Neuro Exam #2

231 Questions | Total Attempts: 83

SettingsSettingsSettings
Please wait...
Neuro Quizzes & Trivia

Sensory pathways and other things. So fun!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which pathway carries touch pressure and proprioception from the periphery to the brain?
    • A. 

      ALS

    • B. 

      DCML

  • 2. 
    Conduction velocity over sensory afferents is related to:
    • A. 

      Fiber diameter

    • B. 

      Amount of myelin

    • C. 

      Type of afferent

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 3. 
    Which type of sensory receptor continues to fire in the presence of a constant stimulus?
    • A. 

      High Threshold

    • B. 

      Slowly adapting

    • C. 

      Rapidly adapting

    • D. 

      Low threshold

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is the most applicable to two point discrimination?
    • A. 

      Size of peripheral receptive field

    • B. 

      High Threshold

    • C. 

      Slowly adapting

    • D. 

      Rapidly adapting

    • E. 

      Low threshold

  • 5. 
    Structural differences between DCML and ALS:
    • A. 

      DCML does not cross until the thalamus, ALS in the spinal cord

    • B. 

      DCML crosses at medulla, ALS in the spinal cord

    • C. 

      There is no difference

    • D. 

      No sensory deficits would be seen

  • 6. 
    Which is the fastest?
    • A. 

      A alpha

    • B. 

      A gamma

    • C. 

      Ia

    • D. 

      A alpha

    • E. 

      A gamma

  • 7. 
    Which one carries information to the upper extremities?
    • A. 

      Fasciculus cuneatus

    • B. 

      Lower motor neurons which innervate the trunk are located:

    • C. 

      Cuneocerebellar

  • 8. 
    In general, which of the following is true:
    • A. 

      In general, the most direct effect on a motor neuron comes from proprioceptive afferents

    • B. 

      Somatosensory afferents tend to have a faster conduction velocity than proprioceptors

    • C. 

      Proprioceptive afferents tend to have a faster conduction velocity than somatosensory

    • D. 

      Pain (nocioceptors) tend to be free nerve endings

  • 9. 
    How does the person know about stimulus location?
    • A. 

      Codes of labeled lines

    • B. 

      Pattern of electrical firing

    • C. 

      Somatotopic representation in pathways

    • D. 

      A & C

  • 10. 
    Which is a perceptual motor problem where there is inability to perform a motor act in the absence os a primary motor or sensory impairment?
    • A. 

      Dyslexia

    • B. 

      Agraphia

    • C. 

      Dyspraxia

    • D. 

      ADD

  • 11. 
    All of the following statements about the muscle spindle are true EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Has both sensory and motor

    • B. 

      Active in stretch reflex

    • C. 

      Is sensitive to tension in contracting muscle

    • D. 

      Lies in parallel to muscle fibers

  • 12. 
    A cortical perceptual deficit that is common after a R hemisphere stroke which causes individuals moving into space on the affected side is:
    • A. 

      ADD

    • B. 

      Hemiplegia

    • C. 

      Unilateral disregard syndrome

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 13. 
    Conduction velocity over sensory afferents is related to:
    • A. 

      Fiber diameter

    • B. 

      Amount of myeling

    • C. 

      Type of afferent

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 14. 
    Sensation involves registration of sensory input, whereas percetion is an integrative process involving multiple systems including memory.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    The gate theory of pain is based on synaptic functions which are:
    • A. 

      Post-synaptic

    • B. 

      Pre-synaptic

    • C. 

      Involve only 2 neurons

  • 16. 
    When you show a client a box of items, ask them to name them, and them have them close their eyes and identify based on touch, this is a test of:
    • A. 

      Proprioception

    • B. 

      Stereognosis

    • C. 

      Tactile sensation

    • D. 

      Praxis

  • 17. 
    Conduction velocity over sensory afferents is related to:
    • A. 

      Fiber diameter

    • B. 

      Amount of myelin

    • C. 

      Type of afferent

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 18. 
    Lower motor neurons which innervate the trunk are located:
    • A. 

      Ventral horn, medial

    • B. 

      Ventral horn, lateral

    • C. 

      Dorsal horn, medial

    • D. 

      Dorsal horn, lateral

  • 19. 
    Structural differences between DCML and ALS:
    • A. 

      DCML does not cross until the thalamus, ALS in the spinal cord

    • B. 

      DCML crosses at medulla, ALS in the spinal cord

    • C. 

      There is no difference

    • D. 

      No sensory deficits would be seen

  • 20. 
    Recruitment of motor neurons during a sustained contraction according to the Henneman size principle goes from:
    • A. 

      Large to small

    • B. 

      Small to large

    • C. 

      No pattern

    • D. 

      According to task

  • 21. 
    Which one carries information to the upper extremities?
    • A. 

      Fasciculus cuneatus

    • B. 

      Lower motor neurons which innervate the trunk are located:

    • C. 

      Cuneocerebellar

  • 22. 
    The classic disease of lower motor neurons is:
    • A. 

      Multiple sclerosis

    • B. 

      Stroke

    • C. 

      Poliomyelitis

    • D. 

      Brown-sequard syndrome

  • 23. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of a stretch reflex?
    • A. 

      Monosynaptic

    • B. 

      Occurs in response to a proprioceptive stimulus from the muscle spindle

    • C. 

      Occurs in the absence of a lower motor neuron

    • D. 

      Is relatively fast

  • 24. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of a stretch reflex?
    • A. 

      Monosynaptic

    • B. 

      Occurs in response to a proprioceptive stimulus from the muscle spindle

    • C. 

      Occurs in the absence of a lower motor neuron

    • D. 

      Is relatively fast

  • 25. 
    Which is a perceptual motor problem where there is inability to perform a motor act in the absence os a primary motor or sensory impairment?
    • A. 

      Dyslexia

    • B. 

      Agraphia

    • C. 

      Dyspraxia

    • D. 

      ADD

  • 26. 
    A cortical perceptual deficit that is common after a R hemisphere stroke which causes individuals moving into space on the affected side is:
    • A. 

      ADD

    • B. 

      Hemiplegia

    • C. 

      Unilateral disregard syndrome

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 27. 
    Which lower motor neurons of only one spinal segement are damaged, the resulting motor deficit is usually:
    • A. 

      Paralysis of all muscles supplied by that segment

    • B. 

      Weakness of muscles with innervation from that segment

    • C. 

      Hyperreflexia

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 28. 
    Sensation involves registration of sensory input, whereas percetion is an integrative process involving multiple systems including memory.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    Which of the following is not true of the flexor withdrawal reflex?
    • A. 

      Multi-segmental

    • B. 

      Elicited by nocipceptive stimulus

    • C. 

      Elicited by proprioceptive stimulus

    • D. 

      Seen in greated magnitude in infancy

  • 30. 
    The lateral vestibulospinal tract is activated by:
    • A. 

      Input from cristae - angular acceleration

    • B. 

      Crista- linear acceleration

    • C. 

      Macula- linear

    • D. 

      Macula - angular

  • 31. 
    When you show a client a box of items, ask them to name them, and them have them close their eyes and identify based on touch, this is a test of:
    • A. 

      Proprioception

    • B. 

      Stereognosis

    • C. 

      Tactile sensation

    • D. 

      Praxis

  • 32. 
    Descending input over the lateral vestibulospinal pathway:
    • A. 

      Facilitates extensors

    • B. 

      Facilitates flexors

    • C. 

      Facilitates release of extension

    • D. 

      Fascilitates trunk extension

  • 33. 
    Lower motor neurons which innervate the trunk are located:
    • A. 

      Ventral horn, medial

    • B. 

      Ventral horn, lateral

    • C. 

      Dorsal horn, medial

    • D. 

      Dorsal horn, lateral

  • 34. 
    Recruitment of motor neurons during a sustained contraction according to the Henneman size principle goes from:
    • A. 

      Large to small

    • B. 

      Small to large

    • C. 

      No pattern

    • D. 

      According to task

  • 35. 
    Which is NOT a pathway that helps sustain decerebrate rigidity?
    • A. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • B. 

      Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 36. 
    The classic disease of lower motor neurons is:
    • A. 

      Multiple sclerosis

    • B. 

      Stroke

    • C. 

      Poliomyelitis

    • D. 

      Brown-sequard syndrome

  • 37. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of a stretch reflex?
    • A. 

      Monosynaptic

    • B. 

      Occurs in response to a proprioceptive stimulus from the muscle spindle

    • C. 

      Occurs in the absence of a lower motor neuron

    • D. 

      Is relatively fast

  • 38. 
    Which of the following pathways facilitates contralateral flexion?
    • A. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • B. 

      Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal

    • D. 

      Tectospinal

  • 39. 
    If someone had +1 reflexes at the right ankle, but +2 reflexes on the L and was otherwise neurologically normal, you might suspect:
    • A. 

      Compression of spinal nerve

    • B. 

      An upper motor neuron problem

    • C. 

      A spinal cord injury

    • D. 

      All of the above are possible

  • 40. 
    Which of the following coordinates hand, eye, and head movements?
    • A. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • B. 

      Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal

    • D. 

      Tectospinal

  • 41. 
    Which lower motor neurons of only one spinal segement are damaged, the resulting motor deficit is usually:
    • A. 

      Paralysis of all muscles supplied by that segment

    • B. 

      Weakness of muscles with innervation from that segment

    • C. 

      Hyperreflexia

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 42. 
    In the lateral corticospinal pathway, it is typical for UE representation to be:
    • A. 

      Medial

    • B. 

      Lateral

    • C. 

      Wherever

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is not true of the flexor withdrawal reflex?
    • A. 

      Multi-segmental

    • B. 

      Elicited by nocipceptive stimulus

    • C. 

      Elicited by proprioceptive stimulus

    • D. 

      Seen in greated magnitude in infancy

  • 44. 
    The lateral vestibulospinal tract is activated by:
    • A. 

      Input from cristae - angular acceleration

    • B. 

      Crista- linear acceleration

    • C. 

      Macula- linear

    • D. 

      Macula - angular

  • 45. 
    The lateral CxSpinal pathway crosses at:
    • A. 

      Peduncles of midbrain

    • B. 

      Pyramids of medulla

    • C. 

      Internal capsule

    • D. 

      C spine

  • 46. 
    Descending input over the lateral vestibulospinal pathway:
    • A. 

      Facilitates extensors

    • B. 

      Facilitates flexors

    • C. 

      Facilitates release of extension

    • D. 

      Fascilitates trunk extension

  • 47. 
    CxSpinal pathway is most vulnerable to damage:
    • A. 

      In internal capsule

    • B. 

      On the surface, near its cells of origin

    • C. 

      At the pyramids

    • D. 

      In the spinal cord

  • 48. 
    The vestibular apparatus indirectly affects muscle tone and arousal when a person is spun through the:
    • A. 

      Vestibulospinal path

    • B. 

      Reticulospinal path

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal path

    • D. 

      Tectospinal

  • 49. 
    Blood supply to the corticospinal path as it passes through the internal capsule is:
    • A. 

      ACA

    • B. 

      PCA

    • C. 

      MCA

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 50. 
    Which is NOT a pathway that helps sustain decerebrate rigidity?
    • A. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • B. 

      Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 51. 
    Damage to the corticospinal pathway typically results in a clinical picture of:
    • A. 

      Spasticity

    • B. 

      Flaccidity and paralysis

    • C. 

      Hyper-reflexia

    • D. 

      A & C

  • 52. 
    Which of the following pathways facilitates contralateral flexion?
    • A. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • B. 

      Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal

    • D. 

      Tectospinal

  • 53. 
    Which of the following coordinates hand, eye, and head movements?
    • A. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • B. 

      Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Rubrospinal

    • D. 

      Tectospinal

  • 54. 
    A pathologic relfex seen as an indicator of upper motor neuron syndrome (long tract sign) is:
    • A. 

      Babinkski

    • B. 

      Flexor withdrawal

    • C. 

      Stretch

    • D. 

      Crossed extension

  • 55. 
    After a CVA, the person's posture of UE flexion and LE extension is considered?
    • A. 

      Decorticate

    • B. 

      Decerebrate

    • C. 

      ATNR dominant

    • D. 

      All of theses

  • 56. 
    Sherrington's classic lesions in cats described a decerebrate posture in which there was:
    • A. 

      Flexion in all limbs

    • B. 

      Flexion in UE, extension in LE

    • C. 

      Extension of all limbs "like a pillar"

    • D. 

      Head turning in asymmetry

  • 57. 
    The lateral CxSpinal pathway crosses at:
    • A. 

      Peduncles of midbrain

    • B. 

      Pyramids of medulla

    • C. 

      Internal capsule

    • D. 

      C spine

  • 58. 
    In humans, you read in a medical record (Glasgow coma scale), that the patients posture was decerebrate, you would correctly conclude that:
    • A. 

      There is a concussion

    • B. 

      There is a spinal cord injury

    • C. 

      There is a serious brain injuery

    • D. 

      There was probably a mild CVA

  • 59. 
    CxSpinal pathway is most vulnerable to damage:
    • A. 

      In internal capsule

    • B. 

      On the surface, near its cells of origin

    • C. 

      At the pyramids

    • D. 

      In the spinal cord

  • 60. 
    In the brown-sequard syndrome, the motor signs below the level of the lesion are:
    • A. 

      LMN, ipsilateral

    • B. 

      UMN, contralateral

    • C. 

      UMN, ipsilateral

    • D. 

      Unpredictable

  • 61. 
    Blood supply to the corticospinal path as it passes through the internal capsule is:
    • A. 

      ACA

    • B. 

      PCA

    • C. 

      MCA

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 62. 
    Which of the following acts like a brake on a car?
    • A. 

      GTO

    • B. 

      Muscle spindle

    • C. 

      Joint receptors

    • D. 

      Cristae

  • 63. 
    Damage to the corticospinal pathway typically results in a clinical picture of:
    • A. 

      Spasticity

    • B. 

      Flaccidity and paralysis

    • C. 

      Hyper-reflexia

    • D. 

      A & C

  • 64. 
    Alpha gamma co-activation means that:
    • A. 

      In voluntary contraction, the alpha and gamma motor neurons receive cortical signals simultaneously

    • B. 

      In reflex contraction, the alpha and gamma motor neurons receive signals simultaneously

    • C. 

      Alpha activates gamma

    • D. 

      Gamma activates alpha

  • 65. 
    Clonus is seen:
    • A. 

      As a hyperactive stretch reflex

    • B. 

      Typically distal (wrist and ankle)

    • C. 

      As a reverberating or beating movement

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 66. 
    A disorder which starts in the middle of the grey matter of the spinal cord, near the remnant of the central canal would first damage which of the following:
    • A. 

      Discriminative touch gibers as they ascend to the cortex

    • B. 

      Proprioceptive fibers going to cerebellum

    • C. 

      Pain, temperature, and light touch fibers crossing

    • D. 

      No sensory deficits

  • 67. 
    A pathologic relfex seen as an indicator of upper motor neuron syndrome (long tract sign) is:
    • A. 

      Babinkski

    • B. 

      Flexor withdrawal

    • C. 

      Stretch

    • D. 

      Crossed extension

  • 68. 
    Small diameter afferents tend to send info to the cortex via a pathway which:
    • A. 

      Is uncrossed

    • B. 

      Is direct and fast

    • C. 

      Has a large number of connections with brainstem reticular formation

    • D. 

      Does not have a thalamic relay

  • 69. 
    After a CVA, the person's posture of UE flexion and LE extension is considered?
    • A. 

      Decorticate

    • B. 

      Decerebrate

    • C. 

      ATNR dominant

    • D. 

      All of theses

  • 70. 
    Info carried in the DCML is:
    • A. 

      Discriminative touch

    • B. 

      Pain/temp

    • C. 

      Proprioception (conscious)

    • D. 

      A&C

  • 71. 
    Sherrington's classic lesions in cats described a decerebrate posture in which there was:
    • A. 

      Flexion in all limbs

    • B. 

      Flexion in UE, extension in LE

    • C. 

      Extension of all limbs "like a pillar"

    • D. 

      Head turning in asymmetry

  • 72. 
    Referral for a pt. who has brown-sequard syndrome at C7 on the right. Which of the following accurately desribes the sensory deficit:
    • A. 

      R side DCML loss, L side ALS loss

    • B. 

      R side anesthesia, loss of sensation below the lesion

    • C. 

      Left side anesthesia, contralateral loss below lesion

    • D. 

      Left side loss of DCML, right side ALS loss

  • 73. 
    In humans, you read in a medical record (Glasgow coma scale), that the patients posture was decerebrate, you would correctly conclude that:
    • A. 

      There is a concussion

    • B. 

      There is a spinal cord injury

    • C. 

      There is a serious brain injuery

    • D. 

      There was probably a mild CVA

  • 74. 
    In the sensory cortex, the homunculus is such that information that the legs are represented:
    • A. 

      On the lower lateral surface

    • B. 

      On the middle lateral surface

    • C. 

      On medial surface

    • D. 

      Deep in cortex

  • 75. 
    In the brown-sequard syndrome, the motor signs below the level of the lesion are:
    • A. 

      LMN, ipsilateral

    • B. 

      UMN, contralateral

    • C. 

      UMN, ipsilateral

    • D. 

      Unpredictable

  • 76. 
    Which lobe of the cerebellum has the most connections with the vestibular system?
    • A. 

      Anterior

    • B. 

      Posterior

    • C. 

      Flocculonodular

    • D. 

      Vermis

  • 77. 
    Which of the following statements about cerebellum is not true?
    • A. 

      Has no direct descending input to the spinal lower motor neuron

    • B. 

      It is important for motor learning

    • C. 

      It has completed its structural and functional connectivity at the end of infancy

    • D. 

      It is an analagous structure to the cortex

  • 78. 
    Which of the following acts like a brake on a car?
    • A. 

      GTO

    • B. 

      Muscle spindle

    • C. 

      Joint receptors

    • D. 

      Cristae

  • 79. 
    The inferior cerebellar peduncle connects to the cerebellum to the:
    • A. 

      Spinal cord

    • B. 

      Medulla

    • C. 

      Midbrain

    • D. 

      Pons

  • 80. 
    Alpha gamma co-activation means that:
    • A. 

      In voluntary contraction, the alpha and gamma motor neurons receive cortical signals simultaneously

    • B. 

      In reflex contraction, the alpha and gamma motor neurons receive signals simultaneously

    • C. 

      Alpha activates gamma

    • D. 

      Gamma activates alpha

  • 81. 
    Most of the info traveling over inferior cerebellar peduncle is:
    • A. 

      Afferent

    • B. 

      Efferent

    • C. 

      From the cortex

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 82. 
    A disorder which starts in the middle of the grey matter of the spinal cord, near the remnant of the central canal would first damage which of the following:
    • A. 

      Discriminative touch gibers as they ascend to the cortex

    • B. 

      Proprioceptive fibers going to cerebellum

    • C. 

      Pain, temperature, and light touch fibers crossing

    • D. 

      No sensory deficits

  • 83. 
    Which two sensory systems have the most connectivity to the cerebelluM?
    • A. 

      Vestibulo-proprioceptive

    • B. 

      Somatosensory and vestibular

    • C. 

      Proprioceptive and somatosensory

    • D. 

      Vision and vestibular

  • 84. 
    Small diameter afferents tend to send info to the cortex via a pathway which:
    • A. 

      Is uncrossed

    • B. 

      Is direct and fast

    • C. 

      Has a large number of connections with brainstem reticular formation

    • D. 

      Does not have a thalamic relay

  • 85. 
    The cortex communicates with the cerebellum over the middle cerebellar peduncle containing fibers from the ____ as a relay station.
    • A. 

      Medulla

    • B. 

      Midbrain

    • C. 

      Pons

    • D. 

      Internal capsule

  • 86. 
    Info carried in the DCML is:
    • A. 

      Discriminative touch

    • B. 

      Pain/temp

    • C. 

      Proprioception (conscious)

    • D. 

      A&C

  • 87. 
    The granule cells of the cerebellar cortex have a specific characteristic which is:
    • A. 

      Large dendritic arborizations

    • B. 

      Inhibit purkinje cells, always

    • C. 

      Travel to the molecular layer where they bifurcate and synapse with many Purkinje cells

    • D. 

      They are not influenced by interneurons

  • 88. 
    Referral for a pt. who has brown-sequard syndrome at C7 on the right. Which of the following accurately desribes the sensory deficit:
    • A. 

      R side DCML loss, L side ALS loss

    • B. 

      R side anesthesia, loss of sensation below the lesion

    • C. 

      Left side anesthesia, contralateral loss below lesion

    • D. 

      Left side loss of DCML, right side ALS loss

  • 89. 
    Which of the following is a primary cerebellar function?
    • A. 

      Coordination

    • B. 

      Motor learning

    • C. 

      Balance

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 90. 
    The staggering deficit seen in a cerebellar lesion is called:
    • A. 

      Ataxia

    • B. 

      Spasticity

    • C. 

      Agnosia

    • D. 

      Apraxia

  • 91. 
    What is the distinguishing feature of Purkinje cells?
    • A. 

      Flask shaped cell body

    • B. 

      Large dendritic arborization

    • C. 

      Prominent axon

  • 92. 
    Does the cerebellum send outflow to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 93. 
    Which of the following statements about cerebellum is not true?
    • A. 

      Has no direct descending input to the spinal lower motor neuron

    • B. 

      It is important for motor learning

    • C. 

      It has completed its structural and functional connectivity at the end of infancy

    • D. 

      It is an analagous structure to the cortex

  • 94. 
    The striatum refers to:
    • A. 

      Portions of the basal ganglia

    • B. 

      Caudate

    • C. 

      Lentiform

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 95. 
    The inferior cerebellar peduncle connects to the cerebellum to the:
    • A. 

      Spinal cord

    • B. 

      Medulla

    • C. 

      Midbrain

    • D. 

      Pons

  • 96. 
    Most of the info traveling over inferior cerebellar peduncle is:
    • A. 

      Afferent

    • B. 

      Efferent

    • C. 

      From the cortex

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 97. 
    The basal ganglia planning circuit (complex loop) is associated with :
    • A. 

      Primary motor cortex

    • B. 

      Prefrontal association cortex

    • C. 

      Primary sensory cortex

    • D. 

      Direct descending path to LMN

  • 98. 
    Which two sensory systems have the most connectivity to the cerebelluM?
    • A. 

      Vestibulo-proprioceptive

    • B. 

      Somatosensory and vestibular

    • C. 

      Proprioceptive and somatosensory

    • D. 

      Vision and vestibular

  • 99. 
    In a classic stroke, there may be signs of Basal ganglia dysfunction because:
    • A. 

      The stroke primarily damages the BG

    • B. 

      Proximity of BG to internal capsule

    • C. 

      The pyramidal tract syndrome of stroke is due to BG damage

  • 100. 
    The cortex communicates with the cerebellum over the middle cerebellar peduncle containing fibers from the ____ as a relay station.
    • A. 

      Medulla

    • B. 

      Midbrain

    • C. 

      Pons

    • D. 

      Internal capsule

  • 101. 
    Hemiballismus is a disorder of which are:
    • A. 

      Cerebellum

    • B. 

      Sustantia nigra

    • C. 

      Subthalamus

    • D. 

      Primary motor cortex

  • 102. 
    The granule cells of the cerebellar cortex have a specific characteristic which is:
    • A. 

      Large dendritic arborizations

    • B. 

      Inhibit purkinje cells, always

    • C. 

      Travel to the molecular layer where they bifurcate and synapse with many Purkinje cells

    • D. 

      They are not influenced by interneurons

  • 103. 
    An intention tremor is associated with which area?
    • A. 

      Primary motor cortex

    • B. 

      Subtantia nigra

    • C. 

      Cerebellum

    • D. 

      Neostriatum

  • 104. 
    Which of the following is a primary cerebellar function?
    • A. 

      Coordination

    • B. 

      Motor learning

    • C. 

      Balance

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 105. 
    What does the cristae respond to?
    • A. 

      Linear acceleration

    • B. 

      Angular acceleration

  • 106. 
    The staggering deficit seen in a cerebellar lesion is called:
    • A. 

      Ataxia

    • B. 

      Spasticity

    • C. 

      Agnosia

    • D. 

      Apraxia

  • 107. 
    Nystagmus is characterizedby all of the following except:
    • A. 

      Fast eye movement

    • B. 

      Slow eye movement

    • C. 

      It is always a patholigic sign

    • D. 

      It is an adaptive response demonstrating neural links between head and eye movement

  • 108. 
    Does the cerebellum send outflow to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 109. 
    Where does the MLF synapse:
    • A. 

      On cranial nerves III, IV, VI

    • B. 

      With cortex

    • C. 

      With cranial nerve VIII

  • 110. 
    The striatum refers to:
    • A. 

      Portions of the basal ganglia

    • B. 

      Caudate

    • C. 

      Lentiform

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 111. 
    Many people complain of nausea with excessive spinning. This is explained by:
    • A. 

      MLF connections with the cortex

    • B. 

      MLF connections with reticular formation

    • C. 

      MLF connections with the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract

  • 112. 
    The basal ganglia planning circuit (complex loop) is associated with :
    • A. 

      Primary motor cortex

    • B. 

      Prefrontal association cortex

    • C. 

      Primary sensory cortex

    • D. 

      Direct descending path to LMN

  • 113. 
    Stimuli of the vestibular system influences the LMN directly through the ____ and indirectly through the ____________.
    • A. 

      Medial reticulospinal, lateral corticospinal

    • B. 

      Rubrospinal, lateral corticospinal

    • C. 

      Lateral vestibulospinal, recticulospinal

    • D. 

      Lateral vestibulospinal, tectospinal

  • 114. 
    In a classic stroke, there may be signs of Basal ganglia dysfunction because:
    • A. 

      The stroke primarily damages the BG

    • B. 

      Proximity of BG to internal capsule

    • C. 

      The pyramidal tract syndrome of stroke is due to BG damage

  • 115. 
    Pain and temperature carried over unmyelinated fibers would be carried over:
    • A. 

      Ia

    • B. 

      II

    • C. 

      A beta

    • D. 

      A delta/C

  • 116. 
    Hemiballismus is a disorder of which are:
    • A. 

      Cerebellum

    • B. 

      Sustantia nigra

    • C. 

      Subthalamus

    • D. 

      Primary motor cortex

  • 117. 
    An intention tremor is associated with which area?
    • A. 

      Primary motor cortex

    • B. 

      Subtantia nigra

    • C. 

      Cerebellum

    • D. 

      Neostriatum

  • 118. 
    The membrane potential at the sensory receptor is:
    • A. 

      Local

    • B. 

      Non-propagated

    • C. 

      Can be summated

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 119. 
    What does the cristae respond to?
    • A. 

      Linear acceleration

    • B. 

      Angular acceleration

  • 120. 
    Nystagmus is characterizedby all of the following except:
    • A. 

      Fast eye movement

    • B. 

      Slow eye movement

    • C. 

      It is always a patholigic sign

    • D. 

      It is an adaptive response demonstrating neural links between head and eye movement

  • 121. 
    The gate theory of pain:
    • A. 

      Involves pre-synaptic inhibition

    • B. 

      Is characterized by small diameter afferent stimulation opening the gate

    • C. 

      Is characterized by large diameter afferent stimulation closing the gate

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 122. 
    Where does the MLF synapse:
    • A. 

      On cranial nerves III, IV, VI

    • B. 

      With cortex

    • C. 

      With cranial nerve VIII

  • 123. 
    The experience of pain is:
    • A. 

      Completely explained by the gate theory

    • B. 

      Somewhat explained by the gate theory, especially with respect to segmental mechanisms

    • C. 

      Not involved with neurotrasmitters and higher centers

    • D. 

      Entirely a subjective individual experience with no neural basis

  • 124. 
    Many people complain of nausea with excessive spinning. This is explained by:
    • A. 

      MLF connections with the cortex

    • B. 

      MLF connections with reticular formation

    • C. 

      MLF connections with the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract

  • 125. 
    Stimuli of the vestibular system influences the LMN directly through the ____ and indirectly through the ____________.
    • A. 

      Medial reticulospinal, lateral corticospinal

    • B. 

      Rubrospinal, lateral corticospinal

    • C. 

      Lateral vestibulospinal, recticulospinal

    • D. 

      Lateral vestibulospinal, tectospinal

  • 126. 
    The intervention for a hyperactive gag reflex, from a neural perspective, would involve:
    • A. 

      Stimulation of large diameter afferents

    • B. 

      Stimulation of small diameter afferents

    • C. 

      Avoidance of sensory stimulation of the tongue

    • D. 

      None of the above, the problem is managed surgically

  • 127. 
    Pain and temperature carried over unmyelinated fibers would be carried over:
    • A. 

      Ia

    • B. 

      II

    • C. 

      A beta

    • D. 

      A delta/C

  • 128. 
    Where does the DCML cross?
    • A. 

      Spinal cord at or near segment of entry

    • B. 

      In the medulla

    • C. 

      At the thalamus

    • D. 

      In the internal capsule

  • 129. 
    The fact that there are synpatic relationships between motor neuron pools of agaonist and antagonist mucles is called:
    • A. 

      Reciprocal innervation

    • B. 

      Descending control

    • C. 

      Central pattern control

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 130. 
    Fibers in the ALS synapse and cross
    • A. 

      At or near segment of entry in the spinal cord

    • B. 

      In the medulla

    • C. 

      In the thalamus

    • D. 

      In the internal capsule

  • 131. 
    The membrane potential at the sensory receptor is:
    • A. 

      Local

    • B. 

      Non-propagated

    • C. 

      Can be summated

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 132. 
    The third order neuron in the pathway carrying sensory info from the body to the contralateral cerebral cortex is always in the:
    • A. 

      Medulla

    • B. 

      Midbrain

    • C. 

      Thalamus

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 133. 
    Pre-synpatic inhibition is characterized by all of the following except:
    • A. 

      Axo-axonic synapse

    • B. 

      IPSP

    • C. 

      3 neuron sequence

    • D. 

      Calcium mediated mechanism

  • 134. 
    The reason that small diameter afferent stimulation (pain, itch, tickle) can change our level or arousal or make us feel sick is:
    • A. 

      The ALS is a direct pathway to the cortex with no synapses

    • B. 

      The ALS is actually made up of spinothalamic AND spinoreticular fibers

    • C. 

      There are connections of the DCML with reticular neurons

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 135. 
    The gate theory of pain:
    • A. 

      Involves pre-synaptic inhibition

    • B. 

      Is characterized by small diameter afferent stimulation opening the gate

    • C. 

      Is characterized by large diameter afferent stimulation closing the gate

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 136. 
    A child with ADD will often have some deficit in:
    • A. 

      Primary afferent depolarization

    • B. 

      Intelligence

    • C. 

      Language

    • D. 

      Motor skill

  • 137. 
    The experience of pain is:
    • A. 

      Completely explained by the gate theory

    • B. 

      Somewhat explained by the gate theory, especially with respect to segmental mechanisms

    • C. 

      Not involved with neurotrasmitters and higher centers

    • D. 

      Entirely a subjective individual experience with no neural basis

  • 138. 
    The circuitry for the gate theory of pain is in the:
    • A. 

      Dorsal horn, substantia gelatinosa

    • B. 

      Dorsal horn, nucleus dorsalis

    • C. 

      Vestibular nuclei of the brainstem

    • D. 

      Ventral horn, near the motor neuron

  • 139. 
    The intervention for a hyperactive gag reflex, from a neural perspective, would involve:
    • A. 

      Stimulation of large diameter afferents

    • B. 

      Stimulation of small diameter afferents

    • C. 

      Avoidance of sensory stimulation of the tongue

    • D. 

      None of the above, the problem is managed surgically

  • 140. 
    Dyspraxia is:
    • A. 

      Distortion of body image

    • B. 

      Inability to attach meaning to sensory inputs

    • C. 

      Inability to plan and execute a motor act in the absence of primary sensory or motor deficit

    • D. 

      An input/output deficitl NOT a central processing deficit

  • 141. 
    Where does the DCML cross?
    • A. 

      Spinal cord at or near segment of entry

    • B. 

      In the medulla

    • C. 

      At the thalamus

    • D. 

      In the internal capsule

  • 142. 
    Agnosia is:
    • A. 

      Unilateral disregard

    • B. 

      Inability to plan and execute a motor act

    • C. 

      Inability to attach meaning to sensory input

    • D. 

      A primary sensory deficit

  • 143. 
    Fibers in the ALS synapse and cross
    • A. 

      At or near segment of entry in the spinal cord

    • B. 

      In the medulla

    • C. 

      In the thalamus

    • D. 

      In the internal capsule

  • 144. 
    If a client had a gross unilateral disregard and distortion of body image following a brain injury, there is likely damage to the:
    • A. 

      Frontal lobe

    • B. 

      Occipital

    • C. 

      Temporal

    • D. 

      Parietal

  • 145. 
    The third order neuron in the pathway carrying sensory info from the body to the contralateral cerebral cortex is always in the:
    • A. 

      Medulla

    • B. 

      Midbrain

    • C. 

      Thalamus

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 146. 
    Which of the following statements about lower motor neurons is NOT true?
    • A. 

      Final common pathway

    • B. 

      Located in ventral horn of spinal cord

    • C. 

      Are not necessary for movement to occur

    • D. 

      Innervate a group of muscle fibers known as a motor unit

  • 147. 
    The reason that small diameter afferent stimulation (pain, itch, tickle) can change our level or arousal or make us feel sick is:
    • A. 

      The ALS is a direct pathway to the cortex with no synapses

    • B. 

      The ALS is actually made up of spinothalamic AND spinoreticular fibers

    • C. 

      There are connections of the DCML with reticular neurons

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 148. 
    Central pattern generators are:
    • A. 

      Flexible networks of neurons that are characterized by alternate bursts of firing

    • B. 

      The neural networks that produce reflexive movements

    • C. 

      Central sources of elevtrical energy to lower motor neuron

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 149. 
    A child with ADD will often have some deficit in:
    • A. 

      Primary afferent depolarization

    • B. 

      Intelligence

    • C. 

      Language

    • D. 

      Motor skill

  • 150. 
    The primary functional significance of the organization of the spinal cord circuitry as in CPGs and reflex circuits is:
    • A. 

      Automatic movement

    • B. 

      Nearly all movements have a relfexive component

    • C. 

      Efficiency of motor program

    • D. 

      A and C

  • 151. 
    The circuitry for the gate theory of pain is in the:
    • A. 

      Dorsal horn, substantia gelatinosa

    • B. 

      Dorsal horn, nucleus dorsalis

    • C. 

      Vestibular nuclei of the brainstem

    • D. 

      Ventral horn, near the motor neuron

  • 152. 
    In classic studies of descending influences on the LMN, which is NOT a facilitator of extensors:
    • A. 

      Rubrospinal

    • B. 

      Pontine Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • D. 

      All of these facilitate extensors

  • 153. 
    Dyspraxia is:
    • A. 

      Distortion of body image

    • B. 

      Inability to attach meaning to sensory inputs

    • C. 

      Inability to plan and execute a motor act in the absence of primary sensory or motor deficit

    • D. 

      An input/output deficitl NOT a central processing deficit

  • 154. 
    The lateral vestibulospinal pathway:
    • A. 

      Originates in the lateral vestibular nucleus

    • B. 

      Is often activated during linear acceleration

    • C. 

      Is ispislateral

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 155. 
    Agnosia is:
    • A. 

      Unilateral disregard

    • B. 

      Inability to plan and execute a motor act

    • C. 

      Inability to attach meaning to sensory input

    • D. 

      A primary sensory deficit

  • 156. 
    The lower lateral or medullary reticulospinal pathway does not:
    • A. 

      Release cortical dirve to exert its influence

    • B. 

      Release extension for flexion

    • C. 

      Act in the absence of corticoreticular connections

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 157. 
    If a client had a gross unilateral disregard and distortion of body image following a brain injury, there is likely damage to the:
    • A. 

      Frontal lobe

    • B. 

      Occipital

    • C. 

      Temporal

    • D. 

      Parietal

  • 158. 
    Cells of origin for the lateral corticospinal tract that will travel to the lumbar spinal cord, connecting with motor neurons to leg muscles originate in:
    • A. 

      Lateral surface frontal lobe

    • B. 

      Vestibular nuclei

    • C. 

      Medial surface frontal lobe

    • D. 

      Pre-frontal cortex

  • 159. 
    The corticospinal tract crosses in:
    • A. 

      Crus cerebri

    • B. 

      Basilar pons

    • C. 

      Pyramids of medulla

    • D. 

      Spinal cord

  • 160. 
    Central pattern generators are:
    • A. 

      Flexible networks of neurons that are characterized by alternate bursts of firing

    • B. 

      The neural networks that produce reflexive movements

    • C. 

      Central sources of elevtrical energy to lower motor neuron

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 161. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of corticobulbar fibers:
    • A. 

      Are mostly bilateral

    • B. 

      Run outside or lateral to corticospinal fibers

    • C. 

      Run inside or medial to corticospinal fibers

    • D. 

      Provide cortical control to somatic muscles of the face

  • 162. 
    The primary functional significance of the organization of the spinal cord circuitry as in CPGs and reflex circuits is:
    • A. 

      Automatic movement

    • B. 

      Nearly all movements have a relfexive component

    • C. 

      Efficiency of motor program

    • D. 

      A and C

  • 163. 
    The classic stroke is a capsular lesion. Creating contralateral hemiplegia from the cortical lesion is unusual because:
    • A. 

      Two different blood supplies would be involved

    • B. 

      The cortex is spared in hemorrhagic insult

    • C. 

      There are no upper motor neurons originating in the cortex

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 164. 
    In classic studies of descending influences on the LMN, which is NOT a facilitator of extensors:
    • A. 

      Rubrospinal

    • B. 

      Pontine Reticulospinal

    • C. 

      Vestibulospinal

    • D. 

      All of these facilitate extensors

  • 165. 
    A clasp knife reflex refers to:
    • A. 

      The resistance to stretch throughout the range of motion

    • B. 

      How resistance to stretch melts away in slow elongation

    • C. 

      A lower motor neuron problem

    • D. 

      Running when someone draws a knife on you

  • 166. 
    The lateral vestibulospinal pathway:
    • A. 

      Originates in the lateral vestibular nucleus

    • B. 

      Is often activated during linear acceleration

    • C. 

      Is ispislateral

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 167. 
    A babinski is:
    • A. 

      Upgoing toes

    • B. 

      Repsonse to plantar tactile stimulation

    • C. 

      Not normal after the age of 2 years

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 168. 
    The lower lateral or medullary reticulospinal pathway does not:
    • A. 

      Release cortical dirve to exert its influence

    • B. 

      Release extension for flexion

    • C. 

      Act in the absence of corticoreticular connections

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 169. 
    Which of the following is NOT correct with Brown-Sequard syndrome?
    • A. 

      Ipsilateral upper motor neuron signs below the lesion due to the fact that the lateral corticospinal tract has been damaged

    • B. 

      Ipsilateral loss of discriminative touch due to uncrossed DCML

    • C. 

      Ipsilateral loss of pain and temp due to ALS

    • D. 

      Loss of sensation and motor function AT segment due to destruction of tissue

  • 170. 
    Cells of origin for the lateral corticospinal tract that will travel to the lumbar spinal cord, connecting with motor neurons to leg muscles originate in:
    • A. 

      Lateral surface frontal lobe

    • B. 

      Vestibular nuclei

    • C. 

      Medial surface frontal lobe

    • D. 

      Pre-frontal cortex

  • 171. 
    Which lobe of cerebellum is associated with motor coordination and learning?
    • A. 

      Anterior

    • B. 

      Posterior

    • C. 

      Flocculonodular

  • 172. 
    The corticospinal tract crosses in:
    • A. 

      Crus cerebri

    • B. 

      Basilar pons

    • C. 

      Pyramids of medulla

    • D. 

      Spinal cord

  • 173. 
    The cortex sends ____ fibers to the pons which then sends pontocerebellar fibers to the cerebellum via the ___.
    • A. 

      Corticospinal, inferior cerebellar peduncle

    • B. 

      Vestibular, middle cerebellar peduncle

    • C. 

      Corticopontine, middle cerebellar peduncle

    • D. 

      None of theses

  • 174. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of corticobulbar fibers:
    • A. 

      Are mostly bilateral

    • B. 

      Run outside or lateral to corticospinal fibers

    • C. 

      Run inside or medial to corticospinal fibers

    • D. 

      Provide cortical control to somatic muscles of the face

  • 175. 
    The classic stroke is a capsular lesion. Creating contralateral hemiplegia from the cortical lesion is unusual because:
    • A. 

      Two different blood supplies would be involved

    • B. 

      The cortex is spared in hemorrhagic insult

    • C. 

      There are no upper motor neurons originating in the cortex

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 176. 
    The cerebellum has direct descending input to the lower motor neuron.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 177. 
    A clasp knife reflex refers to:
    • A. 

      The resistance to stretch throughout the range of motion

    • B. 

      How resistance to stretch melts away in slow elongation

    • C. 

      A lower motor neuron problem

    • D. 

      Running when someone draws a knife on you

  • 178. 
    Cerebellar functions/dysfunctions are:
    • A. 

      Ipsilateral

    • B. 

      Bilateral

    • C. 

      Contralateral

  • 179. 
    A babinski is:
    • A. 

      Upgoing toes

    • B. 

      Repsonse to plantar tactile stimulation

    • C. 

      Not normal after the age of 2 years

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 180. 
    The cerebeullum is critical in motor control for:
    • A. 

      Comparator

    • B. 

      Motor learning

    • C. 

      Skilled, coordinated movement

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 181. 
    Which of the following is NOT correct with Brown-Sequard syndrome?
    • A. 

      Ipsilateral upper motor neuron signs below the lesion due to the fact that the lateral corticospinal tract has been damaged

    • B. 

      Ipsilateral loss of discriminative touch due to uncrossed DCML

    • C. 

      Ipsilateral loss of pain and temp due to ALS

    • D. 

      Loss of sensation and motor function AT segment due to destruction of tissue

  • 182. 
    The cerebellum influences the cortex through the VL of thalamus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 183. 
    Which lobe of cerebellum is associated with motor coordination and learning?
    • A. 

      Anterior

    • B. 

      Posterior

    • C. 

      Flocculonodular

  • 184. 
    Cerebellar outflow arises from:
    • A. 

      Deep nuclei

    • B. 

      Purkinje cells

    • C. 

      Granule cells

    • D. 

      Golgi cells

  • 185. 
    The juxtarestiform body of the inferior cerebellar peduncle contains primarily fibers associated with:
    • A. 

      Vestibular system

    • B. 

      Cortical relay

    • C. 

      Spinal cord

    • D. 

      Contralateral olive

  • 186. 
    The cells which give rise to processes which go into the molecular layer, bifurcate and run like phone wires are:
    • A. 

      Golgi cells

    • B. 

      Granule cells

    • C. 

      Purkinje cells

    • D. 

      Mossy fibers

  • 187. 
    The cortex sends ____ fibers to the pons which then sends pontocerebellar fibers to the cerebellum via the ___.
    • A. 

      Corticospinal, inferior cerebellar peduncle

    • B. 

      Vestibular, middle cerebellar peduncle

    • C. 

      Corticopontine, middle cerebellar peduncle

    • D. 

      None of theses

  • 188. 
    The basal ganglia functionally consist of the following except:
    • A. 

      Substantia nigra

    • B. 

      Caudate nucleus

    • C. 

      Lentiform nucleus

    • D. 

      Corpus callosum

  • 189. 
    The cerebellum has direct descending input to the lower motor neuron.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 190. 
    The neostriatum is comprised of:
    • A. 

      Substantia nigra and putamen

    • B. 

      Caudate and putamen

    • C. 

      Putamen and globus pallidus

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 191. 
    Cerebellar functions/dysfunctions are:
    • A. 

      Ipsilateral

    • B. 

      Bilateral

    • C. 

      Contralateral

  • 192. 
    Which important structure forms a border for key basal ganglia areas?
    • A. 

      Corpus callosum

    • B. 

      Internal capsule

    • C. 

      Crus cerebri

    • D. 

      Parahippocampal gyrus

  • 193. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of the motor circuit of the basal ganglia?
    • A. 

      Originates in the cortical areas

    • B. 

      Passes through the VA of the thalamus

    • C. 

      Is it not important in handwriting and scaling of movement

    • D. 

      All of theses are true

  • 194. 
    The cerebeullum is critical in motor control for:
    • A. 

      Comparator

    • B. 

      Motor learning

    • C. 

      Skilled, coordinated movement

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 195. 
    The neurotransmitter in the striatonigral circuit is:
    • A. 

      Norepinephrine

    • B. 

      Dopamine

    • C. 

      Acetylcholine

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 196. 
    The cerebellum influences the cortex through the VL of thalamus
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 197. 
    The term extrapyramidal refers to:
    • A. 

      Motor systems of cerebeullum and basal ganglia

    • B. 

      Segmental spinal cord circuits

    • C. 

      Cross-hemispheral cortical connections

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 198. 
    Cerebellar outflow arises from:
    • A. 

      Deep nuclei

    • B. 

      Purkinje cells

    • C. 

      Granule cells

    • D. 

      Golgi cells

  • 199. 
    The pathway carrying paun and temperature from the face is:
    • A. 

      ALS

    • B. 

      Ventral trigeminothalamic

    • C. 

      Dorsal trigeminothalamic

  • 200. 
    Afferent info to the cerebellum from peripheral proprioceptors is:
    • A. 

      Carried over the cuneocerebellar tract which is for LE

    • B. 

      Carried over the dorsal spinocerebellar tract for UE

    • C. 

      Carried over the cuneocerebellar tract for UE

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 201. 
    The cells which give rise to processes which go into the molecular layer, bifurcate and run like phone wires are:
    • A. 

      Golgi cells

    • B. 

      Granule cells

    • C. 

      Purkinje cells

    • D. 

      Mossy fibers

  • 202. 
    A basilar artery stroke damaging descending corticospinal fibers would:
    • A. 

      Cause contralateral upper motor neuron signs below the lesion

    • B. 

      Cause ipsilateral upper motor neuron signs below the lesion

    • C. 

      Likely cause lower motor damage to cranial nerve nuclei

    • D. 

      A & C

  • 203. 
    The basal ganglia functionally consist of the following except:
    • A. 

      Substantia nigra

    • B. 

      Caudate nucleus

    • C. 

      Lentiform nucleus

    • D. 

      Corpus callosum

  • 204. 
    Which of the following is indicative of the most severe brain injury?
    • A. 

      Positive Babinski

    • B. 

      Decorticate rigidity

    • C. 

      Decerebrate rigidity

    • D. 

      Hyper-reflexia

  • 205. 
    The neostriatum is comprised of:
    • A. 

      Substantia nigra and putamen

    • B. 

      Caudate and putamen

    • C. 

      Putamen and globus pallidus

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 206. 
    The basal ganglua help initiate movement through:
    • A. 

      Forming the goal

    • B. 

      Adjusting the postural set

    • C. 

      Sensory awareness

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 207. 
    Which important structure forms a border for key basal ganglia areas?
    • A. 

      Corpus callosum

    • B. 

      Internal capsule

    • C. 

      Crus cerebri

    • D. 

      Parahippocampal gyrus

  • 208. 
    Which of the following is NOT true of the motor circuit of the basal ganglia?
    • A. 

      Originates in the cortical areas

    • B. 

      Passes through the VA of the thalamus

    • C. 

      Is it not important in handwriting and scaling of movement

    • D. 

      All of theses are true

  • 209. 
    The neurotransmitter in the striatonigral circuit is:
    • A. 

      Norepinephrine

    • B. 

      Dopamine

    • C. 

      Acetylcholine

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 210. 
    The term extrapyramidal refers to:
    • A. 

      Motor systems of cerebeullum and basal ganglia

    • B. 

      Segmental spinal cord circuits

    • C. 

      Cross-hemispheral cortical connections

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 211. 
    Afferent info to the cerebellum from peripheral proprioceptors is:
    • A. 

      Carried over the cuneocerebellar tract which is for LE

    • B. 

      Carried over the dorsal spinocerebellar tract for UE

    • C. 

      Carried over the cuneocerebellar tract for UE

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 212. 
    A basilar artery stroke damaging descending corticospinal fibers would:
    • A. 

      Cause contralateral upper motor neuron signs below the lesion

    • B. 

      Cause ipsilateral upper motor neuron signs below the lesion

    • C. 

      Likely cause lower motor damage to cranial nerve nuclei

    • D. 

      A & C

  • 213. 
    Which of the following is indicative of the most severe brain injury?
    • A. 

      Positive Babinski

    • B. 

      Decorticate rigidity

    • C. 

      Decerebrate rigidity

    • D. 

      Hyper-reflexia

  • 214. 
    The basal ganglua help initiate movement through:
    • A. 

      Forming the goal

    • B. 

      Adjusting the postural set

    • C. 

      Sensory awareness

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 215. 
    Reciprocal innervation is:
    • A. 

      Typical circuitry in spinal motor mechanisms

    • B. 

      Mediates facilitation of agonist alpha motor neuron and inhibition of antagonist

    • C. 

      Mediated by interneurons in inhibitory circuits

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 216. 
    The primary role is:
    • A. 

      Sensory relay station

    • B. 

      Important subcortical motor control center

    • C. 

      Source of corticospinal neurons

    • D. 

      Contains upper motor neurons

  • 217. 
    In doing a test of proprioception, asking a person to match the position of the involved limb is:
    • A. 

      A high level test

    • B. 

      Requires language processing

    • C. 

      Should never be the first test of proprioception

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 218. 
    In order to have a total contralateral sensory deficit, the lesion must be minimally:
    • A. 

      In the spianl cord

    • B. 

      Above the medulla

    • C. 

      Above the brainstem

    • D. 

      In the cortex

  • 219. 
    Primary sensory cortex 3,1,2 is:
    • A. 

      A source of cells for the corticospinal tract

    • B. 

      Responsible for giving meaning to sensation

    • C. 

      Responsible for registration and localization of sensory info

    • D. 

      A&C

  • 220. 
    The descending corticospinal pathway mediates which functions primarily?
    • A. 

      Goal directed initiation, especially of the hand

    • B. 

      Posture and muscle tone

    • C. 

      Reflexes

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 221. 
    Corticobulbar fibers are:
    • A. 

      Primarily crossed

    • B. 

      Primarily uncrossed

    • C. 

      Bilateral, with few exceptions

    • D. 

      Arising from the brainstem

  • 222. 
    A vascular injury in the spinal cord hemorrhages from the midline out. In the lateral corticospinal tract, the fibers first involved in this injury would be:
    • A. 

      To upper extremities

    • B. 

      To lower extremities

    • C. 

      To trunk

    • D. 

      To contralateral lower extremities

  • 223. 
    Central pattern generators in motor control are:
    • A. 

      Involved with alternating movements as in gait

    • B. 

      Part of the circuitry that allows movement to be automatic

    • C. 

      Flexible networks of local circuitry

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 224. 
    The dorsal spinocerebellar pathway contains which type of sensory info?
    • A. 

      Conscious proprioception

    • B. 

      Unconscious proprioception

    • C. 

      Perception of position and movement in space

    • D. 

      Vestibular information

  • 225. 
    The cuneocerebellar pathway contains:
    • A. 

      Unconscious proprioception from the UE

    • B. 

      Unconscious proprioception from the LE

    • C. 

      Conscious proprioception from the UE

    • D. 

      Conscious proprioception from the LE

  • 226. 
    The Purkinje cells of the cerebellum:
    • A. 

      Have large dendritic arborizations

    • B. 

      Are inhibitory to deep nuclei

    • C. 

      Are located in a specifid layer of the cerebellar cortex

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 227. 
    Which of the following is most likely to exhibit upper and lower motor neuron signs?
    • A. 

      Polio

    • B. 

      SMA

    • C. 

      ALS

    • D. 

      Guillain Barre

  • 228. 
    Which of the following treatments of spasticity would be MOST likely to have systemic effects?
    • A. 

      Intrathecal Baclofen

    • B. 

      Oral Baclofen

    • C. 

      Bo-Tox

    • D. 

      Orthopedic Surgery

  • 229. 
    A post-syphilis condition known as tabetic ataxia attacks the dorsal columns of the spinal cord. The deficit which would results is:
    • A. 

      Bilateral loss of pain and temperature

    • B. 

      Bilateral loss of touch

    • C. 

      Bilateral loss of proprioceptive awareness and decrease in touch

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 230. 
    The lateral corticospinal tract is found in the:
    • A. 

      Dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord

    • B. 

      Lateral funiculus of the spinal cord

    • C. 

      Anterior funiculus of the spinal cord

    • D. 

      Grey matter of the spianl cord

  • 231. 
    In the dorsal spinocerebellar pathway, neuron number 2 is where?
    • A. 

      Nucleus Cuneatus

    • B. 

      Nucleus dorsalis of Clarke

    • C. 

      Crus cerebri