Nutrition Lect 2:

76 Questions

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Nutrition Lect 2:

Calories, nutrition assessment, nutrition for special populations


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    How many calories are in 1 gram of protein?
    • A. 

      7 calories

    • B. 

      9 calories

    • C. 

      4 calories

  • 2. 
    How many calories are in 1 gram of carbohydrates?
    • A. 

      9

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      7

  • 3. 
    How many calories are in 1 gram of fat?
    • A. 

      9 calories

    • B. 

      7 calories

    • C. 

      4 calories

  • 4. 
    How many calories are in 1 gram of alcohol?
    • A. 

      9 calories

    • B. 

      7 calories

    • C. 

      4 calories

  • 5. 
    What is the criteria for food fortification? (click all that apply)
    • A. 

      Cannot require dietary changes of the population

    • B. 

      Preventative and cost effective

    • C. 

      Consumed by high risk populations and cannot change the taste appearance, or smell

    • D. 

      Must remain stable with cooking, processing, and storage

    • E. 

      Must taste better

  • 6. 
    Which one does not match?
    • A. 

      Iodine deficiency leads to mental retardation

    • B. 

      Vitamin A deficiency leads to blindness.

    • C. 

      Iodine deficiency leads to blindness

    • D. 

      Fat soluble vitamins are not needed everyday and excess amounts are stored in fats

    • E. 

      Iron deficiency anemia can cause physical and mental growth retardation

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is wrongly matched?
    • A. 

      Milk- vitamin D

    • B. 

      Juice- vitamin A

    • C. 

      Skim milk, low-fat milk, and margarine- vitamin A

    • D. 

      Salt- iodine

    • E. 

      Flour and bread- thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron

  • 8. 
    T/F Water soluble vitamins (B and C) are excreted in the urine daily, so they must be continually supplied?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    T/F Fat soluble vitamins (A,E,D,K) are excreted in the urine and therefore must be continually supplied?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    Who of the following need a supplement?
    • A. 

      A women who is pregnant, trying to get pregnant or breastfeeding need to take a prenatal vitamin

    • B. 

      Women and men who are at risk of osteroporosis need a calcium (calcium citrate) supplement with vitamin D

    • C. 

      Vegetarians need a B12 supplement

    • D. 

      Infants need a fortified hot dog

    • E. 

      Those with poor nutritional intake need vitamin supplements

  • 11. 
    T/F Most vitamins are best absorbed when taken on a full stomach and dividing the doses throughout the day is consistent with proper nutrient supply
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    What is the acronym for warning flags of poor nutritional health?
    • A. 

      DETERMINE

    • B. 

      TOOTHLESS

    • C. 

      ELDER

  • 13. 
    What vitamin deficiency results in scurvy: pale skin, loss of teeth, and sunken eyes
    • A. 

      Vitamin B12

    • B. 

      Vitamin C

    • C. 

      Vitamin D

    • D. 

      Iron

  • 14. 
    What tests would you order to determine if your patient has a nutrition deficiency?
    • A. 

      Albumin, Mg, B12, iron, CBC with Diff, CMP, lipid panel, transferrin and Total iron binding capacity

    • B. 

      Albumin, pre-albumin, Mg, B12, iron, CBC with Diff, CMP, lipid panel, transferrin and Total iron binding capacity, CD4

    • C. 

      Albumin, pre-albumin, Mg, B12, iron, CBC with Diff, CMP, lipid panel, transferrin and Total iron binding capacity

  • 15. 
    Which of the following are valid reasons why a person's albumin may be low? (multiple answers)
    • A. 

      Liver disease

    • B. 

      Kidney disease

    • C. 

      Pancreatic disease

    • D. 

      Malnutrition

    • E. 

      Low protein diet

  • 16. 
    Pre albumin has a half life of _________ days versus albumin has a __________ day half-life
    • A. 

      20, 2

    • B. 

      5, 15

    • C. 

      2, 20

    • D. 

      15, 5

  • 17. 
    T/F Transferrin is a protein that carries iron in the blood
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    T/F Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) shows if there is too much or too little iron in the blood.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Why do you not order an albumin on a newborn?
    • A. 

      Albumin has a half life of 8 days

    • B. 

      Transferrin has a half life of 8 days

    • C. 

      Albumin has a half life of 20 days

  • 20. 
    A person at a restaurant is complaining of an ithcing mouth, GI distress, light headedness (hypotension), hives, reactive airway, and anaphylaxis. What are you thinking this is a result of?
    • A. 

      Anaphylacitc shock caused by shellfish

    • B. 

      A food allergy in which most culprits are milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, soy, wheat, strawberries, and tomatoes

    • C. 

      Hypervolemia caused by milk, peanuts, fish and shellfish

  • 21. 
    What is the correct sequence of anaphylaxis- the sever, whole-body allergic reaction?1. Prolonged anaphylaxis can cause heart arrhythmias2. Histamine is released, causing constriction of the airways that results in wheezing and difficulty breathing.3.Hives and angioedema often occur which may be severe enough to block the airway4.  Histamine causes the blood vessels to dilate lowering the blood pressure and fluid leaks from the bloodstream into the tissues 5. Shock results and fluid can leak into the alveoli of the lungs, causing pulmonary edema
    • A. 

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    • B. 

      3, 4, 5, 2, 1

    • C. 

      2, 4, 5, 3, 1

  • 22. 
    How is celiac's disease diagnosed?
    • A. 

      Encourage the patient to eat more what, barley and rye and try a trial and error approach

    • B. 

      Blood test: liver panel and celiac panel and biopsy of intestinal tissue

    • C. 

      Biopsy only

  • 23. 
    T/F A person with Celiac disease should avoid gluten foods such as cereal, pasta, breads, cookies, and processed foods
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    In a patient that you have diagnosed as IDA (Iron deficient anemia) and you are treating them with supplements. After _______ month(s) their blood levels will be back to normal, however it will take them  _______ months to replenish stores.
    • A. 

      2 months, 4 months

    • B. 

      2 months, 6 months

    • C. 

      1 month, 2 months

  • 25. 
    Chewing and swallowing problems, abdominal pain leading to anorexia, changes in appetite or intake, diets and nutritional supplements, metabolic needs, GI function and absorption, chronic disease states, organ failure, and physical activity, and REVIEWING CURRENT MEDICATIONS are all areas that should be asked about during which part of a nutritional status exam of a patient?
    • A. 

      Physical exam

    • B. 

      History

    • C. 

      Labs

    • D. 

      Family history

    • E. 

      Review of systems

  • 26. 
    Assessing muscle mass and strength and gathering evidence of liver disease and nutrient deficiencies are part of what portion of the nutrition assessment?
    • A. 

      History

    • B. 

      Physical Exam

    • C. 

      Labs

    • D. 

      Review of systems

  • 27. 
    Click all that apply: Which of the following are useful in assess nutrition status during the lab portion of your nutrition assessment?
    • A. 

      Assessing organ function

    • B. 

      Assessing fluid status and electrolyte balance

    • C. 

      Confirm nutritional deficiencies

    • D. 

      Monitor the adequacy of nutritional therapies

    • E. 

      Assessing energy levels

  • 28. 
    ____________ is weight loss, wasting of muscle, loss of appetite, and general debility that can occur during chronic disease
    • A. 

      Anorexia

    • B. 

      Cachexia

    • C. 

      Anorexia nervosa

    • D. 

      Starvation

  • 29. 
    What does a patient's body use for energy when it is starving?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates and protein

    • B. 

      Fat and protein

    • C. 

      Fat and carbohydrates

  • 30. 
    A patient presents to you with a very low temperature, low blood pressure, and low heart rate. You order a thyroid panel and it comes back low. The patient seems to be loosing function of vital organs decreased respiratory efficiency and decreased cardiac output), her bowel sound reveal hypoactivity and she has diarrhea and malabsorption. Her BMR (basal metabolic rate) decreased due to liver wasting/ altered metabolism, her urine is clear due to her kidneys loosing the ability to concentrate urine. What clinical diagnosis is consistent with this synopsis?
    • A. 

      Hypovolemia

    • B. 

      Hypothyroidism

    • C. 

      Starvation

    • D. 

      Malnutrition

  • 31. 
    How many months does the American Academy of Pediatrics support exclusive breastfeeding in infants?
    • A. 

      12 months

    • B. 

      18 months

    • C. 

      3 months

    • D. 

      6 months

  • 32. 
    If a parent cannot breastfeed, what should the infant's formula be fortified with?
    • A. 

      Calcium

    • B. 

      Iron

    • C. 

      B vitamins

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

    • E. 

      Folic acid

  • 33. 
    What age can infant cereal be introduced? What age is preferred?
    • A. 

      6 months, 8 months

    • B. 

      3 months, 6 months

    • C. 

      4 months, 6 months

  • 34. 
    What does the acronym HENS stand for?
    • A. 

      Honey, eggs (whites), nectarines, shell fish- these are foods you should not feed an infant

    • B. 

      Honey, eggs, nuts, squash- these are foods you should not feed a toddler

    • C. 

      Honey, eggs (white), nuts, shell fish- these are foods you should not feed an infant

  • 35. 
    T/F Honey can cause botulism in infants
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    T/F Infants are rarely allergic to egg whites, nuts, and shellfish
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 37. 
    What foods should you avoid feeding children? (click all that apply)
    • A. 

      Avoid cow mild in infants because it has too much protien, sodium and potassium- use breast milk or formula

    • B. 

      Avoid carrots, hot dogs, and round candy in children because it may cause choking

    • C. 

      Avoid cow milk for infants because it doesn't have enough vitamin E, fatty acids, and iron

    • D. 

      Avoid breast milk and formula in infants- mothers don't produce enough nutrients

  • 38. 
    Start________ milk at 1 year and switch to _______  at 2 years
    • A. 

      2% or skim, whole cow milk

    • B. 

      Whole cow milk, 2% or skim

    • C. 

      Whole cow milk, breast milk

    • D. 

      Breast milk, whole cow milk

  • 39. 
    T/F It is important to start new baby food no more often then every 4-6 days. In addition, you should start with combo baby foods for best results
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 40. 
    T/F A 1 year old child should be eating what you eat at the table, just in smaller portions
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 41. 
    What is the recommended amount of juice a child should consume a day?
    • A. 

      4 oz

    • B. 

      8 oz

    • C. 

      6 oz

    • D. 

      10 oz

  • 42. 
    Click all that apply: What is important to do when raising children with regards to food and eating habits?
    • A. 

      Set the stage for life long healthy eating habits

    • B. 

      Offer a variety of healthy foods

    • C. 

      Add sugar and salt to taste

    • D. 

      Use whole grain products

    • E. 

      Provide foods that contain calcium and iron

  • 43. 
    What vitamins, minerals, or foods are particularly important during pregnancy?
    • A. 

      Folic acid, Calcium, protein, and iron

    • B. 

      Folic acid, Magnesium, Calcium, and iron

    • C. 

      Folic acid, Calcium, carbohydrates, and iron

  • 44. 
    Which of the following is not matched correctly when referring to nutrients as they relate to pregnancy?
    • A. 

      Iron is important to prevent iron deficiency anemia

    • B. 

      Calcium is for strong bones for mom and baby

    • C. 

      Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects

    • D. 

      Vitamin C is important to vision

  • 45. 
    What are the two most common neural tube defects?
    • A. 

      Spina bifida and scoleosis

    • B. 

      Spina bifida and anencephaly

    • C. 

      Encephalopathy and spina bifida

  • 46. 
    How many extra calories should a mother who is expecting consume a day?
    • A. 

      500

    • B. 

      1000

    • C. 

      5000

    • D. 

      800

  • 47. 
    Why should a pregnant woman avoid eating shark, swordfish, mackerel, tilefish, albacore tuna, and shell fish?
    • A. 

      Low protein

    • B. 

      High levels of mercury

    • C. 

      High levels of fatty acids aren't good for the baby

  • 48. 
    Select the nutrition options that are recommended during lactation
    • A. 

      Increased protein

    • B. 

      Small amounts of caffeine to have energy for the baby

    • C. 

      1200 mg of calcium a day

    • D. 

      Increase calories per day by 500

    • E. 

      Stay hydrated with water

  • 49. 
    Elderly have reduced metabolic requirements that are caused by loss in functioning of cells. What is important to keep in mind about elderly patients?
    • A. 

      They often have to go to the bathroom often

    • B. 

      They have an increase in physical activity

    • C. 

      Their thirst mechanism is often diminished so they need to stay hydrated

  • 50. 
    Cramps, delirium, vomiting, hypo/hyperthermia are all signs of ____________ in athletes
    • A. 

      Starvation

    • B. 

      Dehydration

    • C. 

      Mercury poisoning

  • 51. 
    T/F an athlete that exercises for more than 1 hour a day should alternate between water and sports drinks
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 52. 
    When training for an endurance event push _______, when training for a strength event push ________
    • A. 

      Protein, carbs

    • B. 

      Carbs, protein

    • C. 

      Fats, proteins

    • D. 

      Sugars, proteins

  • 53. 
    An athlete should eat ________ the night before an event and should eat ___________ within a half an hour after the event
    • A. 

      Carbs, proteins and sodium rich foods

    • B. 

      Carbs and proteins, high carb foods

    • C. 

      High carb foods, carbs and proteins

  • 54. 
    Some canned tuna contain _________- a milk protein.
    • A. 

      Casein

    • B. 

      Albacore

    • C. 

      Lactulose

    • D. 

      Yogurt

  • 55. 
    What are two sources of cholesterol? (2)
    • A. 

      Body makes it

    • B. 

      Food ingestion- saturated and trans fats

    • C. 

      Liver makes it

    • D. 

      Gallbladder makes it

  • 56. 
    How is cholesterol transported to and from cells?
    • A. 

      Lipoproteins

    • B. 

      Albumin

    • C. 

      RBCs

    • D. 

      WBCs

  • 57. 
    ________ : too much can clog arteries and increase one's risk for a stroke or MI. ________ is a protective lipoprotein that carries cholesterol away from arteries and is considered a negative risk factor
    • A. 

      HDL, LDL

    • B. 

      LDL HDL

  • 58. 
    T/F Triglycerides are fatty acids in the bloodstream and cholesterol is a soft, waxy, fat-like substance naturally found in the blood stream and cells
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 59. 
    In the case of lactose intolerance, the problem stems from a __________ deficiency which is not available to break down _________
    • A. 

      Lactase, lactose

    • B. 

      Lactose, lactase

  • 60. 
    T/F Abdominal cramps, nausea, bloating, diarrhea with milk are all signs of lactose intolerance. Lactose is the milk sugar.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 61. 
    Choose from the following recommendations you would give your patient who is lactose intolerant
    • A. 

      Use low lactose milk treated with lactase products (lactaid)

    • B. 

      Take lactose supplements with meals

    • C. 

      Eat yogurt and cheese for calcium if tolerated

    • D. 

      Avoid milk products

    • E. 

      Deal with the symptoms with drugs

  • 62. 
    T/F Celiac disease is an intestinal malabsorption disorder that involves an intolerance to gluten- found in wheat, barley, and rye
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 63. 
    T/F The villi in the small intestine of a patient with celiac disease are damaged so that the body does not absorb nutrients properly. The diagnosis is based on symptoms only.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    • C. 

      First half is true, second half is false- you need a biopsy of the intestines

  • 64. 
    What are associated complications of celiac disease?
    • A. 

      IDA

    • B. 

      Osteoporosis

    • C. 

      GI cancer risk

    • D. 

      IBS

    • E. 

      Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

  • 65. 
    T/F DM type I is most commonly dx in children, is more serious, and ketoacidosis is more common than DM type II which develops more slowly, has a strong genetic component and is correlated to obesity and inactivity
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 66. 
    Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss are associated with what type of DM?
    • A. 

      DM type I

    • B. 

      DM type II

  • 67. 
    Blurred vision, frequent yeast infections, skin irritation, and weakness are associated with which type of diabetes?
    • A. 

      DM type I

    • B. 

      DM type II

  • 68. 
    What do lab test reveal when diagnosing diabetes?
    • A. 

      Hyperglycemia, glucosuria, abnormal GTTs, Hb A1C

    • B. 

      Hypoglycemia, glucosuria, abnormal LFTs, Hb A1C

    • C. 

      Glucosuria, abnormal TSH, and Hb A1C

  • 69. 
    What are results of poorly controlled diabetes? (select all that apply)
    • A. 

      Fluid/electrolyte imbalances

    • B. 

      Ketoacidosis

    • C. 

      Coma

    • D. 

      Poor wound healing

    • E. 

      ED, neuropathy

  • 70. 
    T/F Anemia is a condition where red blood cells are not providing adequate oxygen to body tissues
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 71. 
    T/F IDA is the most common type of anemia. It is defined as a decrease in the number of RBCs in the blood caused by too little iron
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 72. 
    T/F nutrition, hemorrhage, lack of HCl needed for absorption, malabsorption, chronic disease are all common causes for anemia
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 73. 
    T/F Iron is normally obtained through food in the diet and by recycling iron from old RBCs- oxygen is needed for normal functioning of every cell in the body
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 74. 
    T/F Pale skin, fatigue, irritability, weakness, SOB, Pica, headaches, brittle nails and/or no symptoms at all could indicate iron deficiency anemia
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 75. 
    T/F Women of child bearing age, pregnant or lactating women, infants, children and adolescents in rapid growth phases, people with poor dietary intake and people with disease related to blood loss are at high risk for IDA
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 76. 
    T/F A team approach is necessary when treating a patient with an eating disorder?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      Fasle