The host portion of the IP addresses will be different.
The data link layer addresses are added to the IP header.
The sending device will use ARP to determine the IP address of the receiver.
The frame will be sent to the default gateway for delivery to the receiving device.
Destination MAC address
Destination IP address
Destination port number
Source MAC address
Source IP address
Specifying the bandwidth of the channel or medium for each type of communication.
Specifying the device operating systems that will support the communication.
Providing the rules required for a specific type of communication to occur.
Determining the electronic specifications to enable communication.
A particular protocol can only be implemented by one manufacturer.
Products from different manufacturers can interoperate successfully.
Different manufacturers are free to apply different requirements when implementing a protocol.
Standards provide flexibility for manufacturers to create devices that comply with unique requirements.
Network protocols define the type of hardware that is used and how it is mounted in racks.
They define how messages are exchanged between the source and the destination.
They all function in the network access layer of TCP/IP.
They are only required for exchange of messages between devices on remote networks.
Local and remote delivery
Remote delivery using routers.