Effects Of Marijuana On Brain Function

8 Questions | Total Attempts: 23

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Effects Of Marijuana On Brain Function

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Instructions:
    1. Take your time.
    2. Watch all videos and read each article presented before continuing to the next questions. 
    3. When finished please be patient while others finish.
  • 2. 
           Wayne Hall, a professor and director of the Center for Youth Substance Abuse Research at the University of Queensland in Australia, examined scientific evidence on marijuana's health effects between 1993 and 2013.The risk of using marijuana  
    • It's likely that middle-age people who smoke marijuana regularly are at an increased risk of experiencing a heart attack, according to the report. 
    • Regular cannabis users also double their risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms and disorders such as disordered thinking, hallucinations and delusions.
    • In a study of more than 50,000 young men in Sweden, those who had used marijuana 10 or more times by age 18 were about two times more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia within the next 15 years than those who had not used the drug.
        More THC?       The effects of euphoria that cannabis users seek from the drug come primarily from its psychoactive ingredient, called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, better known as THC, Hall wrote in the review. During the past 30 years, the THC content of marijuana in the United States has jumped from less than 2 percent in 1980 to 8.5 percent in 2006.        The THC content of the drug has also likely increased in other developed countries, Hall wrote in the report. It is not clear, however, whether increased THC content may have an effect on users' health, the report said.        Some argue that there would be no increase in harm, if users adjusted their doses of the drug and used less of the more potent cannabis products to get the same psychological effects they seek, Hall said.       However, "the limited evidence suggests that users do not completely adjust dose for potency, and so probably get larger doses of THC than used to be the case," Hall said. Blaszaczak-Boxe, A. (2014, 10 6). Marijuana and your health: What 20 years of reasearch revaeals . Retrieved             from Live Sceience : http://www.livescience.com/48171-marijuana-research-health-effects-review.html  
  • 3. 
    Benefit #7: THC may slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease         Marijuana may be able to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a study led by Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute suggests.       The 2006 study, published in the journal Molecular Pharmaceutics, found that THC, the active chemical in marijuana, slows the formation of amyloid plaques by blocking the enzyme in the brain that makes them. These plaques seem to be what kill brain cells and potentially cause Alzheimer's.       A synthetic mixture of CBD and THC seem to preserve memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Another study suggested that in population-based studies, a THC-based prescription drug called dronabinol was able to reduce behavioral disturbances in dementia patients.       Welsh, K. L. (2015, 4 20). 21 medical benefits of marijuana . Retrieved from Business Insider : http://www.businessinsider.com/facts-on-marijuana-and-health-2015-4/#ed-can-be-used-to-treat-glaucoma-1
  • 4. 
    Please watch the video and proceed. 
  • 5. 
    Cannabinoids (an active ingredient in marijuana) temporarily remove the refractory period of Neurons in some parts of the brain causing them to continually fire. What can this result in? 
    • A. 

      Apoptosis

    • B. 

      Difficulty with spatial skills

    • C. 

      Uncontrollable momentum of thoughts and epiphanies that are difficult recall.

    • D. 

      Decreased action potentials

  • 6. 
    According to the study conducted by Dr. Jada the chemical compound 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) found in marijuana may be able to slow the progression of which disease? 
    • A. 

      Parkinson's

    • B. 

      Alzheimer's

    • C. 

      Staph infection

    • D. 

      Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • 7. 
    According to Hall’s study what disorder are regular cannabis users twice as likely to develop than non? 
    • A. 

      Schizophrenia

    • B. 

      Delirium

    • C. 

      Hallucinations

    • D. 

      Gluacoma

  • 8. 
    Marijuana consumption can temporarily alter functions of cannabinoid receptors in the body which play a role in which of the following: 
    • A. 

      Processing of spatial information.

    • B. 

      Vision, bodily sensations, and auditory functions.

    • C. 

      Short-term memory & learning, coordination, movement control, and higher cognitive functions.

    • D. 

      Long-term memory and brain plasticity.

  • 9. 
           Maybe you, like me, decided at some point in your life that you'd had enough of soft drugs for a while. Whether this was the beginning of a smoke-free existence or just a hopeless case of hubris is irrelevant here; the point is that you stopped smoking weed for a bit. When you did, you probably also experienced a plethora of positive effects: You felt more energetic, found it easier to remember things, and stopped spending $20 a day on cheeseburgers and Doritos.       A few days after I quit smoking weed for the first time, I started dreaming again and those dreams seemed more vivid than ever. I realized that as a stoner, I actually hardly ever dreamt at all, and that the few dreams I had weren't half as intense as my dreams these days. What's up with that?       I decided to call Dr. Hans Hamburger, neurologist, somnologist (sleep expert), and head of Holland Sleep Research—a specialist research center for sleep disorders in the Netherlands.       According to Hamburger, this resurgence of dreams is common among former smokers; weed suppresses your REM sleep. When you put your rolling papers, pipe, or vaporizers away for a while, your REM sleep suddenly gets the free rein it had before you became a superficially sleeping stonerBecause I'm not a somnologist myself, I asked what REM sleep exactly is. "Every night, you go through about four or five sleep cycles," Hamburger replied. "Each cycle takes about ninety minutes, during which you go through different phases. There's superficial sleep, deep sleep, and finally REM sleep. During that REM period, you have most of your dreams. You don't usually remember your dreams if you continue sleeping. The last REM period just before you wake up takes the longest—and you'll only remember the dreams you had in that time if you wake up during it. If you don't wake up during the REM period, you won't remember a thing."       Does this mean you can't remember anything at all when you're sleeping? The answer seems to be no. "You only remember the things that happen while you're awake," said Hamburger. "We don't remember the things that happen while we are sleeping, because we're in a lowered state of consciousness. That has something to do with the fact that when you're asleep, you're processing the memories of things that happened during the day and essentially filing them away in your brain."Dreams help you sort through the thousands of impressions and images you encounter every day. When you smoke weed regularly, that function is also suppressed. Dr. Hamburger confirms this: "By smoking weed, you suppress the REM sleep, and with that you also suppress a lot of important functions of that REM sleep. One of those functions is reliving the things you have experienced and coming to terms with them, as it were. Processing all kinds of psychological influences is something you do in REM sleep. You also anticipate the things that will happen the next day or the days after that. While you're sleeping, you already consider those and make decisions in advance."       The less you give your brain the change to sort this shit out during REM sleep, the more dazed and confused you are during the day. This may explain why the seasoned stoner will often put off tasks and decisions until the very last minute: You failed to anticipate Stoffels, T. (2015, 3 4). Why Your Dreams Are Suddenly So Intense After You Stop Smoking Weed . Retrieved from Vice : http://www.vice.com/read/why-are-your-dreams-suddenly-so-intense-when-you-stop-smoking-weed-876
  • 10. 
            Exploring the impact of cannabis potency is particularly important since today's high potency 'skunk-like'products have been shown to contain higher proportions of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) than they did around a decade ago. In experimental studies THC has been shown to induce psychotic symptoms and 'skunk-like' products high in THC are now thought to be the most commonly used form of cannabis in the UK.        Dr Paola Dazzan, Reader in Neurobiology of Psychosis from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King's College London, and senior researcher on the study, said: 'We found that frequent use of high potency cannabis significantly affects the structure of white matter fibres in the brain, whether you have psychosis or not.       The researchers specifically examined the corpus callosum, the largest white matter structure in the brain, which is responsible for communication between the left and right hemispheres. White matter consists of large bundles of nerve cell projections (called axons), which connect different regions of the brain, enabling communication between them.        The corpus callosum is particularly rich in cannabinoid receptors, on which the THC content of cannabis acts.        The study found that frequent use of high potency cannabis was linked to significantly higher mean-diffusivity (MD), a marker of damage in white matter structure.       Dr Tiago Reis Marques, a senior research fellow from the IoPPN at King's College London, said: 'This white matter damage was significantly greater among heavy users of high potency cannabis than in occasional or low potency users, and was also independent of the presence of a psychotic disorder.' White matter damage caused by 'skunk-like' cannabis, study shows. (2015, 11 27). Retrieved from Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151127102333.htm  
  • 11. 
    Reason #5: chemical found in marijuana stops cancer cells from spreading in the lab.       CBD may also help prevent cancer from spreading, researchers at California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco reported in 2007.       Cannabidiol stops cancer by turning off a gene called Id-1, the study, published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, found. Cancer cells make more copies of this gene than non-cancerous cells, and it helps them spread through the body.       The researchers studied breast cancer cells in the lab that had high expression levels of Id-1 and treated them with cannabidiol. After treatment the cells had decreased Id-1 expression and were less aggressive spreaders. But beware: these are studies on cancer cells in the lab, not on cancer patients.        Other very preliminary studies on aggressive brain tumors in mice or cell cultures have shown that THC and CBD can slow or shrink tumors at the right dose, which is a great reason to do more research into figuring out that dose.       One 2014 study found that marijuana can significantly show the growth of the type of brain tumor associated with 80% of malignant brain cancer in people.       In "WEED," Gupta also mentioned a few studies in the U.S., Spain, and Israel that suggest the compounds in cannabis could even kill cancer cells.
  • 12. 
    What vital bodily function does Dr. Hamburger say marijuana consumption suppress's?
    • A. 

      REM Sleep

    • B. 

      A matter reduction

    • C. 

      C-Fiber stimulation

    • D. 

      Number recollection

  • 13. 
    White matter facilitates faster transmission of information. The Corpus Callosum contains the largest collection of white matter in the brain and allows communication between its two hemispheres. According to Dr. Dazzan's study, what impact does regular consumption of high potency, "skunk-like" marijuana have on this structure?
    • A. 

      An decrease in brain mass.

    • B. 

      Increased communication between the two hemispheres.

    • C. 

      Higher mean-diffusivity (a maker of damage in white matter structures).

    • D. 

      None of the above.

  • 14. 
    When activated, the Id-1 gene can aid in the spread of cancerous cells throughout the body. According to researchers at California Pacific Medical Center what active ingredient in marijuana on cancer cells outside of the body?  
    • A. 

      Sucrose (C12H22011)

    • B. 

      9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

    • C. 

      Cannabidiol (CBD)

    • D. 

      Sodium hydrogen carbonte sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

  • 15. 
    REM sleep plays allows you to sorting and coming to terms with daily experiences. This function is important to properly anticipate things that will happen when you wake leading to more fortuitous decision making.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

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