Morphine (MS Contin)
Phytonadione (vitamin K)
“Massaging muscles helps relax the contracted fibers and decrease painful stimuli.”
“Massaging muscles decreases the inflammatory response that initiates the painful stimuli.”
“Massaging muscles activates large sensory nerve fibers that send signals to the spinal cord to close the gate, thus blocking painful stimuli from reaching the brain.”
“Massaging muscles activates small sensory nerve fibers that send signals to the spinal cord to open the gate and allow endorphins to reach the muscles and relieve the pain.”
Increases sputum production
The cough reflex center
The chemoreceptor trigger zone
Autonomic control over circulation
Administer the next prescribed dose intramuscularly.
Administer a smaller dose and document in the patient's record.
Withhold the medication and notify the health care provider.
Check the pulse oximeter reading and reevaluate respiratory rate in 1 hour.
Taking Lomotil with each dose.
Eating foods high in lactobacilli.
Taking the medication on an empty stomach.
Increasing fluid and fiber in the diet.
Avoid eating foods high in lactobacilli.
Increase fluid intake and fiber in the diet.
Take the medication on an empty stomach.
Take diphenoxylate-atropine (Lomtil) with each dose.
Once a week
Every 24 hours
Every 72 hours
When pain recurs
Pain relief is best obtained by administering analgesics around the clock.
Administer the analgesic when the pain level reaches a “6” on a scale of 1 to 10.
Opioid analgesics should not be used for more than 24 hours to prevent drug addiction.
Analgesics should be administered as needed (prn) to minimize adverse effects.
Acute pain related to metastatic tumor cancer
Impaired gas exchange related to respiratory depression
Constipation related to decreased GI motility
Risk for injury related to CNS adverse effects
Inability to void
Enhancing pain perception
Inhibiting prostaglandin production
Increasing blood flow to painful areas
Increasing the supply of natural endorphins
Black tarry stools
Increase uric acid excretion
Prevent the occurrence of gout
Inhibit bacterial growth and replication
Prolong the effectiveness of penicillin therapy
Maintain GI mucosa
Have a longer duration of action
Have a more rapid onset of action
Are less likely to cause hepatic toxicity
“High doses of vitamins and minerals have been used for many years to help maintain joint health.”
“There really are no safe herbal treatments for pain. Your best action would be to take your prescription medications.”
“Ginkgo biloba has shown tremendous benefit as an antiinflammatory drug and is used to treat the symptoms of pain.”
“There is evidence that glucosamine sulfate with chondroitin does decrease joint stiffness and pain. Discuss this with your health care provider.”
Increases uric acid metabolism
Decreases mobility of leukocytes
Increases production of lactic acid
Constipation related to adverse effect of the medication
Risk for infection related to medication-induced leukocytosis
Risk for injury related to adverse effect of life threatening seizures
Risk for fluid volume deficient related to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
“Increase your fluid intake to 3 L per day.”
“This medication may cause your urine to turn orange.”
“Include salmon and organ meats in your diet on a weekly basis.”
“Take the medication with an antacid to minimize GI distress.”
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
A 62-year-old patient with a history of stroke
A 45-year-old patient with a history of heart attack
A 28-year-old patient with a history of sports injury
A 14-year-old patient with a history of flulike symptoms