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    For the same slope, would shear stress be greater on
    • A. 

      Earth

    • B. 

      The moon

  • 9. 
    From which direction does the wind in MN usually come
    • A. 

      West

    • B. 

      East

  • 10. 
    Earth has never suffered a large asteroid impact?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Earth started cold and has heated up?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    Earth's tectonic plates are about how thick?
    • A. 

      1 km

    • B. 

      10 km

    • C. 

      100 km

    • D. 

      1000 km

  • 13. 
    Glass is a mineral?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    In what century did Wegener publish his theory of continental drift?
    • A. 

      17th

    • B. 

      18th

    • C. 

      19th

    • D. 

      20th

  • 15. 
    One form of olivine has the chemical formula Mg2SiO4. In this mineral, Mg (Magnesium) is acting as a?
    • A. 

      Anion

    • B. 

      Cation

    • C. 

      Neither

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 16. 
    One line of evidence Wegener used to demonstrate continental drift was satellite geodetic measurements of plate motion?    
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Ordinary ice (think of an ice cube) is a mineral?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Polymorphs are variants of one mineral?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Protein crystals are minerals?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    Seismicity is very common in continental interiors?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Some plates have no oceanic lithosphere in them?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    Table salt is not a mineral because it is organic?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    The amount of land surface hasn't changed much at all through Earth's history?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    The bonds that holds sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) together in the mineral halite are covalent?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    The chemical composition of quartz is?    
    • A. 

      SiO

    • B. 

      SiO2

    • C. 

      SiO3

    • D. 

      SiO4

  • 26. 
    The complex ion that forms the basic building block of all silicate minerals is?
    • A. 

      SiO

    • B. 

      SiO2

    • C. 

      SiO3

    • D. 

      SiO4

  • 27. 
    The planets in the solar system all orbit the Sun in the same direction?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    Two or more minerals can share the exact same chemical composition?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    What does ocean bathymetry do as you move away from a mid-ocean ridge?
    • A. 

      Grow larger (water depth increases)

    • B. 

      Stays about the same

    • C. 

      Grow smaller (water depth decreases)

  • 30. 
    What layer has remained unchanged since the birth of the earth?
    • A. 

      Parts of continental crust

    • B. 

      Parts of oceanic crust

    • C. 

      Ocean water

    • D. 

      The atmosphere

    • E. 

      None of these

  • 31. 
    What two elements account for almost all of Earth's atmosphere?
    • A. 

      C and O

    • B. 

      O and H

    • C. 

      N and C

    • D. 

      N and H

    • E. 

      N and O

  • 32. 
    What two elements account for almost all of the dissolved content (i.e., salinity) in ocean water?
    • A. 

      Na and C

    • B. 

      Ca and N

    • C. 

      Na and Cl

    • D. 

      Cl and Fe

    • E. 

      H and O

  • 33. 
    Which bond type is most common in minerals?
    • A. 

      Ionic

    • B. 

      Covalent

    • C. 

      Metallic

    • D. 

      Van der Waals

  • 34. 
    Which bond type tends to produce minerals that dissolve in water most readily?
    • A. 

      Ionic

    • B. 

      Covalent

    • C. 

      Metallic

  • 35. 
    Which compositional layer has the greatest volume?
    • A. 

      Crust

    • B. 

      Mantle

    • C. 

      Core

  • 36. 
    Which element is a common component of Earth's crust?
    • A. 

      Re

    • B. 

      Os

    • C. 

      Pb

    • D. 

      He

    • E. 

      W

    • F. 

      Fe

  • 37. 
    Which mineral group is the most abundant in the Earth's crust and mantle?
    • A. 

      Carbonates

    • B. 

      Ores

    • C. 

      Evaporates

    • D. 

      Silicates

    • E. 

      Sulfates

  • 38. 
    Which of the following combinations of properties is unique to a mineral?
    • A. 

      Crystalline lattice and density

    • B. 

      Composition and color

    • C. 

      Composition and crystal lattice

    • D. 

      Color and density

  • 39. 
    Which of the following is a significant plate driving force?
    • A. 

      Slab pull

    • B. 

      Ridge pull

    • C. 

      Slab push

    • D. 

      Sheer strength of will

  • 40. 
    Which of the following is a type of plate boundary?
    • A. 

      Divalent

    • B. 

      Continental

    • C. 

      Transitive

    • D. 

      Transform

    • E. 

      Compressive

    • F. 

      Ordinary

  • 41. 
    Which of the following is closest to the age of the Earth (in years)? Recall that 1 billion equals 1000 million.
    • A. 

      4.5 million

    • B. 

      45 million

    • C. 

      450 million

    • D. 

      4,500 million

    • E. 

      45,000 million

  • 42. 
    Which of the following is considered strong proof of oceanic plate subduction?
    • A. 

      Volcanoes

    • B. 

      Mountains

    • C. 

      Tsunamis

    • D. 

      Deep earthquakes

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is not a true chemical bond (i.e., doesn't involve exchange or sharing of electrons)?
    • A. 

      Ionic

    • B. 

      Covalent

    • C. 

      Metallic

    • D. 

      Van der waals

  • 44. 
    Which of the following is not one of the "big four" elements comprising the bulk Earth?
    • A. 

      Mg

    • B. 

      H

    • C. 

      O

    • D. 

      Si

    • E. 

      Fe

  • 45. 
    Which of the following mechanical layers is the weakest?
    • A. 

      Lithosphere

    • B. 

      Athenosphere

    • C. 

      Mesosphere

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 46. 
    Which plate boundary is least often associated with volcanism?
    • A. 

      Divergent

    • B. 

      Convergent

    • C. 

      Transform

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 47. 
    Which value is closest to the average depth of the oceans? Recall that one km equals 1000 meters.
    • A. 

      400 m

    • B. 

      4000 m

    • C. 

      40,000 m

    • D. 

      400,000 m

  • 48. 
    Which value is closest to the deepest bathymetry on Earth?
    • A. 

      100 m

    • B. 

      1 km

    • C. 

      10 km

    • D. 

      100 km

  • 49. 
    A large, irregularly shaped body of crystallized magma in the subsurface is a?
    • A. 

      Sill

    • B. 

      Dike

    • C. 

      Laccolith

    • D. 

      Pluton

  • 50. 
    A nearly horizontal layer of igneous rock is called?
    • A. 

      Sill

    • B. 

      Dike

    • C. 

      Laccolith

    • D. 

      Pluton

    • E. 

      Neck

  • 51. 
    Cross bedding is an indication of?
    • A. 

      Tectonic tilting

    • B. 

      Deposition from a moving fluid

    • C. 

      Nothing in particular

    • D. 

      Burrowing organisms

  • 52. 
    Earth's magnetic field is static, the product of magnetic minerals in the crust, mantle and core? 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 53. 
    Earth's magnetic field resembles that of a giant bar magnet but changes with time?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 54. 
    Going from largest clast size to smallest, which of the following is the correct ordering?
    • A. 

      Gravel, sand, clay, silt

    • B. 

      Sand, gravel, silt, clay

    • C. 

      Gravel, sand, silt, clay

    • D. 

      Clay, silt, sand, gravel

  • 55. 
    Magma and lava are completely synonymous?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 56. 
    Magmas contain nothing but molten rock?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 57. 
    Mature sediment is?
    • A. 

      More rounded

    • B. 

      Less rounded

    • C. 

      Generally larger than immature sediment

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 58. 
    Melting in subduction zones is largely a result of?
    • A. 

      Heat coming from deep in the planet

    • B. 

      Adiabatic ascent of asthenospheric mantle

    • C. 

      Earthquakes

    • D. 

      Water

  • 59. 
    Melting of rock is a common occurrence in the mantle?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 60. 
    Metamorphism involves melting?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 61. 
    Metamorphism usually changes rock composition?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 62. 
    Most magmas and lavas are silicic (i.e., crystallize into rocks with abundant silicate minerals)?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 63. 
    Ocean crust is chemical closest to which of the following?
    • A. 

      Peridotite

    • B. 

      Gabbro

    • C. 

      Diorite

    • D. 

      Granite

  • 64. 
    Pyroclastic material comprises sills and dikes?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 65. 
    Relative to sediment near the top of an accumulation, sediment near the base was?
    • A. 

      Deposited earlier

    • B. 

      Deposited later

    • C. 

      Deposited at the same time

    • D. 

      No fixed relationship

  • 66. 
    Ripples are static features formed by interaction of wind and/or water and the rocky surface?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 67. 
    Ripples propagate?
    • A. 

      Upstream

    • B. 

      Downstream

  • 68. 
    Seafloor magnetic lineations are visible in ocean bathymetry?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 69. 
    Sediments accumulate deep in the crust: true or false?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 70. 
    Sediments become sedimentary rock with time--nothing else is needed?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 71. 
    Sediments deposited in the same layer at the same time but in different places must be practically identical?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 72. 
    Shield and strato volcanoes represent two different ends of the volcano morphology spectrum
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 73. 
    Silicate minerals are common in igneous rocks?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 74. 
    The composition of melt and the parent solid are identical?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 75. 
    The geotherm is?
    • A. 

      A rock thermometer by Ronco

    • B. 

      The temperature at which rock begins to melt

    • C. 

      Constant with depth

    • D. 

      Always less than 1000 degrees celcius

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 76. 
    The horizontal banding obvious in many sedimentary rocks is called?
    • A. 

      Horizontal banding

    • B. 

      Gneissic banding

    • C. 

      Bedding

    • D. 

      Foliation

    • E. 

      Planarity

    • F. 

      None of the above

  • 77. 
    The last time Earth's magnetic field completely reversed polarity was closest to how many years ago?
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      1000

    • C. 

      10,000

    • D. 

      100,000

    • E. 

      1 million

  • 78. 
    The temperature of most lavas is less than 500 degree celcius
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 79. 
    There is lots of metamorphic rock exposed in MN?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 80. 
    Volcanic ash is little different from chimney ash?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 81. 
    Volcanic bombs are large sized tephra?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 82. 
    Volcanic island chains in the Pacific are arrayed in lines. This is because they represent magma leaking out through long cracks in the crust?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 83. 
    What rock you start with is all that matters in categorizing metamorphic rocks?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 84. 
    Which characteristic is not an important part of sedimentary rock classification?
    • A. 

      Texture

    • B. 

      Composition

    • C. 

      Grain size

    • D. 

      Color

    • E. 

      Sediment type

  • 85. 
    Which gas is not commonly emitted by volcanoes?
    • A. 

      Sulfur dioxide

    • B. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • C. 

      Water vapor

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 86. 
    Which magma is more likely to be explosive?
    • A. 

      One that would crystallize into a rhyolite

    • B. 

      A basalt

  • 87. 
    Which of the following is not a type of metamorphism?
    • A. 

      Regional

    • B. 

      Hydrothermal

    • C. 

      Contact

    • D. 

      Magnetic

    • E. 

      Burial

  • 88. 
    Which of the following is the most common type of metamorphism on land?
    • A. 

      Regional

    • B. 

      Hydrothermal

    • C. 

      Contact

    • D. 

      Reversal

    • E. 

      Burial

  • 89. 
    Which physical characteristic is not important in naming igneous rocks?
    • A. 

      Crystal size

    • B. 

      Composition

    • C. 

      Color

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 90. 
    Which setting is associated with deep sediment accumulations?
    • A. 

      Fore-arc basin

    • B. 

      Rifted continental margin

    • C. 

      Accretionary prism

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 91. 
    You find a rock that is light in color, has large crystals, is mostly quartz and potassium feldspar and outcrops in St. Cloud MN. Is it most likely to be?
    • A. 

      Granite

    • B. 

      Basalt

  • 92. 
    A graded stream is no longer moving sediment?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 93. 
    A one-hundred year flood could happen two years in a row?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 94. 
    A well-sorted gravel is likely to have greater porosity than a silty sandstone (sandstone with some silt sized grains?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 95. 
    All groundwater is fresh?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 96. 
    Deltas can form in lakes?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 97. 
    Freshwater is less dense than salt water?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 98. 
    Groundwater commonly moves at velocities of meters a day or more?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 99. 
    Mantle outgassing occurs everywhere and at all times as water slowly escapes the mantle?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 100. 
    Most of the world's oceans are underlain by abyssal plains?    
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 101. 
    Most of the world's water is saline?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 102. 
    Natural levees form primarily during floods?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 103. 
    Oceans cover about what percentage of the planet?
    • A. 

      50%

    • B. 

      60%

    • C. 

      70%

    • D. 

      80%

  • 104. 
    On which side of a river bend would you expect to find a sand or point bar?
    • A. 

      Inside

    • B. 

      Outside

    • C. 

      Either

  • 105. 
    One can discern the direction of longshore drift by examining the amount of sand on the two sides of a jetty or groin?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 106. 
    Permeability varies little between different rock types?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 107. 
    Small, steep mountain streams have higher competence than major trunk streams?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 108. 
    Stream long profiles are concave up?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 109. 
    Streams with high discharge and low sediment supply can erode below base level?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 110. 
    Surface currents and water waves are the same thing?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 111. 
    Surface currents rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 112. 
    The Atlantic Ocean off of the east coast of the US has high salinity because evaporation significantly exceeds precipitation there?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 113. 
    The cations that comprise part of ocean salinity are largely from terrestrial weathering?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 114. 
    The ease of erosion of clasts increases as the size of the clasts decreases, continuing to the smallest clast sizes?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 115. 
    The net transport of water is parallel to average wind direction?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 116. 
    The oceans are really one interconnected ocean?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 117. 
    The peak discharge during a one-hundred year flow is exactly twice that of a fifty-year flood?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 118. 
    The residence time of water in the atmosphere is about two weeks?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 119. 
    The residence time of water in the oceans in about two weeks?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 120. 
    The water in Earth's oceans today has been there since the formation of the planet?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 121. 
    The water table is visible within 1 km of the classroom?    
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 122. 
    There is no strong evidence that the amount of water on Earth's surface has changed dramatically in the last 100 Ma?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 123. 
    Thermohaline circulation is driven by density variations of seawater?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 124. 
    Tsunamis are just long wavelength ocean waves?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 125. 
    Turbulent flow is better at carrying sediment?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 126. 
    Urban construction, especially concrete, has reduced the likelihood of flooding in urban floodplains?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 127. 
    Water can both leave the mantle and go back in?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 128. 
    Water in the hydrosphere may have be from (at least in part) from comets?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 129. 
    Wave base is about what fraction of wavelength deep?
    • A. 

      One-eight

    • B. 

      One quarter

    • C. 

      One half

    • D. 

      One

  • 130. 
    Wave refraction creates longshore drift or, at least, accentuates it?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 131. 
    What typically happens with distance downstream to the average size of clasts carried by a river?
    • A. 

      It increases

    • B. 

      It decreases

    • C. 

      Doesn't change

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 132. 
    What would have the higher angle of repose?
    • A. 

      Uniform size smooth glass beads

    • B. 

      A mixture of sand and gravel

  • 133. 
    Which of the following is a place where surface water descends to form deep water?
    • A. 

      North pacific

    • B. 

      Coral sea

    • C. 

      North atlantic

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 134. 
    Which of the following is not a means of removing dissolved content from ocean water?
    • A. 

      Formation of evaporates

    • B. 

      Hydrothermal alteration

    • C. 

      Volcanic outgassing

    • D. 

      Clay deposition

  • 135. 
    Which of the following is not a potential sink of sand to a beach?
    • A. 

      Dune growth

    • B. 

      Stream discharge

    • C. 

      Longshore drift

    • D. 

      Offshore transport

  • 136. 
    Which of the following is not a potential source of sand to a beach?
    • A. 

      Dune erosion

    • B. 

      Stream discharge

    • C. 

      Longshore drift

    • D. 

      Onshore transport

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 137. 
    Which of the following is the least likely cause of a stream terrace?
    • A. 

      Increase in stream discharge

    • B. 

      Rise in stream base level

    • C. 

      Regional uplift

    • D. 

      Decrease in sediment supply

  • 138. 
    Which type of sediment transport has the fastest average sediment velocity?
    • A. 

      Bedload

    • B. 

      Saltating load

    • C. 

      Truck load

    • D. 

      Suspended load

  • 139. 
    Which value is closest to the amplitude of the tides in open water?
    • A. 

      1 mm

    • B. 

      1 cm

    • C. 

      1 m

    • D. 

      10 m

  • 140. 
    Which value is closest to the average salinity of ocean water?
    • A. 

      0.4 per mil

    • B. 

      4 per mil

    • C. 

      40 per mil

    • D. 

      40 per cent

  • 141. 
    Without a moon, Earth would not have ocean tides?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 142. 
    A fault is simply a crack in a rock?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 143. 
    A fault that cuts both a fold and an igneous intrusion proves the intrusion is older than the fold?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 144. 
    About how large was the largest recorded earthquake?
    • A. 

      8

    • B. 

      8.5

    • C. 

      9

    • D. 

      9.5

    • E. 

      10

  • 145. 
    About how many years old did Bishop Ussher believe the Earth to be?
    • A. 

      6000

    • B. 

      6 million

    • C. 

      6 billion

    • D. 

      Infinite

  • 146. 
    Aerobic bacteria appear in the geologic record more than 1 billion years ago?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 147. 
    An eroded syncline has the oldest rocks outcropping near the fold axis?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 148. 
    Carbon 14 would be a good method to assign ages to fossil organisms from the Cambrian?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 149. 
    Dip is measured in degrees east of north?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 150. 
    Ductile deformation is common in the deep crust and mantle?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 151. 
    Faults are expressions of brittle deformation?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 152. 
    From longest to shortest, order the divisions of geologic time:
    • A. 

      Eon, epoch, era, period

    • B. 

      Eon, era, epoch, period

    • C. 

      Era, epoch, period, eon

    • D. 

      Eon, era, period, epoch

  • 153. 
    Hominids and dinosauria overlapped in time?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 154. 
    If you drill horizontally far enough through a hanging wall in both directions, you will reach the footwall (along one of the two directions)?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 155. 
    In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 156. 
    In which rock types would you be most likely to find a fossil?
    • A. 

      Igneous

    • B. 

      Metamorphic

    • C. 

      Sedimentary

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 157. 
    In which tectonic setting would you most expect normal faulting?
    • A. 

      Transform margin

    • B. 

      Divergent boundary

    • C. 

      Subduction zone

    • D. 

      Collision zone

  • 158. 
    Insects predate mammals?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 159. 
    Justin is likely to ask questions about reverse and strike-slip faults, not just normal faults?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 160. 
    Lord Kelvin thought the Earth was relatively young based on?
    • A. 

      Religion

    • B. 

      Evolution

    • C. 

      Geological inference

    • D. 

      Heat flow

    • E. 

      The age of asteroids

  • 161. 
    Meteorites were used to estimate the age of the Earth using cross-cutting relationships?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 162. 
    Motion of fault blocks is parallel to the fault?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 163. 
    Mountains are anticlines and valleys are synclines?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 164. 
    Normal faults are the product of which type of stress?
    • A. 

      Compression

    • B. 

      Tension

    • C. 

      Shear

  • 165. 
    Normal faults result in horizontal?
    • A. 

      Extention

    • B. 

      Shortening

    • C. 

      Shear

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 166. 
    Organisms with hard parts became common in the Archean
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 167. 
    Oxygen in the atmosphere has been pretty much constant throughout Earth's history?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 168. 
    Prokaryotes appeared before eukaryotes?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 169. 
    Rocks above the brittle-ductile transition are more likely to behave?
    • A. 

      Brittle fashion

    • B. 

      Ductile fashion

    • C. 

      Either

  • 170. 
    Slickensides are evidence of fault motion?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 171. 
    The amplitude of ground motion of a magnitude 6 earthquake is how large compared to a magnitude 5?
    • A. 

      Twice as large

    • B. 

      Ten times larger

    • C. 

      Thirty times larger

    • D. 

      N/A

  • 172. 
    The Cambrian explosion refers to a massive meteorite impact?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 173. 
    The diversity and number of species and genera on Earth has been continuously and steadily increasing through the last 500 Ma?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 174. 
    The largest mass extinction that we know of was the KT boundary?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 175. 
    The limbs dip away from the axis of which kind of fold?
    • A. 

      Anticline

    • B. 

      Syncline

  • 176. 
    The radiometric age (age estimated by dating using radioactive isotopes) of a rock isn't affected by metamorphism?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 177. 
    The Richter scale is a measure of earthquake damage?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 178. 
    Two isotopes of the same element differ in the number of?
    • A. 

      Protons

    • B. 

      Neutrons

    • C. 

      Electrons

    • D. 

      Atomic number

  • 179. 
    What are stromatolites?
    • A. 

      Drip deposits hanging down from a cave roof

    • B. 

      Drip deposits reaching up from a cave floor

    • C. 

      Living communities of organisms

    • D. 

      Concretions deposited in rock cavities

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 180. 
    What is an unconformity?
    • A. 

      Evidence of missing time in a rock record

    • B. 

      Rocks that somehow just don't fit in

    • C. 

      A change in the type of rocks in a rock column

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 181. 
    What is the approximate depth of the brittle-ductile transition?
    • A. 

      1 km

    • B. 

      10 km

    • C. 

      100 km

    • D. 

      1000 km

    • E. 

      10,000 km

  • 182. 
    What is the final daughter product of Uranium decay?
    • A. 

      Uranium

    • B. 

      Nitrogen

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Lead

    • E. 

      Sulfur

  • 183. 
    What is the half-life of a radioactive isotope?
    • A. 

      Half of its age

    • B. 

      The time it takes for half of the original amount to decay

    • C. 

      A function of how much of the isotope is present

    • D. 

      Variable in time

  • 184. 
    When did fish first appear in the fossil record?
    • A. 

      Cretaceous

    • B. 

      Ordovician

  • 185. 
    Which of the following is not a type of stress?
    • A. 

      Tensio

    • B. 

      Shear

    • C. 

      Surface

    • D. 

      Compression

  • 186. 
    Which of the following is unlikely to be a good key bed?
    • A. 

      A thin layer of extrusive igneous rock

    • B. 

      An ash deposit

    • C. 

      A layer of tektites

  • 187. 
    Which of the following makes ductile deformation LESS likely?
    • A. 

      Increasing temperature

    • B. 

      Increasing strain rate

    • C. 

      Increasing water and mica

    • D. 

      Increasing pressure

  • 188. 
    Which type of unconformity is the erosional surface between parallel sets of sedimentary strata?
    • A. 

      Disconformity

    • B. 

      Nonconformity

    • C. 

      Angular unconformity

  • 189. 
    A really cold winter is proof that global warming is a hoax?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 190. 
    A release of methane hydrates or clathrates (same thing) would lower global temperatures by reflecting incoming sunlight?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 191. 
    Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by about how much in the past century?
    • A. 

      1 ppm

    • B. 

      100 ppm

    • C. 

      1%

    • D. 

      10%

  • 192. 
    Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is at an all-time high?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 193. 
    During the last 800,000 years, northern hemisphere glaciations have occurred about how often?
    • A. 

      Every 23,000 years

    • B. 

      Every 41,000 years

    • C. 

      Every 100,000 years

    • D. 

      Just once

  • 194. 
    Earth gets more total sunlight when eccentricity is high?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 195. 
    Faster plate spreading rates at mid-ocean ridges are a likely cause of higher sea level in the past?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 196. 
    For the same slope, would shear stress be greater on
    • A. 

      Earth

    • B. 

      The moon

  • 197. 
    From which direction does the wind in MN usually come
    • A. 

      West

    • B. 

      East

  • 198. 
    Ice ages are common throughout Earth's history?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 199. 
    Mass wasting is an important process on rocky (i.e., sediment poor) shorelines?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 200. 
    Mean annual temperature in the northern hemisphere has increased by about how much in the last century?
    • A. 

      0.5 C

    • B. 

      1 C

    • C. 

      5 C

    • D. 

      10 C

  • 201. 
    Milankovitch hypothesized that ice ages developed when winters are coldest?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 202. 
    One can discern the direction of longshore drift by examining the amount of sand on the two sides of a jetty or groin?    
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 203. 
    Output of the Sun is effectively constant?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 204. 
    Over the last 500 Ma, sea-level is thought to have varied by roughly how much?
    • A. 

      5 m

    • B. 

      50 m

    • C. 

      500 m

    • D. 

      5000 m

  • 205. 
    Rocky beaches are more common on uplifted coastlines?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 206. 
    The greenhouse effect works by atmospheric absorption of visible light from the sun?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 207. 
    The little ice age, a period of cold temperatures in N. America and Europe, occurred about how long ago?
    • A. 

      40 years ago

    • B. 

      400 years ago

    • C. 

      4000 years ago

  • 208. 
    The superstorms in The Day After Tomorrow are (think about the direction of vertical airflow; is it up or down?) Ignore what they may have called them in the movie, focus only on the direction of airflow. Once you have that, high or low pressure will follow.
    • A. 

      High pressure cells

    • B. 

      Low pressure cells

  • 209. 
    The Younger Dryas, a period of cold climate that followed deglaciation in the northern hemisphere occurred about
    • A. 

      1,000 years ago

    • B. 

      10,000 years ago

    • C. 

      100,000 years ago

  • 210. 
    Water vapor is the primary greenhouse gas?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 211. 
    We live in the hottest period of Earth's history?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 212. 
    When the volume of ice in ice caps increases, the ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in the oceans increases?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 213. 
    When was the last snowball Earth thought to have occurred?
    • A. 

      5 Ma

    • B. 

      50 Ma

    • C. 

      500 Ma

    • D. 

      5 Ga

  • 214. 
    Which of the following has little or no effect on global temperature?
    • A. 

      Volcanoes

    • B. 

      Output of the sun

    • C. 

      Ocean circulation

    • D. 

      Orbital variations

    • E. 

      None of the above