# Exit Exam Gcsu Spring 2015

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• 1.

### What is the average rest RER value for adults?

• A.

.80-.85

• B.

.78-.80

• C.

.70-.75

• D.

.60-.70

B. .78-.80
Explanation
The average rest RER value for adults is estimated to be between .78 and .80. This means that, on average, adults have a resting respiratory exchange ratio (RER) within this range. The RER is a measure of the ratio between carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption during rest, and it provides information about the fuel source being utilized by the body. This range suggests that adults predominantly rely on carbohydrates as their fuel source during rest.

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• 2.

### The combustion of fat requires less oxygen than carbohydrates?

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The combustion of fats requires more oxygen, since you must completely use the aerobic energy systems to breakdown fat. This higher oxygen leads to a lower RER. Looking at the equation for RER, we can see VO2 in the denominator. A higher volume of oxygen leads to a lower RER.

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• 3.

### The ratio between the amount of CO2 released and the O2 consumed in one breath?

Respiratory Exchange Ratio, RER
Explanation
The Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) refers to the ratio between the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released and the amount of oxygen (O2) consumed in one breath. It is a measure of the type of fuel being used by the body during respiration. A RER of 1 indicates that carbohydrates are the primary fuel source, while a RER of 0.7 indicates that fats are the primary fuel source. By measuring the RER, scientists can gain insights into an individual's metabolism and energy expenditure.

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• 4.

### The volume of air expired per minute?

• A.

Minute volume

• B.

Minute ventilation

• C.

Pulmonary ventilation

• D.

VO2

A. Minute volume
Explanation
Minute Volume is 500 mL/min at rest, usually accounting for 12-15 breaths per minute.

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• 5.

### Training causes RER to __________ and results in more utilization of FFA during submaximal exercise.

decrease, lower
Explanation
Training causes RER to decrease and results in more utilization of FFA during submaximal exercise. This is because training improves the efficiency of the body's energy systems, specifically the aerobic system. As a result, the body becomes better at utilizing fat as a fuel source during exercise, which leads to a decrease in the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). A lower RER indicates a higher reliance on fat oxidation and a decreased reliance on carbohydrate metabolism.

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• 6.

### __________ is measured as the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during contraction.

stroke volume, SV
Explanation
Stroke volume, abbreviated as SV, is the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction. It is a measure of the efficiency of the heart's pumping function. The stroke volume is influenced by factors such as the strength of the heart muscle, the size of the ventricle, and the amount of blood returning to the heart. By measuring the stroke volume, healthcare professionals can assess the heart's ability to deliver oxygenated blood to the body's tissues.

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• 7.

### Highly trained athletes can reach a ejection fraction of close to 100%?

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Average adults have an ejection fraction of 50-60%

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• 8.

### ________ is the proportion of blood within the heart compared to that which gets pumped out.

ejection fraction
Explanation
Ejection fraction refers to the proportion of blood within the heart compared to the amount that is pumped out. It is a measure of the heart's efficiency in pumping blood and is usually expressed as a percentage. A higher ejection fraction indicates a stronger and healthier heart, while a lower ejection fraction may indicate a weakened or damaged heart.

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• 9.

### What are the two measurements of Work we are concerned with in exercise science?

• A.

VO2 (mL/kg/min

• B.

Watts

• C.

METS

• D.

Mass (kg)

A. VO2 (mL/kg/min
C. METS
Explanation
In exercise science, the two measurements of work that are commonly used are VO2 (mL/kg/min) and METS. VO2 refers to the amount of oxygen consumed by the body during exercise, and it is measured in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per minute. It is used to assess the intensity of aerobic exercise. METS, on the other hand, stands for metabolic equivalent of task and is a unit used to estimate the energy expenditure of various activities. Watts and mass (kg) are not specific measurements of work in exercise science.

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• 10.

### Two athletes working out have the same cardiac output, but athlete A has a lower heart rate than athlete B. Which athlete will last longer during a competition?

• A.

Athlete A

• B.

Athlete B

• C.

They will last the same amount of time

• D.

Not enough information is present to answer the question

A. Athlete A
Explanation
Athlete A will last longer, because he is able to exercise with a higher stroke volume and a decreased HR. This will allow him to perform the same exercises as athlete B, but they will be at a lower relative intensity to athlete A compared to athlete B.

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• 11.

### At what percent of VO2 max does Stroke Volume plateau during exercise?

• A.

35%

• B.

50%

• C.

75%

• D.

95%

B. 50%
Explanation
Strove Volume plateaus at 50% of VO2max. Increases in cardiac output there after are solely related to increases in HR.

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• 12.

### Training increases plasma volume in blood.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Training increases plasma volume in blood because regular exercise and physical activity cause an increase in blood volume, including plasma volume. Plasma is the liquid component of blood that carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. When we engage in regular exercise, our body adapts to the increased demands by increasing plasma volume to ensure adequate oxygen and nutrient delivery to the muscles. This increase in plasma volume helps improve overall cardiovascular function and can enhance athletic performance.

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• 13.

### The blood contents of Hematocrit are also known as ______.

Formed Elements
Explanation
The blood contents of Hematocrit are also known as "Formed Elements." This refers to the cellular components of blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. These formed elements play vital roles in various physiological processes, such as oxygen transport, immune response, and blood clotting.

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• 14.

### Exercise technique described by closing the glottis, mouth, and nose during exhalation to increase intrathoracic pressure.

Valsalva Maneuver
Explanation
The exercise technique described here involves closing the glottis, mouth, and nose during exhalation. This action increases the pressure within the chest cavity, known as intrathoracic pressure. This technique is called the Valsalva Maneuver. By performing the Valsalva Maneuver, individuals can stabilize their core, increase intra-abdominal pressure, and provide support during heavy lifting or intense physical activities.

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• 15.

### The highest SV attainable in the upright position is much greater than the resting value in the supine position.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
It is only slightly greater. SV is maximized in the supine position. There is not much increase in the supine position for SV during exercise, because it is already high. We see higher increases in SV during upright exercise.

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• 16.

### This measures the amount of oxygen extracted by the tissues from blood during one trip around the systemic circulation.

Arteriovenous Oxygen difference
Explanation
The arteriovenous oxygen difference refers to the difference in the oxygen content between arterial blood (oxygen-rich) and venous blood (oxygen-poor) as it circulates through the body's tissues. This measurement is used to assess how effectively the tissues are extracting oxygen from the blood during one complete cycle of circulation. A higher arteriovenous oxygen difference indicates that the tissues are extracting more oxygen, which can be an indicator of increased metabolic activity or oxygen demand in the body.

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• 17.

### Healthy adults eject what volume of oxygen per dL of blood from the heart?

• A.

15 mL

• B.

30 mL

• C.

20 mL

• D.

5 mL

C. 20 mL
Explanation
Healthy adults eject 20 mL of oxygen per dL of blood from the heart. This means that for every deciliter of blood that is pumped out by the heart, 20 mL of oxygen is delivered. This is an important process as oxygen is essential for the body's cells to function properly. The heart plays a crucial role in ensuring that oxygen-rich blood is circulated throughout the body, supplying oxygen to various organs and tissues.

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• 18.

### What percentage of oxygen saturation in hemoglobin is considered optimal?

• A.

98-100%

• B.

89-90%

• C.

93-95%

• D.

75-80%

A. 98-100%
Explanation
An optimal percentage of oxygen saturation in hemoglobin is considered to be between 98-100%. This means that almost all of the hemoglobin molecules in the blood are bound to oxygen, allowing for efficient oxygen transport throughout the body. A higher percentage ensures that the body's tissues receive an adequate supply of oxygen for proper functioning.

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• 19.

### The Cardiac Output at rest is between 5-6L of blood at rest.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The cardiac output refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. At rest, the body's demand for oxygen and nutrients is lower, so the heart doesn't need to work as hard. Therefore, the cardiac output at rest is typically between 5-6L of blood per minute. This statement is true because it accurately reflects the normal range of cardiac output at rest.

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• 20.

### Increases in exercise intensity are associated with a(n) __________ in (a-v)O2 difference

increase
Explanation
As exercise intensity increases, the body requires more oxygen to meet the increased energy demands. This leads to an increase in the (a-v)O2 difference, which refers to the difference in oxygen content between the arterial blood (a) and the venous blood (v). Therefore, the correct answer is that an increase in exercise intensity is associated with an increase in (a-v)O2 difference.

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• 21.

### What equation is used to determine the rate at which oxygen is being used during activity?

• A.

Ventilatory Threshold Equation

• B.

Karvonen Equation

• C.

Systemic Equation

• D.

Fick Equation

D. Fick Equation
Explanation
The Fick Equation is used to determine the rate at which oxygen is being used during activity. This equation calculates oxygen consumption by multiplying the difference in oxygen content between arterial and venous blood by the cardiac output. It is commonly used in exercise physiology to assess aerobic capacity and determine the efficiency of oxygen utilization during physical activity.

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• 22.

### Cardiac Output can reach volumes of 18 -25 L/min at max exercise?

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
During maximum exercise, the body requires a higher supply of oxygenated blood to the muscles. Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. It is determined by multiplying the heart rate (number of beats per minute) by the stroke volume (amount of blood pumped per beat). During intense exercise, both the heart rate and stroke volume increase, leading to a higher cardiac output. It is possible for the cardiac output to reach volumes of 18-25 L/min during maximum exercise, making the statement true.

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• 23.

### What is the total amount of blood pumped through the left ventricle per minute?

cardiac output
Explanation
The correct answer is cardiac output. Cardiac output refers to the total amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one minute. It is a measure of the heart's efficiency in circulating blood throughout the body. Cardiac output is influenced by factors such as heart rate and stroke volume, which is the amount of blood pumped with each heartbeat. By calculating cardiac output, healthcare professionals can assess the heart's ability to meet the body's oxygen and nutrient demands.

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• 24.

### Is it possible to lose type IIX muscle fibers?

• A.

Yes, they are converted as we age

• B.

No, muscle fibers cannot change types

A. Yes, they are converted as we age
Explanation
As we age, it is possible to lose type IIX muscle fibers. Type IIX muscle fibers are fast-twitch muscle fibers that are responsible for generating quick, powerful contractions. However, as we get older, our muscle composition tends to shift towards a higher proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibers (type I) and a lower proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers (type II). This conversion of type IIX fibers to other types is a natural part of the aging process and can result in a decrease in overall muscle strength and power.

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• 25.

### Select the following functions of the cardiovascular system?

• A.

Delivery of Nutrients

• B.

Removal of Wastes

• C.

Transport of Oxygen and Hormones

• D.

Maintain Acid /Base Concentrations

• E.

Maintain Homeostasis

• F.

Pump Blood throughout the body

• G.

Produce work by the body

• H.

Signal impulses to produce movement actions

A. Delivery of Nutrients
B. Removal of Wastes
C. Transport of Oxygen and Hormones
D. Maintain Acid /Base Concentrations
E. Maintain Homeostasis
F. Pump Blood throughout the body
Explanation
The cardiovascular system functions to deliver nutrients, remove wastes, transport oxygen and hormones, maintain acid/base concentrations, maintain homeostasis, and pump blood throughout the body. It does not produce work by the body or signal impulses to produce movement actions.

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• 26.

### What is the relationship of HR to exercise

• A.

Negative, Linear relationship

• B.

Negative, Exponential relationship

• C.

Positive, Linear relationship

• D.

Positive, Exponential relationship

C. Positive, Linear relationship
Explanation
The correct answer is that there is a positive, linear relationship between HR (heart rate) and exercise. This means that as the intensity or duration of exercise increases, the heart rate also increases in a linear manner. This relationship is commonly observed during cardiovascular exercise, where the heart needs to pump more blood to meet the increased oxygen demand of the muscles. The more intense or longer the exercise, the higher the heart rate will be.

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• 27.

### What is the normal HR at rest ?

• A.

70-75 bpm

• B.

100-110 bpm

• C.

54-60 bpm

• D.

85-90 bpm

A. 70-75 bpm
Explanation
The normal HR at rest is typically between 70-75 bpm. This means that when a person is at rest, their heart beats around 70-75 times per minute. This range is considered to be within the normal and healthy range for resting heart rate.

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• 28.

### Which of the following increase as a result of cardiovascular training?

• A.

Stroke Volume

• B.

Heart Rate

• C.

Plasma Volume

• D.

Maximum Cardiac Output

• E.

A, B and D

• F.

All of the Above

F. All of the Above
Explanation
Cardiovascular training refers to exercises that specifically target the heart and lungs, such as running or cycling. These exercises improve the efficiency of the cardiovascular system. Stroke volume, which is the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat, increases as a result of cardiovascular training. Heart rate, the number of times the heart beats per minute, also increases. Additionally, plasma volume, the amount of fluid in the blood, increases. Finally, maximum cardiac output, which is the maximum amount of blood the heart can pump per minute, increases as well. Therefore, all of the given options (A, B, and D) increase as a result of cardiovascular training.

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• 29.

### An increase in maximum cardiac output is the most important cardiovascular adaptation to aerobic training?

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness by increasing the maximum cardiac output, which refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. This adaptation is crucial as it allows more oxygen-rich blood to be delivered to the muscles during exercise, enhancing their performance and endurance. Additionally, an increased cardiac output helps to improve overall cardiovascular health by reducing the workload on the heart and improving its efficiency. Therefore, the statement that an increase in maximum cardiac output is the most important cardiovascular adaptation to aerobic training is true.

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• 30.

### The basic contractile unit of a muscle is a ___________.

sarcomere
Explanation
A sarcomere is the basic contractile unit of a muscle. It is a structural and functional unit composed of overlapping actin and myosin filaments that slide past each other during muscle contraction. Sarcomeres are responsible for the striated appearance of skeletal and cardiac muscle. They play a crucial role in muscle contraction and relaxation, allowing muscles to generate force and produce movement.

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• 31.

### The intensity associated with a diabetic client during resistance training should be focused on 2-3 sets , 8-12 reps, and 60-80% of 1 RM.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because when working with a diabetic client during resistance training, it is important to focus on intensity levels that are appropriate for their condition. This includes performing 2-3 sets of exercises, with each set consisting of 8-12 repetitions. Additionally, the intensity should be set at 60-80% of their one-repetition maximum (1 RM) to ensure a challenging yet safe workout. This approach helps to promote strength and endurance while also considering the specific needs and limitations of a diabetic client.

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• 32.

### What is the optimal length for contraction for optimal force?

• A.

2.1 microns

• B.

3.1 microns

• C.

4.2 microns

• D.

1.2 microns

A. 2.1 microns
Explanation
The optimal length for contraction for optimal force is 2.1 microns. This means that when a muscle contracts to a length of 2.1 microns, it is able to generate the maximum amount of force. Contracting to shorter or longer lengths would result in a decrease in force production.

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• 33.

### Which part of the sarcomere disappears during muscle contraction as described by the sliding filament theory

• A.

I - Band

• B.

A- Band

• C.

Z- Disc

• D.

M-Line

A. I - Band
Explanation
Since the thin and thick filaments slide by one another, the I band disappears.

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• 34.

### College age VO2 Max are between what values for Males?

• A.

30-35 ml/kg/min

• B.

32-46 ml/kg/min

• C.

23-30 ml/kg/min

• D.

42-50 ml/kg/min

B. 32-46 ml/kg/min
Explanation
The correct answer is 32-46 ml/kg/min. This range represents the average VO2 Max values for college-aged males. VO2 Max is a measure of the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during intense exercise. It is an important indicator of cardiovascular fitness and endurance. The given range suggests that college-aged males typically have a higher aerobic capacity compared to other age groups.

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• 35.

### College Age VO2 Max for Females range from?

• A.

33-41 ml/kg/min

• B.

23-30 ml/kg/min

• C.

25-32 ml/kg/min

• D.

39-43 ml/kg/min

A. 33-41 ml/kg/min
Explanation
The correct answer is 33-41 ml/kg/min. This range represents the average VO2 max (maximum oxygen consumption) for females in college age. VO2 max is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness and endurance, with higher values indicating better fitness levels. This range suggests that females in college age should aim to have a VO2 max between 33-41 ml/kg/min to be considered within a healthy and fit range.

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• 36.

### During exercise ventilatory threshold does what?

• A.

Increases because we are trying to buffer CO2 out of the body to increase pH levels

• B.

Decreases because we are trying to prevent pyruvate from becoming lactic acid

• C.

Increases because we are trying to control oxygen saturation

• D.

Decreases because we need to decrease pH levels

A. Increases because we are trying to buffer CO2 out of the body to increase pH levels
Explanation
During exercise, the ventilatory threshold increases because we are trying to buffer CO2 out of the body to increase pH levels. As we exercise, our muscles produce more CO2, which can lead to a decrease in pH levels and the onset of fatigue. To prevent this, our body increases ventilation to remove excess CO2 and maintain pH homeostasis. This increased ventilation helps to buffer the CO2 and increase the pH levels, allowing us to continue exercising at a higher intensity.

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• 37.

### At what percent of VO2 Max does the average adult reach their ventilatory threshold ( aka: lactate threshold or anaerobic threshold)

• A.

35 % untrained , 55% trained

• B.

42 % untrained, 70% trained

• C.

55% untrained, 75% trained

• D.

40% untrained, 50% trained

C. 55% untrained, 75% trained
Explanation
The ventilatory threshold, also known as the lactate threshold or anaerobic threshold, refers to the point during exercise where lactate starts to accumulate in the muscles faster than it can be cleared. This threshold is often used to determine the intensity at which an individual can sustain exercise for a prolonged period. The correct answer states that the average untrained adult reaches their ventilatory threshold at 55% of VO2 Max, while the average trained adult reaches it at 75% of VO2 Max. This suggests that with training, individuals can push their ventilatory threshold to a higher percentage of their maximum oxygen consumption, indicating improved endurance and fitness levels.

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• 38.

### Identify all descriptions associated with DOMS

• A.

• B.

Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness

• C.

Microtears and trauma to skeletal muscle

• D.

Failure of EC Coupling

• E.

Imbalance in calcium homeostasis

• F.

Inflammatory response

B. Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness
C. Microtears and trauma to skeletal muscle
D. Failure of EC Coupling
E. Imbalance in calcium homeostasis
F. Inflammatory response
Explanation
DOMS stands for Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness, which refers to the muscle pain and stiffness that occurs after engaging in strenuous exercise. This is caused by microtears and trauma to the skeletal muscle, which result from the mechanical stress placed on the muscles during exercise. Failure of EC Coupling, which is the process by which an electrical signal triggers muscle contraction, can also contribute to DOMS. Imbalance in calcium homeostasis, which affects muscle contraction, and the inflammatory response are also associated with DOMS.

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• 39.

### Identify the resistance training frequency associated with a diabetic client?

• A.

3-5 days per week, with 48 hours between sessions

• B.

2-3 days per week, with 24 hours between sessions

• C.

3-5 days per week, with 24 hours between sessions

• D.

2-3 days per week, with 48 hours between sessions

D. 2-3 days per week, with 48 hours between sessions
Explanation
The correct answer is 2-3 days per week, with 48 hours between sessions. This frequency allows for adequate rest and recovery time between resistance training sessions, which is important for diabetic clients. It ensures that the muscles have enough time to repair and adapt to the training stimulus, while also preventing overtraining and reducing the risk of injury.

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• 40.

### What are the most appropriate modes for enhancing recovery? Check all that Apply

• A.

Diet: Protein and Carbs to provide energy stores and rebuilding material

• B.

Rest: Adequate down time to allow muscle fibers to rebuild and disseminate waste

• C.

Hydration: Maintain and replenish electrolyte and water stores

• D.

Mentality: Continuing to work through the pain regardless of body signals

A. Diet: Protein and Carbs to provide energy stores and rebuilding material
B. Rest: Adequate down time to allow muscle fibers to rebuild and disseminate waste
C. Hydration: Maintain and replenish electrolyte and water stores
Explanation
The most appropriate modes for enhancing recovery include diet, rest, and hydration. Diet, specifically consuming protein and carbs, provides the necessary energy stores and rebuilding material for the body. Rest is crucial as it allows muscle fibers to rebuild and disseminate waste. Hydration is important to maintain and replenish electrolyte and water stores in the body. However, continuing to work through the pain regardless of body signals is not a suitable mode for enhancing recovery.

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• 41.

### The ACSM guidelines recommend that an average adult should exercise for at least _______ minutes of moderate exercise 5 days a week.

30, thirty
Explanation
The ACSM guidelines recommend that an average adult should exercise for at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 days a week. This recommendation is based on the understanding that regular physical activity has numerous health benefits, including improved cardiovascular health, weight management, and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Engaging in moderate exercise for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, can help individuals meet the recommended amount of physical activity for maintaining good health.

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• 42.

### The ACSM recommends an average adult to exercise 20 minutes of vigorous exercise ____ days a week.

3, three
Explanation
The ACSM recommends an average adult to exercise 20 minutes of vigorous exercise three days a week. This recommendation is based on the understanding that regular exercise is essential for maintaining good health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. By engaging in vigorous exercise for at least 20 minutes on three separate days, individuals can improve their cardiovascular fitness, strengthen their muscles, and enhance their overall well-being. This frequency of exercise allows for adequate rest and recovery between sessions while still providing enough stimulus to reap the benefits of physical activity.

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• 43.

### Balance and flexibility training is recommended by the ACSM for individuals of what age groups?

• A.

>40

• B.

Everyone

• C.

>65

• D.

>55

C. >65
Explanation
The ACSM recommends balance and flexibility training for individuals over the age of 65. This is because as people age, they often experience a decline in balance and flexibility, which can increase their risk of falls and injuries. Engaging in regular balance and flexibility exercises can help older adults maintain their physical independence and reduce the risk of falls.

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• 44.

### Select the Time and Type, as stated by the ASCM, associated with aerobically training Diabetic clients.

• A.

20-60 minutes per session or 150 minutes per week

• B.

10-30 minutes per session or 200 minutes per week

• C.

Isolated movements focusing on specific muscles with longer rest periods

• D.

Large muscles groups in a continuous fashion

A. 20-60 minutes per session or 150 minutes per week
D. Large muscles groups in a continuous fashion
Explanation
The correct answer is 20-60 minutes per session or 150 minutes per week, Large muscles groups in a continuous fashion. According to the ASCM (American College of Sports Medicine), the recommended duration for aerobic training for diabetic clients is 20-60 minutes per session or a total of 150 minutes per week. This duration allows for sufficient cardiovascular exercise to improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control. Additionally, the ASCM recommends focusing on large muscle groups in a continuous fashion during aerobic exercise to maximize energy expenditure and overall health benefits.

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• 45.

### Which aspects of resistance exercises should be minimized for a diabetic client as prescribed by the ACSM? (select all that apply)

• A.

Large amount of free weight exercises

• B.

Valsalva Maneuver

• C.

Selectorizer machines

• D.

Static exercises

A. Large amount of free weight exercises
B. Valsalva Maneuver
D. Static exercises
Explanation
For a diabetic client, the ACSM recommends minimizing the aspects of resistance exercises that include a large amount of free weight exercises, the Valsalva Maneuver, and static exercises. Free weight exercises can be more challenging and may require more stability and control, which can increase the risk of injury for a diabetic client. The Valsalva Maneuver, which involves holding the breath during exertion, can cause a sudden increase in blood pressure and should be avoided by individuals with diabetes. Static exercises, which involve holding a position without movement, may not be as effective for improving blood sugar control compared to dynamic exercises that involve movement.

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• 46.

### What is the weekly recommended workout days prescribed by the ACSM for resistance training?

• A.

1 day

• B.

>3 days

• C.

5 days

• D.

> 2 days

D. > 2 days
Explanation
The ACSM recommends at least 2 days of resistance training per week. This allows for adequate rest and recovery between sessions while still providing enough stimulus for muscle growth and strength development. Resistance training exercises should target all major muscle groups and be performed with proper form and technique. Regular resistance training can help improve muscular strength, endurance, and overall physical fitness.

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• 47.

### Select the frequency and intensity, as stated by the ASCM, associated with aerobically training Diabetic clients.

• A.

3-7 days per week

• B.

3-5 days per week

• C.

50-80 % of VO2Reserve

• D.

40-60% of VO2Reserve

A. 3-7 days per week
C. 50-80 % of VO2Reserve
Explanation
Diabetic clients should aim to engage in aerobic training for a frequency of 3-7 days per week, according to the ASCM. This means that they should aim to exercise on most days of the week. Additionally, the intensity of the training should be at 50-80% of their VO2 Reserve. This means that they should be exercising at a moderate to high intensity level, pushing themselves to challenge their cardiovascular system. These guidelines are important for diabetic clients as regular aerobic exercise can help improve their blood sugar control and overall health.

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• 48.

### How many exercises should be performed in a resistance training workout with a diabetic client?

• A.

4-5 exercises

• B.

10-12 exercises

• C.

8-10 exercises

• D.

6-8 exercises

C. 8-10 exercises
Explanation
For a resistance training workout with a diabetic client, it is recommended to perform 8-10 exercises. This range allows for a sufficient variety of exercises to target different muscle groups and provide a well-rounded workout. It also ensures that the client does not become fatigued or overwhelmed by too many exercises. This number of exercises strikes a balance between effectiveness and manageability for a diabetic client's fitness routine.

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• 49.

### A client is very competitive, self-critical, strives towards goals without any sense of enjoyment, workaholic, and easily angered with aggression. What personality type is he or she associated with?

• A.

Type A

• B.

Type B

• C.

Type C

• D.

Crazy

A. Type A
Explanation
The client's characteristics of being competitive, self-critical, goal-oriented without enjoyment, workaholic, and easily angered with aggression align with the personality type A. Type A individuals are known for their high levels of competitiveness, ambition, and drive to achieve goals, often at the expense of their own well-being and enjoyment. They tend to be impatient, easily angered, and exhibit aggressive behavior.

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• 50.

### A Type B personality client is associated with a low stress level when performing tasks. He or she is excited about success, but doesn't mind when he or she fails at a task.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
A Type B personality client is typically characterized by a relaxed, laid-back attitude and a lower susceptibility to stress. They tend to be less competitive and more accepting of failure or setbacks. This means that they may not be as bothered by failure and can maintain a positive outlook even when they don't succeed at a task. Therefore, the given statement that a Type B personality client is associated with a low stress level and doesn't mind failure is true.

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