Pol 103 Final Review

60 Questions

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Pol 103 Final Review


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The initial document creating the EEC in 1957 was the
    • A. 

      Treaty of Paris

    • B. 

      Versailles Treaty

    • C. 

      Treaty of Rome

    • D. 

      Treaty of Brussels

    • E. 

      Treaty of Maastricht

  • 2. 
    The European Council is the
    • A. 

      Agency elected by EU residents

    • B. 

      Body which represents the national governments

    • C. 

      Body which arbitrates disputes among member countries

    • D. 

      de facto executive of the EU

    • E. 

      Parliament

  • 3. 
    Giving the EU more powers is called
    • A. 

      Broadening

    • B. 

      expanding national sovereignty

    • C. 

      Proliferation

    • D. 

      Expansion

    • E. 

      Deepening

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      France

    • B. 

      Belgium

    • C. 

      Luxembourg

    • D. 

      Italy

    • E. 

      Great Britain

  • 5. 
    Allowing new members to join the EU is called 
    • A. 

      broadening

    • B. 

      Deepening

    • C. 

      Expansion

    • D. 

      Proliferation

    • E. 

      Defenestration

  • 6. 
    • A. 

      Germany

    • B. 

      Ireland

    • C. 

      Great Britain

    • D. 

      Norway

    • E. 

      Denmark

  • 7. 
    The first European organization which was a precursor to the EU was the A. Euratom B. NATO C. Marshall Plan D. the ECSC E. Entente Cordial
    • A. 

      Marshall Plan

    • B. 

      NATO

    • C. 

      The ECSC

    • D. 

      Euratom

    • E. 

      Entente Cordial

  • 8. 
    . On most issues, which of the following describes the voting rules used in the European Council?
    • A. 

      Qualified majority

    • B. 

      Absolute majority

    • C. 

      Relative majority

    • D. 

      Unanimity

    • E. 

      Proportional

  • 9. 
    The EU Commission is the A. body which represents the national governments B. parliament C. de facto executive of the EU D. body which arbitrates disputes among member countries E. agency elected by EU residents
    • A. 

      Body which represents the national governments

    • B. 

      Parliament 

    • C. 

      De facto executive of the EU

    • D. 

      Body which arbitrates disputes among member countries

    • E. 

      Agency elected by EU residents

  • 10. 
    In January 2002, the EU countries were more closely tied together by 
    • A. 

      the creation of a peacekeeping military force for use in Afghanistan

    • B. 

      The adoption of the Euro as common currency

    • C. 

      final agreement on revisions of the Common Agricultural Policy

    • D. 

      An agreement to make the Commission superior to the European Council

    • E. 

      The first general election of representatives to the European Parliament

  • 11. 
    The largest expense of the EU budget is funding for 
    • A. 

      International trade negotiations

    • B. 

      Monetary policy

    • C. 

      The European Single Market

    • D. 

      Structural funds

    • E. 

      the Common Agricultural Policy

  • 12. 
    In the qualified majority system of the European Council, the number of votes given each country is roughly determined by A. population B. wealth C. the year the country joined the EC/EU D. one vote per country E. state power
    • A. 

      population

    • B. 

      Wealth

    • C. 

      the year the country joined the EC/EU

    • D. 

      One vote per country

    • E. 

      State power

  • 13. 
    . From the original six members in 1957, the European Union has grown to include how many members as of 2013?  
    • A. 

      51 members

    • B. 

      28 members

    • C. 

      14 members

    • D. 

      20 members

    • E. 

      35 members

  • 14. 
    Functionalist explanations of European integration attribute the founding of the ECSC to 
    • A. 

      greater efficiencies from economic cooperation in an interdependent world

    • B. 

      The need to avoid future war between France and Germany

    • C. 

      The attempt of national governments to increase economic competitiveness

    • D. 

      The need to promote steel and coal production after World War II

    • E. 

      Pressure from the US government in exchange for Marshall aid

  • 15. 
    The European Single Market includes all of the following EXCEPT A. free public health care B. free movement of capital C. free movement of workers D. harmonization of rules on goods, workers and services E. free movement of services
    • A. 

      Free movement of capital

    • B. 

      Free public health care

    • C. 

      Free movement of workers

    • D. 

      Harmonization of rules on goods, workers and services

    • E. 

      Free movement of services

  • 16. 
    According to Michael Ross, the rise in oil prizes after 2000 can help explain Russia’s backsliding to autocracy because 
    • A. 

      Increased oil revenue allowed the government to lower taxes and increase subsidies, thereby removing popular pressure for political reform.

    • B. 

      Oil and gas exports helped smoothen relationships with other European countries.

    • C. 

      the prime minister oversees economic policies in Russia.

    • D. 

      It made the exploitation of difficult to extract reserves more economical

    • E. 

      Consumers demanded strict prize controls on gasoline and heating oil.

  • 17. 
    The head of state in the Russian political system is the 
    • A. 

      Tsar

    • B. 

      Prime minister

    • C. 

      Federation majority leader

    • D. 

      President

    • E. 

      Supreme Soviet

  • 18. 
    The Russian economy is largely dependent upon the
    • A. 

      Value of the ruble

    • B. 

      level of steel production.

    • C. 

      Price of coal.

    • D. 

      Creation of a new technology sector.

    • E. 

      Price of oil.

  • 19. 
    Under the Russian constitution, the individual responsible for economic management is the A. prime minister. B. president. C. secretary of the Treasury. D. leader of the Duma. E. minister of Economics.
    • A. 

      Leader of the Duma

    • B. 

      Secretary of the Treasury

    • C. 

      Prime minister

    • D. 

      President

    • E. 

      Minister of Economics.

  • 20. 
    The individual who was responsible for glasnost and perestroika was 
    • A. 

      Andrei Sakarov

    • B. 

      Mikhail Gorbachev

    • C. 

      Boris Yeltsin

    • D. 

      Vladimir Zhirinovsky

    • E. 

      Leonid Breshnev

  • 21. 
    Within Russia, separatist violence has occurred most notably in what region?
    • A. 

      Chernobyl

    • B. 

      Krasnoyarsk

    • C. 

      Chechnya

    • D. 

      Siberia

    • E. 

      Yugoslavia

  • 22. 
    The first elected president of Russia was 
    • A. 

      Gorbachev

    • B. 

      Putin

    • C. 

      Yeltsin

    • D. 

      Sakarov

    • E. 

      Zhirinovsky

  • 23. 
    Privatization of large government-owned industries in the 1990s resulted in
    • A. 

      Tremendous concentrations of wealth in small groups of people.

    • B. 

      A steadily rising standard of living for most people.

    • C. 

      Widespread popular support for economic reform.

    • D. 

      The creation of a strong Russian currency.

    • E. 

      The exclusion of former communist managers from the privatized companies.

  • 24. 
    The leader of the communist revolution, the Russian Communist Party and first head of the Soviet Russian government was 
    • A. 

      Joseph Stalin

    • B. 

      Leon Trotsky

    • C. 

      Karl Marx

    • D. 

      Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

    • E. 

      Friedrich Engels.

  • 25. 
    Russia’s legislature has two chambers. The lower and more powerful house of the Russian legislature is the A. Supreme Soviet B. Central Committee C. State Duma D. Secretariat E. Federation Council
    • A. 

      Supreme Soviet

    • B. 

      Secretariat

    • C. 

      Central Committee

    • D. 

      State Duma

    • E. 

      Federation Council

  • 26. 
    Under the presidencies of Putin and Medvedev, changes to the electoral system and press freedoms 
    • A. 

      Have created a more competitive party system.

    • B. 

      Have made the party system move towards the median voter.

    • C. 

      Have produced a great number of splinter parties.

    • D. 

      Have effectively shut out most opposition parties from the legislature.

    • E. 

      Led to increased regionalization of party competition.

  • 27. 
    Russia is called a “presidential republic” in part because 
    • A. 

      only by removing the president can the legislature exercise its functions.

    • B. 

      the president is directly elected.

    • C. 

      The president’s term in office is so short, he must constantly respond to public opinion.

    • D. 

      the so-called power ministries are independent of both the president and the legislature.

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 28. 
    The Russian president has formal powers to do all of the following EXCEPT 
    • A. 

      Appoint the prime minister.

    • B. 

      Rule by decree.

    • C. 

      Oversee the "power ministries".

    • D. 

      Command the armed forces.

    • E. 

      Run for reelection 2 or more consecutive times.

  • 29. 
     The reasons why Russia is not considered a free democracy include all of the following EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Oil exports are an important source of government revenues.

    • B. 

      The judiciary is subject to political influence

    • C. 

      TV stations critical of Putin have been taken over by the state.

    • D. 

      Effectively, the prime minister answer to the president.

    • E. 

      Opposition parties have been marginalized.

  • 30. 
    Although elected president in 2008, ______________ was mainly a figurehead.
    • A. 

      Mikhail Gorbachev

    • B. 

      Boris Yeltsin

    • C. 

      Vladimir Putin

    • D. 

      Vladimir Zhirnovsky

    • E. 

      Dmitri Medvedev

  • 31. 
    By the time of its defeat in the Chinese Civil War, the nationalist KMT was forced to flee Mainland China for what island? 
    • A. 

      Macau

    • B. 

      Oahu

    • C. 

      Taiwan

    • D. 

      Okinawa

    • E. 

      Hong Kong

  • 32. 
    Much of China’s political and economic life is dominated by the fact that the country is so much larger than any other nation on what dimension?
    • A. 

      Population

    • B. 

      Geographic land mass

    • C. 

      Carbon emissions

    • D. 

      Gross domestic product

    • E. 

      Nuclear weapons

  • 33. 
    Since the Tiananmen Square protest, the government’s approach could be summed up in the following way 
    • A. 

      economic and political freedom are inseparable.

    • B. 

      Make money but do not question our authority.

    • C. 

      Privatization now, democracy later.

    • D. 

      Citizens’ voices must be heard.

    • E. 

      Communism as Marx intended.

  • 34. 
    The period of political tumult that stretched from the mid-1960s into the mid-1970s was known as the 
    • A. 

      Hundred Flowers Campaign

    • B. 

      Cultural Revolution.

    • C. 

      Chinese Revolution

    • D. 

      Taking the capitalist road

    • E. 

      the Great Leap Forward

  • 35. 
    • A. 

      A campaign to repress the masses.

    • B. 

      An international program for foreign visitors.

    • C. 

      based around the development of music and the arts.

    • D. 

      An ideologically-based campaign.

    • E. 

      A program with largely economic goals.

  • 36. 
    The reforms in China that started under Deng Xiaoping in the late 1970 have focused on 
    • A. 

      Liberalizing the political system and the economy.

    • B. 

      Liberalizing the political system.

    • C. 

      Personal liberties.

    • D. 

      Liberalizing the economy.

    • E. 

      The reforms were only superficial and did not result in change.

  • 37. 
     The British colony that was returned to Chinese authority in 1997 is 
    • A. 

      Hong Kong

    • B. 

      Tibet.​

    • C. 

      Mongolia

    • D. 

      Sichuan

    • E. 

      Shanghai

  • 38. 
    The National People’s Congress is
    • A. 

      The nominal source of political power, but not the effective source.

    • B. 

      Small and efficient.

    • C. 

      In continual session as a result of problems in policy implementation.

    • D. 

      Run by the State Council.

    • E. 

      Selected by proportional representation in state districts.

  • 39. 
    In 1999, the Chinese government outlawed Falun Gong, a movement practicing meditation and spiritual discipline, because
    • A. 

      it was trying to establish itself as a political party.

    • B. 

      All religions are prohibited under Chinese law.

    • C. 

      Cult leaders were calling for the overthrow of the government.

    • D. 

      Communist Party leaders fear any organized group beyond their control.

    • E. 

      it is funded by Western sources

  • 40. 
    China’s political institutions are characterized by 
    • A. 

      A duality between state and party structures.

    • B. 

      Clear and open rules that govern the succession of top government officials.

    • C. 

      Municipalities and regional governments acting as check on the central government.

    • D. 

      Bottom-up decision making

    • E. 

      A clear division between the role of the Communist Party and state institutions.

  • 41. 
    According to Gabriella Montinola, the lack of formal and enforceable property rights in China is overcome by 
    • A. 

      Drastic threats of retaliation against law breakers by local courts and magistrates.

    • B. 

      a self-policing scheme where business owners collectively organize and finance commercial courts and a private police force.

    • C. 

      Central government oversight.

    • D. 

      Withholding power from corrupt officials.

    • E. 

      Allowing local governments to keep a share of business taxes, thus giving them incentives to support business.

  • 42. 
    • A. 

      Xi Jinping

    • B. 

      Jiang Zemin

    • C. 

      Wei Jingsheng

    • D. 

      Hu Jintao

    • E. 

      Deng Xiaoping

  • 43. 
    15. All of the following are measures used by Chinese authorities to control free-speech and information exchange EXCEPT 
    • A. 

      the sale and ownership of computers and smart phones that have the ability to access the internet is severely restricted.

    • B. 

      Private newspapers exist, but they are subject to censorship, and state run newspapers dominate the market.

    • C. 

      All internet traffic from mainland China to the outside world runs through government owned servers.

    • D. 

      The government employs censors to restrict access to political content and search results online.

    • E. 

      television in China is government run (CCTV).

  • 44. 
    In today’s China, which institution acts as winning coalition/holds the most political power? 
    • A. 

      The National People’s Congress

    • B. 

      The Standing Committee of the Politburo

    • C. 

      The State Council

    • D. 

      The Comintern

    • E. 

      The Executive Committee

  • 45. 
    When comparing contemporary China to Russia, A. Russia’s political institutions are formally more democratic.B. China’s economic model is more market oriented. C. both countries have nominal rule of law, but no independent judiciary. D. both countries suffer from corruption and economic inequality. E. all of the above.
    • A. 

      Russia’s political institutions are formally more democratic.​

    • B. 

      Both countries have nominal rule of law, but no independent judiciary.

    • C. 

      China’s economic model is more market oriented.

    • D. 

      Both countries suffer from corruption and economic inequality.

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 46. 
    Mohandas Gandhi helped gain independence for India by
    • A. 

      Demonstrating Indians’ loyalty to the British monarch.

    • B. 

      Encouraging business relationships between India and Britain.

    • C. 

      Forging alliances with leaders of other former British colonies

    • D. 

      Recruiting Indians to help Britain fight off the Axis powers in World War II.

    • E. 

      Inspiring broad, grassroots participation in the independence movement.

  • 47. 
    The prime minister of India 
    • A. 

      Is less powerful than the president.

    • B. 

      Needs to maintain the confidence of parliament.

    • C. 

      Is also the head of state.

    • D. 

      Is elected by the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and the State Assemblies.

    • E. 

      Is directly elected by the people.

  • 48. 
     For the first 20-years after independence, the Congress party (INC) ruled unchallenged because 
    • A. 

      Of its closeness with the Soviet Union.

    • B. 

      Of its great success in promoting economic growth.

    • C. 

      Of its status as party of national unity, the Freedom Movement, of Gandhi and Nehru.

    • D. 

      of its appeal to religious voters.

    • E. 

      Of its promotion of foreign direct investment.

  • 49. 
    • A. 

      Nobody

    • B. 

      The prime minister

    • C. 

      The president

    • D. 

      The British monarch

    • E. 

      The Indian monarch

  • 50. 
    Of the following four Indian leaders, which one was not assassinated? 
    • A. 

      Jawaharlal Nehru

    • B. 

      Mahatma Gandhi

    • C. 

      Rajiv Gandh

    • D. 

      Indira Gandhi

  • 51. 
    . India’s constitution defines India as a republic
    • A. 

      Hindu

    • B. 

      Muslim

    • C. 

      Buddhist

    • D. 

      Communist

    • E. 

      Secular

  • 52. 
    India’s constitution allows the prime minister to exercise unusually strong powers during a crisis, something known as 
    • A. 

      Crisis Government.

    • B. 

      Security State.

    • C. 

      Confidence Motion.

    • D. 

      Martial Law.

    • E. 

      Emergency Rule.

  • 53. 
    All of the following apply to the Lok Sabha, EXCEPT 
    • A. 

      It is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.

    • B. 

      It is the lower house of parliament.

    • C. 

      it represents the Indian states.

    • D. 

      It can pass a no-confidence motion to remove the prime minister.

    • E. 

      its members are elected in single member districts.

  • 54. 
    India’s social and economic development pose many challenges for the working of its democratic system. Which of the following is NOT one of those challenges?  
    • A. 

      Dynastic tendencies in the ruling INC party

    • B. 

      Social cleavages based on caste and religion, not social class

    • C. 

      Wide-spread illiteracy

    • D. 

      Extremely low voter turnout

    • E. 

      Widespread corruption

  • 55. 
    After 1991, the Indian economy 
    • A. 

      Nearly collapsed because of low foreign exchange reserves.

    • B. 

      Became more controlled by the state.

    • C. 

      Attracted very little foreign investment.

    • D. 

      Began a process of liberalization.

    • E. 

      Fell into a recession due to the low cost of farm goods.

  • 56. 
    The three main religions in India are 
    • A. 

      Muslim, Hindu, and Sikhs.

    • B. 

      Hindu, Muslim, and Buddhist.

    • C. 

      Hindu, Muslim, and Catholic.

    • D. 

      Hindu, Christian, and Buddhist.

    • E. 

      Muslim, Christian, and Sikhs.

  • 57. 
    In India, as in many Third World countries, linguistic diversity is overcome primarily by
    • A. 

      A corps of civil service translators.

    • B. 

      Teaching everyone multiple languages.

    • C. 

      the use of the former colonizer’s language

    • D. 

      Government-owned broadcast media using all spoken languages.

    • E. 

      The official adoption of the most common language.

  • 58. 
    The destruction of the Babri mosque in December 1992 took place in 
    • A. 

      New Delhi

    • B. 

      Calcutta

    • C. 

      Ayodhya

    • D. 

      Bombay

    • E. 

      Mumbai

  • 59. 
    The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) promotes 
    • A. 

      Sikh separatism

    • B. 

      Hindu nationalism

    • C. 

      Religious rights

    • D. 

      Secularism

    • E. 

      Muslim centrism

  • 60. 
    The territory that has been the source of direct conflict between India and Pakistan for several decades is known as
    • A. 

      New Delhi

    • B. 

      Sri Lanka C. Kashmir

    • C. 

      Kandahar

    • D. 

      Kashmir

    • E. 

      Sierra Leone