Nutrition Lect 3 Part 2

88 Questions

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Nutrition Quizzes & Trivia

Niacin, thiamine, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin K, protein-energy


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What is the common name for nicotinic acid/ nicotinamide?
    • A. 

      Vitamin B3/niacin

    • B. 

      Riboflavin

    • C. 

      Thiamine

    • D. 

      Vitamin A

    • E. 

      Vitamin B12

  • 2. 
    What is the common name for riboflavin?
    • A. 

      Vitamin B1

    • B. 

      Vitamin B2

    • C. 

      Vitamin B6

    • D. 

      Vitamin B12

    • E. 

      Vitamin B3

  • 3. 
    What is the common name for Thiamine?
    • A. 

      Vitamin B1

    • B. 

      Vitamin B2

    • C. 

      Vitamin B6

    • D. 

      Vitamin B12

    • E. 

      Vitamin B3

  • 4. 
    What is the common name for retinol?
    • A. 

      Vitamin C

    • B. 

      Vitamin A

    • C. 

      Vitamin D

    • D. 

      Vitamin K

  • 5. 
    What is the common name for ascorbic acid?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin E

  • 6. 
    What is the common name for cholecalciferol also known as ergocalciferol?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

  • 7. 
    What is the common name for phyloquinone/ menaquinones?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Vitamin K

  • 8. 
    Which vitamin plays a role in oxidation-reduction reactions and carbohydrate and cell metabolism?
    • A. 

      Niacin

    • B. 

      Riboflavin

    • C. 

      Thiamine

    • D. 

      Vitamin A

    • E. 

      Vitamin C

  • 9. 
    Which vitamin plays a role in many aspects of carbohydrate and protein metabolism and the integrity of mucous membranes.
    • A. 

      Niacin

    • B. 

      Riboflavin

    • C. 

      Thiamine

    • D. 

      Vitamin C

    • E. 

      Vitamin K

  • 10. 
    Which vitamin plays a role in carbohydrate, fat, amino acid, glucose, and alcohol metabolism, central and peripheral nerve cell functions and myocardial functions?
    • A. 

      Niacin

    • B. 

      Riboflavin

    • C. 

      Thiamine

    • D. 

      Vitamin C

    • E. 

      Vitamin D

  • 11. 
    Which vitamin plays a role in the formation of rhodopsin, integrity of epithelia, lysosome stability, and glycoprotein synthesis?
    • A. 

      Niacin

    • B. 

      Thiamine

    • C. 

      Vitamin A

    • D. 

      Vitamin C

    • E. 

      Vitamin D

  • 12. 
    Which vitamin plays a role in collagen formation, bone and blood vessel health, carnitine hormone, and amino acid formation in addition to wound healing?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B12

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

  • 13. 
    Which vitamin plays a role in calcium and phosphorus absorption, mineralization and repair of bone, tubular reabsorption of calcium, insulin and thyroid functions, improves immune function, and reduces autoimmune disease.
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Calcium

  • 14. 
    Which vitamin plays a role in the formation of prothrombin, other coagulation factors, and bone proteins?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B12

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Vitamin K group

  • 15. 
    T/F The recommended daily intakes for vitamins in children and adults vary with age and life events such as pregnancy and lactation.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    What is the relationship between niacin and tryptophan? Remember- dairy products are rich in tryptophan
    • A. 

      Dietary niacin can be metabolized to tryptophan

    • B. 

      Dietary tryptophan can be metabolized to niacin

    • C. 

      Dietary tryptophan can lower LDL cholesterol and niacin helps to sustain this mechanism

    • D. 

      Dietary niacin can lower LDL cholesterol and tryptophan leads to an increase in HDL

  • 17. 
    What causes the most common cause of primary niacin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Diarrhea, cirrhosis, alcoholism, carcinoid syndrome, hartnup disease

    • B. 

      Usually occurs in areas where maize constitutes a substantial part of the diet. In this case, bound niacin that is found in maize is not utilizable in the GI tract unless it has been previously treated with alkali

    • C. 

      Usually occurs in areas where rice constitutes a substantial part of the diet. In this case, bound niacin that is found in rice is not utilizable in the GI tract unless it has been previously treated with alkali

    • D. 

      Commonly in a diet that is high in complex carbohydrates and protein

  • 18. 
    What causes secondary niacin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Diarrhea, cirrhosis, alcoholism, carcinoid syndrome and hartnup disease

    • B. 

      Diarrhea, cirrhosis, vomiting, carcinoid syndrome and hartnup disease

    • C. 

      Diarrhea, cirrhosis, high fat diet , carcinoid syndrome and hartnup disease

    • D. 

      Carcinoid syndrome and hartnup disease

  • 19. 
    What is described as a group of symptoms associated with a neuro-endocrine tumor that causes tryptophan to be diverted to form 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin
    • A. 

      Carcinoid syndrome

    • B. 

      Hartnup disease

    • C. 

      Pallagra

    • D. 

      Wernike-korsakoff syndrome

  • 20. 
    What is described as a metabolic disorder affecting absorption of certain amino acids particularly tryptophan resulting in impaired absorption of tryptophan by the intestine and kidneys. Hint: this results in a secondary niacin deficiency
    • A. 

      Carcinoid syndrome

    • B. 

      Hartnup disease

    • C. 

      Pellagra

    • D. 

      Casal's disease

  • 21. 
    Pellagra is characterized by skin, mucous membrane, CNS, and GI symptoms. What are the 3 D's of Pellagra?
    • A. 

      Dermatitis, diarrhea, decreased libido

    • B. 

      Dermatitis, dysphasia, diarrhea

    • C. 

      Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia

    • D. 

      Dermatitis, dysarthria, dementia

  • 22. 
    What are the possible skin manifestations of pellagra? (select 3)
    • A. 

      Pellagrous glove

    • B. 

      Pellagrous boot

    • C. 

      Casal's necklace

    • D. 

      Pellagrous stocking

    • E. 

      Casal's boot

  • 23. 
    T/F Niacin deficiency affects the skin, mucous membranes, GI system, and CNS.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      Fasle

  • 24. 
    A patient presents to you with ulcerations under the tongue, reddened tongue and oral mucous membranes, and increased salvation and edema of the tongue. After taking the patient's social history, you discover that he farms corn. Based on the likelihood that corn is a major staple in his diet, what vitamin is this patient likely deficient in?
    • A. 

      Niacin

    • B. 

      Thiamine

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Vitamin B12

  • 25. 
    A patient presents to you with a localized pigmented rash on his hands, mouth lesions, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, in addition to memory loss and disorientation. Based on these findings, what vitamin is this patient likely to be deficient in?
    • A. 

      Thiamine

    • B. 

      Vitamin B12

    • C. 

      Niacin

    • D. 

      Vitamin B6

  • 26. 
    The diagnosis of a niacin deficiency may be difficult if the skin and mouth lesions, diarrhea, and dementia are not present all at once. In addition to the subjective portion of your exam where you obtained a good history pointing to a diet lacking in niacin and tryptophan, what is an objective test you can order to confirm a niacin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide will be decreased < 0.8 mg/day

    • B. 

      Urinary excretion of N2-methylnicotinamide will be decreased < 0.8 mg/day

    • C. 

      Urinary excretion of N1-methylamide will be decreased < 0.2 mg/day

    • D. 

      Urinary excretion of N3-methylamide will be decreased < 0.2 mg/day

  • 27. 
    The treatment of a niacin deficiency is to eat a balanced diet that includes the other B vitamins (riboflavin and pyridoxine) in addition to a nicotinamide supplement. Why is nicotinamide used instead of nicotinic acid (the most common form of niacin)?
    • A. 

      Because nicotinic acid does not cause flushing, itching, burning, or tingling sensations and nicotinamide does

    • B. 

      Because it causes more DDIs

    • C. 

      Because nicotinamide does not cause flushing, itching, burning, or tingling sensations and nicotinic acid does

    • D. 

      Becasue it causes less DDIs

  • 28. 
    Nicotinic acid  in large amounts may be used to lower LDL and TGs to increase HDL. Although it is helpful for these reasons, it has several side effects including flushing that is increased after alcohol ingestion, aerobic activity, sun exposure, and consumption of spicy food. What can be done to minimize this reaciton? (Choose 2)
    • A. 

      Take nicotinic acid with cheese rather than other foods

    • B. 

      Take nicotinic acid after meals

    • C. 

      Take nicotinic acid at bedtime

    • D. 

      Take niacin before and after meals

    • E. 

      Take 325mg of aspirin 30-45 minutes before taking niacin

  • 29. 
    T/F Primary thiamine deficiency is commonly due to a diet of highly refined carbohydrates such as polished rice, white flour, and white sugar and often occurs with other B vitamin deficiencies.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 30. 
    A secondary thiamine deficiency can be caused by which of the following (choose 4)
    • A. 

      Increased demand due to hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, lactation, strenuous exercise, or fever

    • B. 

      Impaired absorption due to prolonged diarrhea

    • C. 

      Impaired metabolism due to hepatic insufficiency

    • D. 

      Common in alcoholics as a result of decreased intake, impaired absorption and use, increased demand, and a possible apoenzyme effect

    • E. 

      Impaired absorption due to prolonged vomiting

  • 31. 
    T/F The clinical manifestations of thiamine deficiency include dry beriberi, wet beriberi, infantile beriberi, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    Match the clinical manifestation with the correct characteristics:1. Dry Beriberi2. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome3. Wet Beriberi
    • A. 

      1. Peripheral neurological deficits, 2. Myocardial disease caused by thiamine deficiency, 3. Occurs in some alcoholics who do not consume foods fortified with thiamine

    • B. 

      1. Occurs in some alcoholics who do not consume foods fortified with thiamine, 2. Peripheral neurological deficits, 3. Myocardial disease due to thiamine deficiency

    • C. 

      1. Peripheral neurological deficits, 2. Occurs in some alcoholics who do not consume foods fortified with thiamine, 3. Myocardial disease due to thiamine deficiency

    • D. 

      1. Occurs in some alcoholics who do not consume foods fortified with thiamine, 2. Peripheral neurological deficits, 3. Myocardial disease caused by thiamine deficiency

  • 33. 
    A patient presents to you with bilateral, roughly symmetric parasthesias in a stocking-glove distribution in addition to muscle cramping in the calves at night and difficulty rising from a squatting position. You perform the neurological exam and find that they have a decreased vibratory sense in their first toe bilaterally. What type of vitamin deficiency are you suspicious of?
    • A. 

      Thiamine deficiency causing sx of Dry Beriberi

    • B. 

      Thiamine deficiency causing sx of Wet Beriberi

    • C. 

      Riboflavin deficiency causing sx of Dry Beriberi

    • D. 

      Riboflavin deficiency causing sx of Wet Beriberi

  • 34. 
    Which of the following describes Korsakoff's psychosis caused by a thiamine deficiency mostly seen in alcoholics
    • A. 

      Mental confusion, dysphonia, and confabulation with impaired memory of recent events

    • B. 

      Psychomotor slowing or apathy, nystagmus, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, impaired consciousness, and if untreated coma or death

    • C. 

      Parasthesias in the toes, burning in the feet, muscle cramps in the calves, pains in the legs, and plantar dysethesias

  • 35. 
    Which of the following describes Wernicke's encephalopathy caused by a thiamine deficiency (mostly seen in alcoholics)
    • A. 

      Mental confusion, dysphonia, and confabulation with impaired memory of recent events

    • B. 

      Psychomotor slowing or apathy, nystagmus, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, impaired consciousness, and if untreated coma or death

    • C. 

      Parasthesias in the toes, burning in the feet, muscle cramps in the calves, pains in the legs, and plantar dysethesias

  • 36. 
    What vitamin deficiency can result in cardiac vasodilation, tachycardia, and a wide pulse pressure in addition to sweating, warm skin, and lactic acidosis that can later develop into heat failure?
    • A. 

      Thiamine- Cardiovascular beriberi (dry beriberi)

    • B. 

      Thiamine- Cardiovascular beriberi (wet beriberi)

    • C. 

      Riboflavin- Cardiovascular beriberi (dry beriberi)

    • D. 

      Riboflavin-Cardiovascular beriberi (wet beriberi)

  • 37. 
    T/F Infants can get beriberi from breast feeding from mothers who are thiamine deficient. This results in heart failure, the inability to speak , and absent deep tendon reflexes
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    How is a thiamine deficiency diagnosed ? (select 2)
    • A. 

      Usually based on favorable response to treatment with B1

    • B. 

      Usually based on favorable response to treatment of B3

    • C. 

      Diagnosed with erythrocyte transketolase activity and a 24 hour urinary B3 excretion measurement

    • D. 

      Diagnosed with erythrocyte transketolase activity and a 24 hour urinary B1 excretion measurement

  • 39. 
    Diabetes, alcoholism, vitamin B12 deficiency, and heavy metal poisoning, single nerve neuritides, and electrolyte imbalances are all differentials for what vitamin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Thiamine

    • B. 

      Riboflavin

    • C. 

      Niacin

    • D. 

      Pantothenic acid

  • 40. 
    T/F Since IV glucose can worsen Thiamine deficiency, alcoholics (and anyone who has this deficiency) should be given 100mg of thiamine IV before receiving IV glucose
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 41. 
    Match the Thiamine deficiency with the treatment:1. dry beriberi2. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome3. Wet beriberi (Cardiovascular)
    • A. 

      1. IM or IV thiamine, 2. IV thiamine, 3. oral thiamine

    • B. 

      1. oral thiamine, 2. IM or IV thiamine, 3. IV thiamine

    • C. 

      1. IV thiamine, 2. oral thiamine, 3. IM or IV thiamine

  • 42. 
    Which primary vitamin deficiency is seen in areas such as southern and eastern Asia, where rice is a staple food?
    • A. 

      Vitamin C

    • B. 

      Vitamin A

    • C. 

      Vitamin B3

    • D. 

      Vitamin B1

    • E. 

      Vitamin B12

  • 43. 
    What disease is due to a primary vitamin A deficiency that is a common cause of blindness among young children in developing countries.
    • A. 

      Xanthalasma

    • B. 

      Xerophthalmia

    • C. 

      Xeroxopthamicus

    • D. 

      Xeropthalmologia

  • 44. 
    Which vitamin deficiency is seen in persons with sprue, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic insufficiency, duodenal bypass, chronic diarrhea, bile duct obstruction, giardiasis, and cirrhosis due to interference with absorption, storage, or transport of this vitamin?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B1

    • C. 

      Vitamin B3

    • D. 

      Vitamin C

    • E. 

      Vitamin D

  • 45. 
    A patient presents with impaired dark adaptation of the eyes, drying of the eyes, and thickening of the conjunctive and corneas bilaterally. Upon further evaluation, you notice Bitot's spots. What vitamin deficiency is likely?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B1

    • C. 

      Vitamin B3

    • D. 

      Vitamin B6

    • E. 

      Vitamin B12

  • 46. 
    T/F Mortality rate can exceed 50% in children with severe vitamin A deficiency
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    Vitamin A deficiency can lead to keratinization of the skin and mucous membranes in the respiratory, GI, and urinary tracts. What can be the result of this process?
    • A. 

      Moistening of the skin and maceration of mucous membranes can result

    • B. 

      Drying, scaling,and follicular thickening of the skin and encephalitis can occur

    • C. 

      Drying, scaling, and follicular thickening of the skin and respiratory infections can result

    • D. 

      Moistening of the skin and pneumonia can result

  • 48. 
    What diagnostic tests can be done to the eye to confirm a vitamin A deficiency?
    • A. 

      Tomography and slit lamp examination

    • B. 

      CT scan with contrast and slit lamp examination

    • C. 

      Rod scotometry and CT scan with contrast

    • D. 

      Rod scotometry and electroretinography

  • 49. 
    T/F In developing countries, prophylactic supplements of vitamin A are advised for children
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 50. 
    Which of the following are a good source of vitamin A? (click all that apply)
    • A. 

      Dark green leafy veggies

    • B. 

      Deep-or bright-colored fruits, carrots, and yellow veggies

    • C. 

      Fortified milk and cereals, liver, egg yolk, and fish liver oils

    • D. 

      Meats, citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes

    • E. 

      Soy beans, spinach, strawberries, and sunflower seeds

  • 51. 
    T/F When treating a pregnant woman with a vitamin A deficiency, it is important to prescribe 50,000UI/day to avoid a deficient baby
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 52. 
    T/F Vitamin A toxicity can cause headache and increased intracranial pressure and chronic toxicity can cause changes in the skin, hair, and nails.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 53. 
    Maceration of the mucosa at the angles of the mouth (angular stomatitis) and vermilion surface of the lips (cheilosis) eventually replaced by superficial linear fissures, magenta tongue, and seborrheic dermatitis are the most common signs of what vitamin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B2

    • C. 

      Vitamin B3

    • D. 

      Vitamin B6

  • 54. 
    What is the treatment for riboflavin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Riboflavin 5-10 mg/day PO until recovery in addition to other fat soluble vitamins

    • B. 

      Riboflavin 5-10 mg/day PO until recovery in addition to other water soluble vitamins

    • C. 

      Banana Bag with riboflavin and IV fluids

    • D. 

      No treatment is necessary, it will resolve on its own

  • 55. 
    When is one's need for vitamin C increased? (Select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Febrile illnesses, inflammatory disorders, smoking, cold and heat stress, surgery, burns, and protein deficiency

    • B. 

      Febrile illnesses, allergic reactions, drinking alcohol, cold and heat, stress, flying in airplanes

    • C. 

      Achorhydria, calcium deficiency, and vitamin D deficiency

    • D. 

      Achlorhydria, smoking, thyrotoxicosis, and iron deficiency

  • 56. 
    In which vitamin deficiency do the gums become swollen, purple, spongy, and friable, teeth become loose and skin becomes hyperkeratotic in addition to secondary infections and poor wound healing overall?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B2

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

  • 57. 
    T/F Hyperkeratotic hair follicles with surrounding hyperemia or hemorrhage are almost pathognomonic for a vitamin C deficiency
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 58. 
    What can be seen in an X ray of a child with a vitamin C deficiency? (2 answers)
    • A. 

      Increase in trabeculae resulting in a ground-glass appearance

    • B. 

      Loss of trabeculae results in a ground-glass appearance- changes are most evident at the ends of long bones (particularly at the knee)

    • C. 

      A line of calcified, regular cartilage visible in the diaphysis

    • D. 

      A line of calcified, irregular cartilage may be visible at the metaphysis

    • E. 

      Cortex thickens

  • 59. 
    Scurvy is the result of what vitamin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B2

    • C. 

      Vitamin B3

    • D. 

      Vitamin C

  • 60. 
    Smokers should consume an additional _____ mg/day of vitamin C?
    • A. 

      25

    • B. 

      35

    • C. 

      45

    • D. 

      55

  • 61. 
    T/F It is possible to intake too much vitamin C
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 62. 
    Possible causes of vitamin D deficiency include which of the following: (Click all that apply)
    • A. 

      Inadequate exposure or intake

    • B. 

      Reduced absorption

    • C. 

      Abnormal metabolism

    • D. 

      Resistance to effects of vitamin D

    • E. 

      Excessive intake leading to resistance

  • 63. 
    What vitamin deficiency causes Rickets?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B2

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

  • 64. 
    What disorder is characterized by softening of the entire skull in infants, delayed crawling and sitting, and chostochondral thickening (rachitic rosary) in older infants
    • A. 

      Rickets

    • B. 

      Beriberi-wet

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Beriberi-dry

  • 65. 
    What disorder is characterized by bowlegs and knock-knees in older children and adolescents?
    • A. 

      Rickets

    • B. 

      Beriberi

    • C. 

      Scurvy

    • D. 

      Marasmus

    • E. 

      Kwashiokor

  • 66. 
    T/F Actions of vitamin D and its metabolites on parts of the body include the bone, immune system, intestine, kidneys, PARAthyroid glands, and pancreas?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 67. 
    What are the three clinical manifestations of a vitamin D deficiency?
    • A. 

      Rickets, beriberi, scurvy, osteomalacia

    • B. 

      Tetany, osteomalacia, beriberim, marasmus

    • C. 

      Rickets, Tetany, Osteomalacia

    • D. 

      Rickets, marasmus, kwashiorkor

  • 68. 
    A patient presents with paresthesias of the lips, tongue, and fingers and very severe seizures. You determine that they are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency. Which vitamin D related disorder is the patient presenting with?
    • A. 

      Rickets- caused by hypocalcemia and may accompany infantile or adult vitamin D deficiency

    • B. 

      Tetany- caused by hypocalcemia and may accompany infantile or adult vitamin D deficiency

    • C. 

      Osteomalacia- caused by hypocalcemia and may accompany infantile or adult vitamin D deficiency

    • D. 

      Beriberi- caused by hypocalcemia and may accompany infantile or adult vitamin D deficiency

  • 69. 
    The diagnosis of a vitamin D deficiency would include a history or inadequate sunlight, characteristic bone changes on x-ray, an decrease in serum calcium and serum phosphate. What is the goal level of 25(OH)D in the blood?
    • A. 

      20-40 ng/mL

    • B. 

      30-40 ng/mL

    • C. 

      40-50 ng/mL

  • 70. 
    T/F The Dietary guidelines for Americans recommends that healthy older adults consume 1000IU/day of vitamin D
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 71. 
     As long as Calcium and Phosphate intake are adequate, adults with osteomalacia and children with uncomplicated rickets can be cured by giving _________ IU PO qd
    • A. 

      1000

    • B. 

      1200

    • C. 

      1500

    • D. 

      1600

    • E. 

      2000

  • 72. 
    T/F Cases of rickets caused by a defective production of vitamin D  respond well to doses usually effective for rickets due to adequate intake
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 73. 
    Vitamin D toxicity will result from 50,000 IU/day within several months. Because vitamin D enhances calcium reabsorption by the renal tubules, which of the following signs are related to hypercalcemia? (choose three)
    • A. 

      Anorexia, weakness, nervousness, pruritus

    • B. 

      Syncope, hyperventilation, respiratory alkalosis

    • C. 

      Nausea and vomiting followed by excessive passage of urine (polyuria) and excessive thirst (polydipsea)

    • D. 

      Hemorrhage, abnormal clotting, abscess formations

    • E. 

      Protienuria, urinary casts, azotemia, and metastatic calcifications of the kidneys

  • 74. 
    Which vitamin deficiency can be caused by inadequate intake, fat malabsorption, or use of 'coumarin' anticoagulants?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B3

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Vitamin K

  • 75. 
    Which vitamin deficiency is particularly common among breastfed infants?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Vitamin K

  • 76. 
    Easy bruisability, epistaxis, GI hemorrhage, menorrhagia (heavy menstrual period), and hematuria are all symptoms of what vitamin deficiency?
    • A. 

      Vitamin A

    • B. 

      Vitamin B3

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Vitamin K

  • 77. 
    What will the result of a Prothrombin time (PT) be in a patient with a vitamin K deficiency?
    • A. 

      The PT will be decreased

    • B. 

      The PT will stay the same

    • C. 

      The PT will be prolonged

  • 78. 
    What will confirm a vitamin K deficiency?
    • A. 

      A decreased PT only

    • B. 

      An increased PTT

    • C. 

      A decreased PT after 1mg of vitamin K IV within 2-6 hours

    • D. 

      A decreased PT after 2 mg of vitamin K IV within 2-5 hours

  • 79. 
    T/F Vitamin K can be given PO to correct non emergent prolonged INR in patients taking anticoagulants
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 80. 
    T/F Vitamin K is recommended for all neonates within 6 hours of birth to reduce in incidence of intracranial hemorrhage due to birth trauma, and classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 81. 
    Primary protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) is a disorder that results from a lack of access to nutrients and is most common in children and the elderly. The worldwide solution to this problem is to reduce poverty and improve nutritional education and public health measures.The two form of this disorder are ________ and _________. Remember that the form depends on the balance of non-protein and protein sources of energy. (select 2)
    • A. 

      Beriberi

    • B. 

      Marasmus

    • C. 

      Kwashiorkor

    • D. 

      Scurvy

    • E. 

      Kishwakor

  • 82. 
    ___________ is a primary protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) that is also called the dry form. It is the more common form of PEU that causes weight loss and depletion of fat and muscle.
    • A. 

      Marasmus

    • B. 

      Kwashiorkor

    • C. 

      Beriberi

    • D. 

      Rickets

    • E. 

      Scurvy

  • 83. 
    ____________ is the less common cause of primary protein-energy undernutrition (PEU). It is also referred to as the wet, swollen, or edematous form of PEU and is associated with the premature abandonment of breastfeeding and may result from an acute illness in a child who already has PEU.
    • A. 

      Kwashiorkor

    • B. 

      Marasmus

    • C. 

      Beriberi

    • D. 

      Rickets

    • E. 

      Scurvy

  • 84. 
    Which of the Primary Protein-Energy Undernutrition tends to be confined to specific parts of the world such as Rural Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific Islands and is related to a diet in which the staple foods are low in protein and high in carbohydrates.
    • A. 

      Kwashiorkor

    • B. 

      Marasmus

    • C. 

      Beriberi

    • D. 

      Rickets

  • 85. 
    Secondary PEU can be caused by which of the following: (select 3)
    • A. 

      Disorders that affect GI function- interfere with digestion, absorption, or lymphatic transport

    • B. 

      Wasting disorders- AIDS, cancer, anorexia, cachexia

    • C. 

      Nephritic syndrome- hematuria

    • D. 

      Conditions that increase metabolic demands- infections, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, burns, trauma, surgery

    • E. 

      Disorders of the CHF- encephalopathy, CSF infections

  • 86. 
    A 3 year old girl presents with a protruding abdomen, enlarged liver, ascites, and periorbital edema. Which PEU disorder is this child likely to have?
    • A. 

      Kwashiorkor

    • B. 

      Marasmus

    • C. 

      BeriBeri

    • D. 

      Secondary PEU

    • E. 

      Rickets

  • 87. 
    An 85 year old woman presents with prominent facial bones, loose, thin skin that hangs in folds and wasting of subcutaneous fat and muscle. Her daughter admits that she is very poor and does not have access to nutritious foods. Which PEU disorder is she likely to have based on these symptoms?
    • A. 

      Kwashiorkor

    • B. 

      Marasmus

    • C. 

      Wasting disorder

    • D. 

      Cancer

    • E. 

      AIDS

  • 88. 
    What is the treatment for severe PEU?
    • A. 

      Balanced diet (preferably orally) and multivitamin supplements

    • B. 

      Controlled diet in hospital where the first priority is to correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and treat infections and the second priority is to supply macronutrients via NG or G tube or orally if tolerated

    • C. 

      Controlled diet at home where the first priority is to correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and treat infections and the second priority is to supply macronutrients via NG or G tube or orally if tolerated

    • D. 

      Controlled diet in nursing home where the first priority is to correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and treat infections and the second priority is to supply macronutrients via NG or G tube or orally if tolerated