The 0- to 0-degree notation system
The 180- to 0-degree notation system
The 0- to 180-degree notation system
The 360-degree notation system
There is generally more passive than active ROM available at a given joint.
A patient with muscle paralysis may have no active ROM, but full passive ROM.
Passive ROM is dependent on the patient's coordination and muscle strength.
Passive, rather than active, ROM should be tested in goniometry.
Trauma to the joint
Presence of a hereditary disorder of connective tissue
Joint surface abnormalities
Laxity of soft tissue structures
All of the above are factors in hypermobility
The therapist may aid the patient in reaching the last 10 degrees of motion only
If a patient can complete AROM easily and painlessly, further testing of that motion is usually not needed
The patient must be completely relaxed to allow full AROM
AROM can be carried out either voluntarily or involuntarily, as long as the motion is concentric
Increases in muscle strength appear to continue until sometime between ages 20 and 30
Muscle strength in boys is greater than that of girls from as early as age 9 or 10
Declines in women's muscle strength start later than those in men
Slight declines in muscle strength continue until the age of 50 or 60, after which muscle strength sees a slight increase
Patients with significant weakness are best assessed using manual muscle testing
Manual muscle testing is identical to manual muscle screening
Manual muscle testing requires only a limited amount of equipment
Children younger than 3 years generally have the ability to cooperate with manual muscle testing