Group size, economic well-being, Social values, walking speed
Population size, economic well-being, Cultural values, walking speed
Population size, economic well-being, moral values, talking speed
Field experiment, repeated measures and 23 cities
Quasi experiment, independent measures and 25 cities
Field experiment, independent measures and 23 cities
Whether the victim collapsed, if they fell over but couldn’t get up and if they dropped a pen
Whether the victim dropped a pen, if the victim was blind trying to cross a street and if they had a hurt or injured leg
Whether the victim was blind trying to cross the street, if the victim fell over but couldn’t get up and if they dropped a pen.
When the 2nd potential person crossed a pre-determined line and if they were alone for 2 of the independent variables
Only if they were in groups and if the 1st potential person crossed the pre-determined line
Only pedestrians under 17 and those carrying packages where approached by the experimenters.
The experimenters were given detailed instruction sheets and were given on site field training
The experimenters were given detailed instructions and were required to research how they had to act at home
They were only given detailed instructions and no training was required to carry the study out
Associated with individualism
Associated with Latino culture
Associated with Economic theory
216 men and 230 women
253 men and 240 women
214 men and 210 women
120 seconds and a car honking
45 seconds and the light turning amber
60 seconds and the light turning green
Statistically reliable relationship
There are large cross-cultural variations in helping rates.
Overall, a cities helping rate was relatively stable across all three measures
The value of collectivism-individualism is related to helping behaviours
Interested, responsible students either returning home or travelling to foreign countries.
The amount of people in the city
Each individual cities Overall Helping Index
The helping rate of the 23 individual cities