Occur in brittle materials
Generally follow the Elastic Rebound Theory
Get larger by generating more high frequency (short period) waves.
Are a major potential hazard for Seattle, Washington (Pacific Northwest).
Are all of the above (i.e., all of the above are true).
A. Earthquakes can only occur very near the surface of the Earth.
B. The rocks of the crust are ductile.
C. The mantle and lower lithosphere are fluid.
D. The rocks of the mantle are brittle.
E. For some other reason; i.e., none of the above describe the situation.
A. travel faster than P waves.
B. can have high amplitudes and accelerations.
C. can cause considerable damage by shaking things vertically.
D. are also called S-waves.
E. none of the above are true.
A. an intensity map to see how big the earthquake was.
B. an intensity map to see what parts of the city had more damage.
C. a magnitude map to see where the damage was the greatest.
D. a magnitude map to measure shaking.
E. None of the above are useful.
A. (1) energy; (2) ground motion
B. (1) damage; (2) energy
C. (1) energy; (2) damage
D. (1) ground motion; (2) acceleration
E. (1) damage; (2) ground motion
A. “I barely felt the ground shake so it was probably 2 or 3.”
B. “I’ll have to check the seismograph and calculate the moment first.”
C. “Magnitude and intensity generally have the same value, so 6”
D. “Intensity is measured at the source, and a lot of damage occurred there, so I guess about an 8.”
E. “It’s really large on the seismograph, probably a 7.”
A. (1) 2; (2) 32
B (1) 32; (2) 10
C. (1) 10; (2) 32
D. (1) 100; (2) 1000
E. (1) 1000; (2) 100
A. southwestern style house made of adobe (clay and mortar).
B. wooden shack overlooking the coast.
C. single story brick house.
D. single story wooden frame house.
E. prefabricated concrete slab house.
A. (1) small, (2) active
B. (1) small, (2) inactive
C. (1) large, (2) active
D. (1) large, (2) inactive
E. none of the above; we can now shut down the monitoring network.
A. The plate boundary here was thought to be decoupled, thus only yielding moderate sized earthquakes.
B. The seismic gap was not very large.
C. Subduction was not thought to be going on in this area.
D. There had been no earthquakes rated M 9 in the area in recorded history.
E. Because of both a and d
A. Bare rock, because surface waves travel through it.
B. Bare rock, because waves are amplified.
C. Loose sediments, because waves are amplified.
D. Loose sediments, because S-waves propagate through them.
E. Neither, they both shake about the same.
A. can continue for months or even years.
b. define the approximate area of the fault that ruptured (or broke).
C. generally are fairly small – 2 to 4 magnitudes or more smaller than the main shock.
D. represent stress readjustments on the fault plane.
E. are all of the above.
A. stretching of the crust.
B. formation of small cracks under stress.
C. increase of stress in rocks.
D. movement of magma underground.
E. none of the above
A. About 2050 with a magnitude of about 6.
B. About 2100 with a magnitude of about 8.
C. About 2100 with a magnitude of about 6.
D. About 2150 with a magnitude of about 8.
E. About 2150 with a magnitude of about 6
A. a region where earthquakes do not occur.
B. a region where a large earthquake has not occurred in a long time.
C. a fault along which creep movements occur.
D. a region whose seismic moment has passed.
E. none of the above.
A. No direct cause and effect relationship has been demonstrated between animals and earthquakes.
B. Fish behavior is a good predictor of earthquakes.
C. Cats and dogs (and other mammal pets) run away more frequently prior to earthquakes.
D. Many different kinds of animals have been well documented to predict earthquakes.
E. c and d are both true.
A. are felt over a greater area because energy travels farther.
B. are generally larger than elsewhere.
C. have more horizontal vibrations.
D. have bigger fault displacements (movement).
E. are both a and b.
A. Native American legends.
B. tsunami records in northeast Japan.
C. dating of dead trees in the Seattle area.5
D. discovery of tsunami sand deposits.
E. All of the above were used to reach this conclusion
A. vertical support rods
B. inflexible joints
D. construction on sandy soils
E. none of the above will help
A. a building is shaken very quickly
B. earthquakes shake buildings at a frequency that causes them to sway more.
C. water weakens the ground causing it to vibrate more.
D. the acceleration exceeds a critical value.
E. something else happens (i.e., none of the above).
A. involve movement of the entire water layer, while wind only affects the top of the ocean.
B. involve the movement of the top 200 meters (125 feet) of the water layer, while wind only affects the top 10 or 20 meters (6 to 12 feet).
C. involve the movement of the bottom of the water layer, except when they reach shore.
D. primarily move up and down, while water waves move side to side.
E. are due to tides.
A. A large underwater volcanic eruption.
B. A large coastal landslide.
C. An asteroid impact into the ocean.
D. An underwater strike-slip faulting earthquake.
E. The collapse of the side of a volcanic island.
A. get in a car and start driving for the hills.
B. go out on to the beach as it’s a good time to look at the creatures in the sand.
C. run for the higher ground.
D. go to the upper floors of your modern concrete hotel.
E. find a surfboard – good breaking waves are coming, so try to ride it out.
A. Yes, they would have given ample time for the residents to evacuate.
B. Maybe, but they would only have given at most 30 minutes warning.
C. No, since they can only detect a tsunami after it forms, and that would have been too late for much of the Japan coast.
D. No, they can only detect tsunamis after they have traveled several hours.
E. Yes, although they can only detect tsunamis that are more than 20 meters high in the open ocean, but in Japan they were higher.
A. can be triggered by infiltration of water.
B. are almost always very fast.
C. are often triggered on steep road cuts.
D. are classified by the nature of movement.
E. are all of the above (i.e., all of the above are true).