Smaller heart, elevated blood pressure
Blood volume, larger heart, # of RBC's, lower pulse
Higher pulse rate
Muscle & liver
Increases w/ an increase in lean body mass
Decreases w/ a decrease in lean body mass
Increases w/ a decrease in lean body mass
Low carb diet
High carb diet, take glucose during activity, eat high carb foods after performance.
Low activity, take glucose during activity, low carb foods after performance.
Use more glucose
Use less glucose
Low in fat
Calcium excretion in urine, strain on kidneys
Excess water weight
Benefit with supplementation
Increases RBC production
Has been shown to reduce oxidative damage to cell membranes
High estrogen levels, infertility
Low estrogen levels, infertility, increased calcium loss
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
Low complex carbs, no protein, high fat, pregame meal should be heavy
High complex carbs, fruits & veggies, pregame meal should be light, nutrient dense foods
In events lasting longer than 90 minutes or more.
In events that are short & quick.